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Surisdiarto-BMT-Hijauan CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PASTURE GRASS CRUDE PROTEIN: 30-300 g/kg DM CRUDE FIBRE: 200-400 g/kg DM WATER: 850-650 g/kg WATER SOLUBLE.

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Presentation on theme: "Surisdiarto-BMT-Hijauan CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PASTURE GRASS CRUDE PROTEIN: 30-300 g/kg DM CRUDE FIBRE: 200-400 g/kg DM WATER: 850-650 g/kg WATER SOLUBLE."— Presentation transcript:

1 Surisdiarto-BMT-Hijauan CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PASTURE GRASS CRUDE PROTEIN: g/kg DM CRUDE FIBRE: g/kg DM WATER: g/kg WATER SOLUBLE CH: 40 – 300 g/kg DM, STEM > LEAVE CELLULOSE: G/kg DM HEMICELLULOSE: g/kg DM AMINO ACID: not alter greatly with age, even between species CELLULAR CP: > 50% in the form of single enzyme: RIBULOSE 1,5-BIPHOSPHATE CARBOXYLASE RICH IN: ARGININE, GLUTAMIC ACID AND LYSINE (higher b.v for growth than seed protein) METHIONINE: is the first, ISOLEUCINE is the second limiting amino a.a. NPN: varies with physiological stage. The more favorable growth condition the the higher the NPN as well as TOTAL NITROGEN

2 Surisdiarto-BMT-Hijauan CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PASTURE GRASS NPN: main component: A.A., AMIDE (glutamine and asparagine), NITRATE ( nitite oxidises the ferrous iron of haemoglobin to the ferric state producing brown pigment, methaemoglobin, which is incapable of transporting oxygen to the body tissues LIPID:relatively low, not exceed 60 g/kg DM, include: TRIACYLGLICEROL, GLYCOLIPID, STEROL, WAXES, PHOSPOLIPID. Main fatty acid: LINOLENIC (60-75% total f.a), next are LENOLEIC and PALMITIC ACID MINERAL:very variable depending upon: species, stage of growth, soil type, cultivation condition, fertilizer application CAROTENE:500 mg/kg DM

3 Surisdiarto-BMT-Hijauan RANGES OF ESSENTIAL MINERAL CONTENTS OF TEMPERATE PASTURE GRASSES ELEMENTLOWNORMALHIGH g/kg DM Potassium 35.0 Calcium 6.0 Phosphorus 4.0 Sulphur 4.0 Magnesium 2.5 mg/kg DM Iron Manganese Zinc 75.0 Copper 10.0 Molybdenum 5.0 Cobalt 0.30 Selenium 0.25

4 Surisdiarto-BMT-Hijauan COMPOSITION OF THE DM OF A SAMPLE OF ITALIAN RYEGRASS CUT AT A YOUNG LEAFY STAGE (g/kg) ProximateCarbohydratesNitrogenous compositioncomponents CP190Glucose, 16Total N,30 EE 45Fructose, 13Protein N27 CF208Sucrose, 45Non-protein N 3 NFE449Oligosaccharide, 19 Ash108Fructans 70 Galactan, 9 Araban, 29 Xylan, 63 Cellulose, 202

5 Surisdiarto-BMT-Hijauan FACTORS INFLUENCING THE NUTRITIVE VALUE OF PASTURE 1.STAGE OF GROWTH Structural carbohydrate (cellulose and hemicellulose) and lignin increase (reflected in increase of CF, from 200 to 400 g/kg DM). Protein decreases. Total ash content decreases (reflected from Ca content). OM digestibility decrease with ages. Digestibility influent by stem:leaf ratio. In very young, digestibility of stem is higher than that of leaves. With advancing of maturity, diges- tibility of leaf decreases slowly but stem fall rapidly. Net energy value decrease with age due to a low o.m digestibility and increasing hemicellulose 2.SPECIES AND CLIMATE In temperate area grasses grow and mature relatively slow and can thus be utilized at an early stage of growth when their nutritive value is high. In warmer however grasses mature more rapidly, their cp and phosphorus falling to very low levels and their fibrous content raising. In the wet tropics the herbage available is commonly fibrous but lush, in drier areas the mature herbage become desiccated. In temperate grasses fructans are the main storage ch while in tropical species these are replaced by starch. 3.SOILS AND FERTILIZER TREATMENT

6 Surisdiarto-BMT-Hijauan FACTORS INFLUENCING THE NUTRITIVE VALUE OF PASTURE Varieties within a species generally differ to only a small degree in nutritive value, if the comparison is made at the same stage of growth, but differences between comparable species may be larger. 3.SOILS AND FERTILIZER TREATMENT The type of soil may influence the composition of pasture especially it mineral content. The acidity of soil is an important factor influencing the uptake of trace minerals. Mn and Co are poorly absorbed by plant from calcareous soil. Whereas low Mo level of herbage are usually associated with acid soil. Liberal dressing of fertilizer affect the mineral content of plant. Nitrogenous fertilizer increase protein, affect amide and nitrate content, depresses fructan content of temperate grasses.

