2Book One:Single letters/soundsC-v-c wordsSight words for sentencesBook Two:Consonant blends (e.g. bl, tr)At beginnings and ends of wordsVowel digraphs (e.g. ee, ay)Book Three:Compound words (e.g. sea-side)Polysyllabic words (e.g. lem-on-ade)StoriesSentencesWordsLettersSoundsModelLeadCheckCumulative and repetitive content
3KEY ELEMENTSContent cumulative and repetitiveChecks of progress make sure that children have consolidated their learningTeaching method follows routine of ‘model-lead-check’Children listen, speak, read and write in each lessonEach lesson has the same predictable patternInstructions can be followed by both teachers and teaching assistants
4CUMULATIVE AND VERY REPETITIVE CONTENT NEW CONTENT REVISIONBlock a m s tLessons 1 to am Sam at mat satI like Tim andBlock d i a m s tLessons 7 to dad mad sad is it sit at am Sam mat satEmma the on dog I like Tim andBlock c p a m s t i dLessons 13 to cat did as pat pit dip at am Sam mat satpip tip tap I like Tim andmy said see can Emma the on dog
5The Complete Track teaches all 60 lessons. THE COMPLETE TRACK OR THE FAST TRACKThe Complete Track teaches all 60 lessons.The Fast Track covers two lessons from each of the 10 blocks, i.e. 20 lessons.It is possible to switch between the Complete Track and the Fast Track:If you start with the Complete Track and find that the children are not in need of that much repetition then …If you start with the Fast Track and think that the children need more repetition then …Later, progress may show that the children are ready to cope with the Fast Track again.
6RESOURCES Whiteboard and marker pens Teacher’s lesson notes A photocopied lesson sheet for each pupilPencil and writing paper/book for each pupil
7THE ‘MODEL-LEAD-CHECK’ TEACHING METHOD Holding the children’s attentionTwo key words as signals:‘Listen’: Before modelling the reading to the children, always begin by saying the word ‘listen’.‘Ready’: Before asking children to respond in chorus or individually, begin by saying ‘ready’.
8Steps for the Supported Learning Procedure THE ‘MODEL-LEAD-CHECK’ TEACHING METHODSteps for the Supported Learning ProcedureModel: Write the letter or word on the board, point to it as you read it to the children (Start by saying ‘listen’ to get the children’s attention)Lead: Point again and read in chorus together with the children (Say ‘ready’ to get the children’s attention and signal when to start)Check the group: Point again and the children read together as a group (Say ‘ready’ to signal when they should start)Check on individuals: Point to a letter/word/sentence and ask individual children to read it.
9TEACHER LESSON NOTES Notes for Lesson 1 Introduce sound/symbols: a m s Revise: -Match sound/symbols: a m sMake words: am SamMatch words: Matrix (on pupil lesson sheet) Sight words: I likeRead: Matrix and sentencesWrite: m s a am Sam
10PUPIL LESSON SHEETS am Sam Lesson 1 a m s I like Match: Read: I am Sam.
11A SCRIPTED EXAMPLE OF LESSON 1 Pages 12-14Activity 1: Say and match a m sActivity 2: Make words am SamActivity 3: Match words like I Sam amActivity 4: ReadingActivity 5: WritingThe script shows how each activity follows the ‘model-lead-check’ procedure.
12TOP UP ACTIVITIESEach of the 10 teaching blocks has a photocopiable page containing a grid with the words that have been learnt in the block.The purpose is to:Provide opportunities for further consolidation of learning.Enable children to develop greater speed and fluency.Help the children apply (generalise) what they have learnt.Introduce some variation through different kinds of activities.Enable the children to succeed with the end-of-block assessment.The manuals contain example activities.
13ASSESSING PROGRESSEach teaching block ends with a page listing the words introduced in the block and a page of sentences for dictation.Your judgment of the child’s progress depends on how accurately and fluently the child reads/writes.It is difficult to state the exact ‘criteria’ for moving on to the next block. The blocks are cumulative and repeat the content of previous blocks.The assessment will show whether the teaching is repetitive enough or too repetitive and enable you to switch between the Complete and the Fast Track.
14RECORDING PROGRESS 1It is very motivating to involve the children in the record keeping.The simplest way is to list the words assessed in each teaching block and let the children give ticks to the words learnt.It can be useful to check more than once so that the children give each word several ticks.There are example individual record and summary group record forms.There is a photocopiable Certificate of Achievement at the end of each teaching block.
15RECORDING PROGRESS 2Recording progress in sentence reading and writingFor each child, make a photocopy of the page that lists the sentences for assessment/dictation in the teaching block. Use it as a record by marking up the text as the child reads. For writing the sentences, the child’s own written work can act as a record.Assessing progress when the Direct Phonics Book One has been completedEach book has a table summarising learning outcomes. You can photocopy the table for each child and use it as your end of programme record.
16WORKING TOGETHERInvolving children in recording their own progressTeachers and teaching assistants working togetherTeachers and parent and children working togetherUse of story books
17Theoretical and research background Theoretical explanations: Phonology, fluency, emotional factorsLearning theory: Extensive research in USA into model-lead-check routine within a cumulative learning programme (Direct Instruction).Early Reading Research (ERR): Mainstream primary in some 200 schools mainly within Essex. Principles of direct instruction central. Empirical results impressive.Interactive Assessment and Teaching (IAT): Included in DfES management guidance on Wave 3 intervention. DP builds on this.
18FORMATIVE EVALUATION OF BOOK ONE Initial evaluation: 25 TAs, 12 schools, 152 childrenIndividual differences in the progress madeOrganisational factors, e.g. working spaceGroup dynamics/concentration span/TA skillSchool attendanceLinks with classroom practiceThe importance of ‘real reading’
24Evaluation in Middlesbrough Data frame: sample of volunteer schoolsSpecialist teacher undertook pre-post assessmentsInformation on the way manuals and their dissemination can be improvedInformation on how schools are using the materialsData from 25 children in 5 schools: Mean ratio gain is 1.54 (6 months gain in 4 months) on WRAPS (Word Recognition and Phonic Skills, Hodder &Stoughton, 1994)
25Observations by Specialist Teachers ‘Useful tool’, easy to set up and run in schoolFormat, structure and routinePreparation time, timetabling and daily lessonsContent appeals to pupils and can be used flexiblyStaff see results quickly as do the childrenExperienced staff can add to lessons and focus on different skillsIt has not suited all childrenNeed for group register and a file for storing assessments.
26Research in Tameside 52 children in 7 schools Pre-post assessment: Direct Phonics contentWORDPhABResults:Children have learnt what they have been taughtPhAB scores have improvedLarge individual differences on WORDOrganisational factorsCritique: ratio gains modest and no control groups
27A broader model of evaluation: Direct Phonics Theoretical and research basis YesPrevious intervention studies RangeNormative tests and comparisons SomeSystematic curriculum-based assessment YesIndividual differences YesFormative action research/organisation YesMotivation and emotion Yes