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BS 8545: From Nursery to Independence in the Landscape Keith Sacre. Sales Director Barcham Trees.

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Presentation on theme: "BS 8545: From Nursery to Independence in the Landscape Keith Sacre. Sales Director Barcham Trees."— Presentation transcript:

1 BS 8545: From Nursery to Independence in the Landscape Keith Sacre. Sales Director Barcham Trees.

2 Reasons a new standard was considered necessary: Lack of any existing standard which recognised the transition from nursery to independence in the landscape as a continuous process. Trees in Towns II. Suggests that up to 25% of the young trees planted by local authorities into the landscape fail.

3 Some examples. Absence of roots inside a supposed root ball Trees planted too deep. Drought ? Poor nursery production methods Poor root system

4 Some more Distorted and damaged root systems early in the production process Poor quality and ill specified nursery stock Lack of formative pruning post planting. Inadequate maintenanceUnfair competition !!!!!

5 And to finish: Stake and or tie !!!!! Reliable means of assessing physiological health. Failure to incorporate latest research into best practice guides and standards

6 Progress so far: Business plan and scoping document submitted to British Standard Institute and accepted. BS number created. BS Initial drafting panel met in June agreeing to undertake a comprehensive literature review of relevant subject material. Date set for second meeting: 5 th October 2010.

7 Scoping document: Headings Nursery production methods Despatch and Storage Transplanting Post planting maintenance Formative pruning

8 PROPOSED BRITISH STANDARD. YOUNG TREES: FROM THE NURSERY THROUGH TO INDEPEDENCE IN THE LANDSCAPE: A CONTINUOUS PROCESS. Scope: The proposed new standard, titled as above, would be aimed at tree nurseries, local authority tree officers, landscape contractors, landscape architects, arboricultural consultants, landscape designers and any other professionals involved in the process of transplanting young trees from the nursery into the landscape. The aim is to establish a guide to best practice which recognises the transplanting of young trees from the nursery into the landscape as a continuous process rather than a series of unrelated operations, as represented by current British Standards and other guidelines/ recommendations. The new BSI would concentrate on nursery trees from 8-10 cm girth upwards. The new BSI would not be concerned with whips, transplants and seedlings.

9 1:0. The Nursery. To identify and describe the productions methods used on tree nurseries in the UK and continent. To outline the advantages and disadvantages of each. (It is not the intention to make a case for one method to be favoured over another) To outline the current best practice for each of those production methods and introduce specifiable criteria based on current research. To increase the specifiable morphological parameters/characteristics beyond those currently in use. To introduce specifiable criteria, based on current research, which reflect tree health on the nursery. To use such specifiable criteria to produce a nursery benchmark for tree health which can then be used as a baseline post transplanting To re-assess what is actually needed from the nursery in terms of a fit for purpose product particularly for the urban environment. (Up until now the nursery has produced the criteria as opposed to producing what is actually required by the end user)

10 2.0. Despatch and storage. To review current best practice in despatching and transporting young trees from the nursery to either transplanting site or storage area prior to transplanting. To review storage practices prior to transplanting and the impact these have on transplanting success Transplanting. To review current best practice and recommendations for transplanting to include support systems, tree pit design, structural soils and other backfill mediums. To review the use of nutrient supplements and mychorrizal inoculations, considering when and how and of what value such supplements offer in enhancing transplanting success To relate the above to the nursery production system being used in any particular instance.

11 4.0. Post planting maintenance. To review the use of mulches and their value. To review post planting watering regimes and the methods of water delivery. (Do systems currently in use actually work?) To review the impact of herbicide applications, grass competition, grass management, soil compaction on transplanting success. To investigate and define the use of plant health assessment, measured against a nursery benchmark, to evaluate and identify stresses post transplanting allowing remedial action to be taken early Formative pruning. To review current best practice, including aims and objectives, of formative pruning and how this relates back to nursery practice.

12 The principal aim of the above is to achieve recognition that transplanting trees into the landscape is a process. All the above are parts of that process. The process itself needs a new vocabulary recognising it as such. The word establishment, for instance, is widely used as a definitive term yet its actual meaning has become nothing more than a vague description of an ill defined condition two/three years after transplanting. There is nothing which defines independence and permanence in the landscape. The proposed new standard can be best described as a comprehensive flow chart beginning with a nursery production system and traceable through to independence in the landscape. The flow chart will produce a series of questions and specifiable criteria which can be asked and used at all stages of the process irrespective of the actual methodology chosen. It will not be the purpose of the new standard to define and recommend any particular methodology or production process but to highlight the best practice which should be achieved for any of those production processes or methodologies to work successfully.

13 Strategic reasons for planting Site Assessment Climate/sun shade Micro climate:Soil FactorsStructural Factors Existing trees and other vegetation Species selection Size FormAvailabiltyCharacteristics

14 Nursery Production Method Open ground/bare root Rootballed Containerised Factors which can be specified (see rootballed for example Trees 3x transplanted Size of rootball relative to stem girth Additional factors Physiological health Stem taperProduction site Height stem diameter ratio

15 Draw up comprehensive specification and submit for quotation, if necessary Visit Nursery and select stock Transport from Nursery to Site Bare root / open ground Rootballed Containerised Lifting and handling Protection Lifting handling storage Lifting and handling Protection Lifting handling storage Planting

16 General Physical Pit Design Support Planting depth Hard surface GrassAbove ground Underground Pit size Staking systemsAnchors Soil volume Soil type Surfacing Specific Bare root/open ground Rootballed Containerised

17 Post planting maintenance Irrigation Nutrition Formative Pruning Mulch Independence in the landscape (Definition)

18 The drafting panel: Tony Kirkham Pete Wells Brian Crane Glynn Percival Mike Volp Keith Sacre Gary Scammell Andy Tipping Jeremy Barrell Ian Phillips Dave Gilchrist Mick Boddy

19 In my opinion, to be successful, there cannot be a reliance on the drafting panel to research, provide information and expertise, assimilate and draft the new document There will be a need for ongoing consultation with all those involved in the whole process of successfully transplanting young trees from nursery to permanence in the landscape. The London Tree Officers Association have already set up a working party to provide information on current practice in the London area. Any thoughts, views, items for consideration, examples of considered best practice would be most welcome and can be sent to If anyone would like to discuss further or be involved in anyway then please telephone me on or mobile

20 Thanks for listening.


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