7 Surisdiarto-BMT-Hijauan SUGAR DEXTRINS AVAILABLE CH STARCHES PECTINS TOTAL CH GUMS HEMICELLULOSES UNAVAILABLE CH or CELLULOSE DIETARY FIBRE CF LIGNIN DIETARY CARBOHYDRATE FRACTION

8 Surisdiarto-BMT-Hijauan CompositionYoung Late Ear Full leafy leafy emergence seed Ash Crude protein Ether extract Crude fibre Nitrogen free extract Crude lignin Cellulose Soluble ch ME (sheep) NE main NE lwg COMPOSITION OF FOUR CUTS OF RYEGRASS

9 Surisdiarto-BMT-Hijauan

10 RUMPUT LEGUME PANENKERINGHAY SHATTERING BLEACHING + FERMENTATION LEACHING HIJAU LEAFY LUNAK TAK LAPUK LEGUME HAY NON-LEGUME HAY MIXED HAY KONDISI TNH TIME OF CUTTING CURING HARVESTING

11 Surisdiarto-BMT-Hijauan TIME OF CUTTING : ALFALFA: BUD TO 1/10 FLOWER SOYBEAN: POD BEGIN TO FILL GRASS: BEFORE BEGIN TO BLOOM BUTIRAN: EARLY MILK STAGE STAGE OF MATURITY LEGUME NON LEGUME % PROTEIN%TDN% PROTEIN%TDN VEGETATIVE BUD BLOOM MATURE

12 Surisdiarto-BMT-Hijauan CURING: POTONG SEBELUM EMBUN HILANG  WILTED  WIND ROWS HARVESTING: BALLING  <20% MOISTURE WAFER  <10% MOISTURE SOIL CONDITION: KAYA MINERAL (Ca, P)  KAYA MINERAL PUPUK N  KAYA PROTEIN

13 Surisdiarto-BMT-Hijauan ADVANTAGES: SUCCULENT > BANYAK NUTRIENT PER SATUAN LUAS < NUTRIENT YANG HILANG > PALATABLE > MUDAH DICAMPUR DG MKN LAIN HEMAT TEMPAT PENYIMPANAN TIDAK ADA BAHAYA KEBAKARAN DANGEROUS: NITROGEN DIOXIDE CARBON DIOXIDE TEMPERATUR TINGGI BAKTERI TINGGI

14 Surisdiarto-BMT-Hijauan VERY GOOD: BERSIH, RASA ASAM, TDK ADA ASAM BUTIRAT, TIDAK BERJAMUR, TIDAK BERLENDIR, hH 3,5-4,2, JUMLAH NH3 <10% DARI TOTAL N GOOD: RASA ASAM, SEDIKIT ASAM BUTIRAT, pH 4,2-4,5 NH % DARI TOTAL N FAIR: SEDIKIT ASAM BUTIRAT, SEDIKIT PROTEOLISIS, pH 4,5-4,8 JUMLAH NH % DARI TOTAL N POOR: BANYAK ASAM BUTIRAT  BAU, BANYAK PROTEOLISIS pH > 4,8 NH3 > 20% DARI TOTAL N KUALITAS SILAGE

15 Surisdiarto-BMT-Hijauan BAHAN TAMBAHAN: STRONG ACID  pH <4  FERMENTASI BAIK ASAM FORMIAT HCl H2SO4 SODIUM BISULFID PATI DAN GULA JAGUNG MOLASSES

16 Surisdiarto-BMT-Hijauan SPERMATOPHYTA ANGIOSPERMA DICOTYLEDONEAE MONOCOTYLEDONEAE ROSALES ROSINAE LEGUMINOSAE PAPILIONACEAE MIMMOSACEAE CAESALPINIACEAE GLUMIFORA GRAMINAE CYPERALES CYPERACEAE

17 Surisdiarto-BMT-Hijauan PAPILIONACEAE: ARACHIS HYPOGEA CAJANUS CAJAN (PIGEON PEA) COLOPOGONIUM MUCONOIDES (DOG PEA) CICER ARIETINUM (CHICK PEA) CLITORIA TERNATEA (BUTTERFLY PEA) CROTALARIA USARAMOENSIS (CURARA PEA) INDIGOFERA ERECTA PUERARIA JAVANICA PUERARIA TRILOBA SESBANIA GLANDIFLORA SESBANIA ACULATA STYLOSANTHES GRACILLIS

18 Surisdiarto-BMT-Hijauan MIMMOSACEAE: MIMMOSA INVISA (SIMEDURI DURI) MIMMOSA PUDICA (DAUN TIDUR) LEUCAENA GLAUCA (LAMTORO) CESALPINIACEAE: TAMARINDUS INDICUS CAESALPINIA PULCHERINA POINCIANA REGIA CASIA SIAMEA

19 Surisdiarto-BMT-Hijauan GRAMINEAE: BRACHIARIA BRIZANTA (SIGNAL GRASS) CHLORIS GAYANA (RHODES GRASS) CYNODON DACTYLON (BERMUDA GRASS) DIGITARIA DICUMBEN (PANGOLA GRASS) DIGITARIA SCALARUM (KALANJANA) EUCHAENA MEXICANA (TEOSINTE) PANICUM MAXIMUM PANICUM DILATATUM PANICUM NOTATUM PENNISETUM PURPUREUM (GAJAHAN) PENNISETUM CLAUDESTINUM (KIKUYU GRASS) SORGHUM VULGARE SACCHARUM OFICINARUM ZEA MAYS

20 Surisdiarto-BMT-Hijauan CYPERACEAE: CYPERUS ROTUNDUS FIMBRISTILIS ANNUA KYLLINGA MONOCEPHALA


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