Presentation on theme: "Report Writing Unit III. What is a business report? A business report is an oral presentation or written business document that provides information,"— Presentation transcript:
Report Writing Unit III
What is a business report? A business report is an oral presentation or written business document that provides information, requests funding or approval, analyzes company or market data, or makes recommendations for innovations and change.
A Report is…. An orderly and objective presentation of information that helps in decision making and problem solving.
Characteristics of Business Reports. Reports vary widely- in length, complexity, formality, and format. The quality of the report process affects the quality of the product. Accuracy is the most important trait of a report. Reports are often a collaborative effort.
Styles of Reports The style of the report used depends on the need for the report and the audience. Reports are either formal or informal. Informal reports are usually brief and use personal pronouns (I, We, and You) and a direct style. Formal reports are long and are constructed in a prescribed format.
Purpose of Reports. Provide information - provides objective statistical data or facts. Analysis of the data is usually not included. Analyze data and information- offer interpretations of information or solutions to problems. Persuade- propose, request, or recommend specific actions or problem solutions.
Informational Reports MemosConvey info. within an organization. Progress or interim reportsDescribe in narrative form the status of continuing projects or tasks. Compliance ReportUsed by orgs. that work with or are regulated by local, state or govt. agencies. Annual reportsDescribe the achievements and developments of an org. over the course of the year. Policy and Procedure reportsCommunicate broad organizational goals, guidelines and methods. They explain and outline company policy. MinutesDetails the actions and discussions in a business meeting.
Analytical Reports Justification reports- offer support for an action or determine the potential benefit of an action based on a series of reasons. Feasibility study- a type of justification report that includes detailed research, analysis, and a judgement on the potential success or failure of an action.
Persuasive Reports A business plan is a comprehensive report that defines and describes all the components of a business, including its feasibility, profitability, and marketing environment. A proposal is a persuasive written report that offers to provide a service, sell a product, or provide a solution to a problem or need.
Persuasive Reports continued Solicited Formal proposals- are submitted at the request of a potential funder. A Funder is a business, government agency, or private foundation that will approve or finance your project.
What are the differences between Reports and Proposals Reports provide information, analysis, or recommendations that can be used to solve problems; monitor or document progress; clarify or implement policies or procedures; and guide change, direction, or decisions. While proposals are a form of report, the difference is that they request funding, or acceptance in exchange for work to be performed.
The short formal report This format is used in formal reporting situations mostly internally directed where middle or senior management reports to senior or top management.
Structure of the short formal report
1.0 Terms of Reference In this first section of the report, the author details the scope of the report, or its ‘parameters’, within which he may investigate.
2.0 Procedure Having outlined the report’s scope, the writer identifies the means he or she adopted to collect its data:. By scrutinising documents. By interviewing personnel. By visiting branches. By observation. by examination, analyses
3.0 Findings Here the detailed information which has been collected is sifted for relative importance and relevance and classified under appropriate headings, usually in descending order of importance, where the most important comes first.
4.0 Conclusions In this section a resume or synopsis of the principal findings is written, and is particularly helpful to those who may not wish to read the entire report.
5.0 Recommendations Having classified the detailed information of the report and summarised its main conclusions, the writer’s last duty, if required, is to identify the means by which a problem may be solved or a deficiency remedied, so that decisions may be made or advice acted upon.
1.0 TERMS OF REFERENCE 2.0 PROCEDURES 3.0 FINDINGS 3.1 Main Section Heading 3.2 Main section heading 3.3 main section heading Sub- heading 4.0 CONCLUSIONS 5.0 RECOMMENDATIONS
Short Informal Report
Short informal report The content of this report falls into three principal sections, equating to a ‘beginning, middle and end’, and may be used in a variety of situations where the subject of the report is neither too long nor complex. The three sections may be considered as follows: 1. Background outlined 2. Problem/ situation analysed 3. problem/ situation resolved
Background Outlined This opening section puts the report into a context and briefly outlines the essential background information needed to make the detailed information which follows in the middle section intelligible to the reader. This section would also indicate who had commissioned the report, its author and any further details corresponding to the ‘Terms of Reference’ section of the Short formal report.
Findings or Analysis of problems This section displays systematically the detailed information which has been collected by similar methods to those identified in the ‘Procedure’ section of the short formal report. Information should be written in paragraphs under suitable sub-headings, which may also contained numbered lists or tabulated information.
Conclusion or Resolution In this last section the main points of the report are summarised as conclusions and any actions required, recommendations or means of resolving a problem outlined. Thus the ‘Conclusions’ and the ‘Recommendations’ sections of the Short Formal Report are combined.
A fire drill in your offices last week revealed a number of alarming inadequacies. Many members of staff behaved quite indifferently; others seemed to have no idea what they should do, while one or two simply did nothing at all, saying that they were ‘far too busy’. As a consequence, you have been detailed to draft a memorandum to all staff aimed at emphasising the possible dangers in remaining indifferent to company regulations in case of fire at securing an improved response.