Presentation on theme: "National 4/5 Modern Studies"— Presentation transcript:
1National 4/5 Modern Studies What you need to revise for the exam:All topics in preparation for KNOWLEDGE QUESTIONS (PEEL)The 3 SKILLS QUESTIONS…CONLUSION QUESTIONS, SELECTIVE IN THE USE OF FACTS, OPTIONS QUESTIONS
2KNOWLEDGE QUESTIONS Three topics: Democracy in Scotland Social issues in the UKInternational issues (the USA)
3DEMOCRACY IN SCOTLAND Background knowledge… Structure of Government in Britain – UK Parliament (House of Lords and House of Commons), Scottish Parliament, the monarchy, Prime Minister, First Minister, UK and Scottish Cabinets, Local Government, relationship between UK and Scottish Government, what councillors can make decisions on
4DEMOCRACY IN SCOTLAND Representation Role of MSPs and Councillors, how constituents can contact representativesRole, function and areas of the Scottish ParliamentHow MSPs represent constituents in constituency and in Scottish ParliamentFirst Minister’s Question Time, Debates, voting, committees, Members’ BillsWork of a local councillor, how councillors can represent their wards, how councillors can resolve local conflicts (e.g. budgets, road by-passes)
5DEMOCRACY IN SCOTLAND Participation Political Parties – know main parties and basic policiesPurpose of political partiesStanding as a candidate – qualities neededElection campaigns – purpose, process and outcomesWhy it is important to use right to voteVoting systems – advantages and disadvantages of the Single Transferable Vote (STV) and the Additional Member System (AMS)
6DEMOCRACY IN SCOTLAND Influence – Pressure Groups Purpose Aims Methods usedExamples of pressure group action
7SOCIAL ISSUES IN THE UK Social Inequality Poverty – what is poverty, relative and absolute poverty, social exclusion, groups most at risk from social exclusionCauses of poverty – unemployment, low pay, benefits system, family structure, gender, raceConsequences of poverty - lack of necessities, ill health – mental and physical, inequality in education, social exclusion, poor housing, addiction problems, homelessness
8SOCIAL ISSUES IN THE UK Groups that tackle poverty Central Government – benefits system, support for children and families, attracting jobs to UK, training and education, welfare to work, minimum wage, heating allowances, Big SocietyScottish Parliament – social inclusion, education, inclusion and equality policyLocal Authorities – Housing and Council Tax BenefitVoluntary Sector – groups that tackle child povertyPrivate Sector – job creation, greater role for private sector
9SOCIAL ISSUES IN THE UK Health Inequalities Lifestyle, social and economic disadvantages, geography, environment, age, gender, raceGroups that tackle health inequalities – The Scottish Parliament, NHS Scotland , Health Promotion and Education, the voluntary sector, local authorities- free school meals, private sector – private health insurance, PPPSocial inequality – focus on one of the following: race, gender, social class, gender, age, disability
10INTERNATIONAL ISSUES – THE USA Background – powerful country, relevance to ScotlandPolitical issues – type of government, parts of government, participationHow democratic is the USA?Social and Economic issues – population/immigration, employment, wealth and health inequalities, education, housing, crime and law (Focus on 2 or 3 of these)Government response to social and economic issuesRights and Responsibilities of citizens
11SKILLS QUESTIONS SELECTIVE IN THE USE OF FACTS OPTIONS QUESTION CONCLUSION QUESTION
13International Issues – USA KU Advice Questions will not be specific to the USA…instead they will be worded as below:Describe, in detail, two ways citizens from a world power you have studied can participate in politicsExplain, in detail, why social and economic inequalities exists in a world power you have studied.Describe, in detail, at least two main political institutions of the government of a world power you have studied.Choose one of the following – poor education, health inequalities, fear of crime, or poor housing. Explain, in detail, why this issue continues to be a problem in a world power you have studied.Describe, in detail, the rights and responsibilities of citizens from a world power you have studied.Explain, in detail, why some groups from a world power you have studied experience social and economic inequality.
