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1 The Manager, the Project Organisation Structure, and the Team.

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1 1 The Manager, the Project Organisation Structure, and the Team

2 2 An Outcome Approach to PM An objective measure that should not be open to misinterpretation Indicates clearly all the significant factors that will determine success Contingency and ‘what if’ factors should be considered at the outset There should be no surprises about what is being measured

3 3 Project Management in Organisations Systems are created within the business context of an organisation Projects are implemented so that business plans can be translated into systems to meet business goals Project management is used in many industries Project management is becoming established

4 4 Modern Project Management Everyone practices project management Project management is more than project planning The emergence of management by projects and modern project management (the new strategy)

5 5 Project Manager’s Roles Facilitator Communicator

6 6 Facilitator Manager-As-Supervisor Versus Manager- As Facilitator Systems Approach Versus Analytical Approach –sub optimisation Must ensure project team members have appropriate knowledge and resources Micromanagement

7 7 The Project Manager’s Three Overriding Responsibilities to the Project 1.Acquisition of Resources 2.Fighting Fires and Obstacles 3.Leadership and Making Trade-Offs

8 8 Negotiation, Conflict Resolution, and Persuasion Necessary to meet three overriding responsibilities

9 9 Selection of a Project Manager Key Criteria Credibility Sensitivity Leadership, Style, Ethics

10 10 Communicator Communication Paths Between a Project’s Parties-At-Interest PM Outside interested parties Senior management Project team Client

11 11 Influencing the Organisation Project manager needs to “get things done” Needs an understanding of formal and informal structures Must operate within cultural norms Must understand the broader context

12 12 Making Good Decision Recognise the need for a decision List the options Forecast the outcome of adopting each of the options Choose the best option Implement the chosen option

13 13 Project Stakeholders People who are actively involved or whose interests may be affected Necessary to identify project stakeholders and determine their needs and expectations Manage and influence their expectations Identify key stakeholders

14 14 Project Stakeholders Project Sponsor Project Manager Project Team Project Users Quality Manager Risk Manager

15 15 Virtual Project Manager Geographically dispersed Projects Communication Via –Email –Web –Telephone –Video Conferencing “Never let the boss be surprised!”

16 16 Virtual Project Structure

17 17 Dedicated or Pure Project Team

18 18 The Pure Project Organisation Advantages –Effective and efficient for large projects –Resources available as needed –Broad range of specialists Disadvantages –Expensive for small projects –Specialists may have limited technological depth –May require high levels of duplication for certain specialities

19 19 Functional Project Organisation

20 20 Functional Project Organisation Advantages –Technological depth Disadvantages –Lines of communication outside functional department slow –Technological breadth –Project rarely given high priority

21 21 Matrix Project Organisation

22 22 Matrix Project Organisation Advantages –Flexibility in way it can interface with parent organisation –Strong focus on the project itself –Contact with functional groups minimizes “projectitis” –Ability to manage fundamental trade-offs across several projects Disadvantages –Violation of the Unity of Command principle –Complexity of managing full set of projects –conflict

23 23 Matrix Team Problems Weak (Functional) Matrix –PM has no direct reports –Ability to communicate directly with team members important Matrix Projects –Important to maintain good morale –Project Office

24 24 Characteristics of Effective Project Team members Technically Competent Politically Sensitive Problem Orientation Goal Orientation High Self-Esteem

25 25 Mixed Project Organisation President Project 1FinanceEngineeringProject 2Manufacturing

26 26 Project Organisation Structure

27 27 Project Management Structures Challenges to organise projects The uniqueness and short-term duration of projects relative to the ongoing longer-term organisational goals The multi-disciplinary and cross-functional nature of projects creates authority and responsibility dilemmas Choosing an appropriate project management structure The best system balances the needs of the project with the needs of the organisation

28 28 Organisational Structures and Cultures Unique cultures and shared values Organisational culture has influence upon a project Organisational structures often constrain projects

29 29 Key Dimensions Defining an Organisations Culture

30 30 Cultural Dimensions of an Organisation Supportive of Project Management

31 31 10 ways to screw up a project 1. Don’t bother prioritising your organisation’s overall project load 2. Encourage sponsors and key stakeholders to take a passive role on the project team 3. Set up on going committees focusing on management process 4. Interrupt team member relentlessly 5.Create a culture in which project managers are expected to ‘roll over’ and take it when substantive new deliverables are added (Michael Greer)

32 32 10 ways to screw up a project 6. Half way through the project, add a whole bunch of previously unnamed stakeholders 7. Never force sponsors to stand behind their approvals with a formal sign-off 8. Make sure project managers have lots of responsibilities and deadlines, but no authority 9. Describe project deliverables in the vaguest possible terms 10. Get projects up and running as quickly as possible

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