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1 DIRECT PHONICS Jo Wilson and Rea Reason 2003 - 2005

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1 1 DIRECT PHONICS Jo Wilson and Rea Reason

2 2 Sentences Words Letters Sounds CheckLeadModel Book One: Single letters/sounds C-v-c words Sight words for sentences Book Two: Consonant blends (e.g. bl, tr) At beginnings and ends of words Vowel digraphs (e.g. ee, ay) Book Three: Compound words (e.g. sea-side) Polysyllabic words (e.g. lem-on-ade) Stories Cumulative and repetitive content

3 3 KEY ELEMENTS  Content cumulative and repetitive  Checks of progress make sure that children have consolidated their learning  Teaching method follows routine of ‘model-lead-check’  Children listen, speak, read and write in each lesson  Each lesson has the same predictable pattern  Instructions can be followed by both teachers and teaching assistants

4 4 CUMULATIVE AND VERY REPETITIVE CONTENT NEW CONTENTREVISION Block 1 a m s t Lessons 1 to 6 am Sam at mat sat I like Tim and Block 2 d ia m s t Lessons 7 to 12 dad mad sad is it sitat am Sam mat sat Emma the on dogI like Tim and Block 3 c pa m s t i d Lessons 13 to 18 cat did as pat pit dipat am Sam mat sat pip tip tapI like Tim and my said see canEmma the on dog

5 5 THE COMPLETE TRACK OR THE FAST TRACK  The Complete Track teaches all 60 lessons.  The Fast Track covers two lessons from each of the 10 blocks, i.e. 20 lessons. It is possible to switch between the Complete Track and the Fast Track: If you start with the Complete Track and find that the children are not in need of that much repetition then … If you start with the Fast Track and think that the children need more repetition then … Later, progress may show that the children are ready to cope with the Fast Track again.

6 6 RESOURCES  Whiteboard and marker pens  Teacher’s lesson notes  A photocopied lesson sheet for each pupil  Pencil and writing paper/book for each pupil

7 7 THE ‘MODEL-LEAD-CHECK’ TEACHING METHOD Holding the children’s attention Two key words as signals: ‘Listen’: Before modelling the reading to the children, always begin by saying the word ‘listen’. ‘Ready’: Before asking children to respond in chorus or individually, begin by saying ‘ready’.

8 8 THE ‘MODEL-LEAD-CHECK’ TEACHING METHOD Steps for the Supported Learning Procedure 1.Model: Write the letter or word on the board, point to it as you read it to the children (Start by saying ‘listen’ to get the children’s attention) 2.Lead: Point again and read in chorus together with the children (Say ‘ready’ to get the children’s attention and signal when to start) 3.Check the group: Point again and the children read together as a group (Say ‘ready’ to signal when they should start) 4.Check on individuals: Point to a letter/word/sentence and ask individual children to read it.

9 9 TEACHER LESSON NOTES Notes for Lesson 1 Introduce sound/symbols: a m sRevise: - Match sound/symbols: a m s Make words: am Sam Match words: Matrix (on pupil lesson sheet) Sight words: I like Read: Matrix and sentences Write: m s a am Sam

10 10 PUPIL LESSON SHEETS Lesson 1 Match: a m s Match: I like am Sam Read: I am Sam.

11 11 A SCRIPTED EXAMPLE OF LESSON 1 Activity 1: Say and match a m s Activity 2: Make words am Sam Activity 3: Match words like I Sam am Activity 4: Reading Activity 5: Writing Pages The script shows how each activity follows the ‘model-lead-check’ procedure.

12 12 The purpose is to:  Provide opportunities for further consolidation of learning.  Enable children to develop greater speed and fluency.  Help the children apply (generalise) what they have learnt.  Introduce some variation through different kinds of activities.  Enable the children to succeed with the end-of-block assessment. TOP UP ACTIVITIES Each of the 10 teaching blocks has a photocopiable page containing a grid with the words that have been learnt in the block. The manuals contain example activities.

13 13 ASSESSING PROGRESS  Each teaching block ends with a page listing the words introduced in the block and a page of sentences for dictation.  Your judgment of the child’s progress depends on how accurately and fluently the child reads/writes.  It is difficult to state the exact ‘criteria’ for moving on to the next block. The blocks are cumulative and repeat the content of previous blocks.  The assessment will show whether the teaching is repetitive enough or too repetitive and enable you to switch between the Complete and the Fast Track.

14 14 RECORDING PROGRESS 1  It is very motivating to involve the children in the record keeping.  The simplest way is to list the words assessed in each teaching block and let the children give ticks to the words learnt.  It can be useful to check more than once so that the children give each word several ticks.  There are example individual record and summary group record forms.  There is a photocopiable Certificate of Achievement at the end of each teaching block.

15 15 RECORDING PROGRESS 2  Recording progress in sentence reading and writing For each child, make a photocopy of the page that lists the sentences for assessment/dictation in the teaching block. Use it as a record by marking up the text as the child reads. For writing the sentences, the child’s own written work can act as a record.  Assessing progress when the Direct Phonics Book One has been completed Each book has a table summarising learning outcomes. You can photocopy the table for each child and use it as your end of programme record.

16 16 WORKING TOGETHER  Involving children in recording their own progress  Teachers and teaching assistants working together  Teachers and parent and children working together  Use of story books

17 17 Theoretical and research background Theoretical explanations: Phonology, fluency, emotional factors Learning theory: Extensive research in USA into model-lead-check routine within a cumulative learning programme (Direct Instruction). Early Reading Research (ERR): Mainstream primary in some 200 schools mainly within Essex. Principles of direct instruction central. Empirical results impressive. Interactive Assessment and Teaching (IAT): Included in DfES management guidance on Wave 3 intervention. DP builds on this.

18 18 FORMATIVE EVALUATION OF BOOK ONE  Individual differences in the progress made  Organisational factors, e.g. working space  Group dynamics/concentration span/TA skill  School attendance  Links with classroom practice  The importance of ‘real reading’ Initial evaluation: 25 TAs, 12 schools, 152 children

19 19 Survey responses from 116 schools

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24 24 Evaluation in Middlesbrough Data frame: sample of volunteer schools Specialist teacher undertook pre-post assessments Information on the way manuals and their dissemination can be improved Information on how schools are using the materials Data from 25 children in 5 schools: Mean ratio gain is 1.54 (6 months gain in 4 months) on WRAPS (Word Recognition and Phonic Skills, Hodder &Stoughton, 1994)

25 25 Observations by Specialist Teachers ‘Useful tool’, easy to set up and run in school Format, structure and routine Preparation time, timetabling and daily lessons Content appeals to pupils and can be used flexibly Staff see results quickly as do the children Experienced staff can add to lessons and focus on different skills It has not suited all children Need for group register and a file for storing assessments.

26 26 Research in Tameside 52 children in 7 schools Pre-post assessment: –Direct Phonics content –WORD –PhAB Results: –Children have learnt what they have been taught –PhAB scores have improved –Large individual differences on WORD –Organisational factors –Critique: ratio gains modest and no control groups

27 27 Theoretical and research basis Yes Previous intervention studiesRange Normative tests and comparisonsSome Systematic curriculum-based assessmentYes Individual differencesYes Formative action research/organisationYes Motivation and emotionYes A broader model of evaluation: Direct Phonics


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