14International Issues – USA Skills Advice The skills question in this section may not be specific to the USARemember though, you simply use the correct technique and no background knowledge is required
15Revision TopicsScottish Parliament – voting systems, local councils, SP basics, pressure groups, qualities needed for standing as a candidateSocial Inequality – Groups that tackle inequalitiesUSA – how democratic
16Voting Systems Just remember the pros and cons of the following: FPTP AMSSTV
17FPTP Advantages FPTP Disadvantages Very easy to understand – whoever gets the most votes winsSmaller parties such as Green Party have little chance of being electedUsually leads to strong majority governments – e.g. LabourLeads to a two party system where Labour and Conservatives dominateOne representative per constituency – no confusion. E.g. Glasgow East MP is Margaret Curran – people know who to go toMajority governments can be bad as other party’s views are ignored - undemocratic
18AMS Advantages AMS Disadvantages It is fairer - there is a more proportional link between votes and elected representativesIt tends to produce coalition governments, which would have to involve compromise. This means it is difficult to pass bills.There still is a link between the MSP and the constituents as voters vote directly for their constituency MSP (paper 1)There are two types of MSPs - constituency MSPs and list MSPs – can be conflict between themSmaller parties can get representation (e.g. Green Party, Scottish Socialist Party)It is a confusing system – people fill in ballot papers wronglySome people feel their vote is less likely to be wasted as they get two votes. If their constituency choice is not elected then they will be represented through their regional MSPs. In total 8 MSPs to represent you.Small parties, or even individuals, can arguably have too much power because their votes are needed by more popular parties
19STV Advantages STV Disadvantages This is fairer for voters as they have more choice in approaching representatives if they have an issue. This is because there is more than one councillor in each wardA candidate who has a achieved a low percentage of the vote may be elected and this is unfair as the representative will have the same status and power as an elected representative with a higher voteSTV is very proportional: the percentage of votes a party gets is roughly the same as the percentage of councillors they getThe process of counting the results takes longer under STV, meaning that results cannot usually be declared on the same night as the vote took place.Smaller parties and independent candidates have a realistic chance of being elected, e.g. the Green Party or BNP It is a confusing system – people don’t understand it and fill in ballot papers wronglyIn STV voters have more than one vote. This is fair as voters may like more than one candidate and they can express their views more accurately
20Local Councils – Funding How are councils funded?Revenue Grant from Scottish Parliament – a lump sum of money (80% of council money)Council tax – people who live in council areas pay council tax to council. Varies depending on size and value of propertyNon-domestic rates – businesses pay a council tax so that they can trade in the council areaCharges for services – e.g. swimming pool or gym charges, late fees at library
23Local Councils – Resolving conflicts How can councils resolve conflicts?If there is traffic congestion in an area then councils can resolve this. For example, Glasgow City Council has introduced bus lanes in city centre – fine car drivers for using these – cuts congestionIf a resident of a council house has issues with a noisy neighbour they can contact the council and raise a complaint. Council can then resolve the issue possibly in collaboration with policeIf local residents in an area have concerns about pollution caused by heavy traffic the council could create a by-pass road meaning that traffic is diverted from the areaIf there is a concern about cars speeding in an area then the council is able to use measures such as introducing speed bumps, traffic lights or zebra crossings to tackle the issue and resolve the conflict.
24Scottish Parliament Basics Difference between Scottish Parliament and Scottish GovernmentWho meets in SP?How many MSPs are there? Types of MSP?Who do MSPs represent?How can MSPs represent us in constituency and parliament?What does the Scottish Government consist of?How are laws made?
25Pressure groups What are they? Methods? Examples? Why are some methods better than others?
26Standing as a candidate Qualities needed?Confident – public speaking, addressing constituents and rest of MSPs in parliamentHardworking – demanding job, long hours, working between constituency and Scottish ParliamentApproachable – constituents have to be comfortable with asking representative for help with issuesReliable – have to get the job done, represent constituents effectively…otherwise will not be re-electedUse common sense for this kind of question