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Chapter 6 Chapter 1 Lesson 7 Coach Biology An element is a substance that can’t be broken down into simpler chemical substances. Elements Everything.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 Chapter 1 Lesson 7 Coach Biology An element is a substance that can’t be broken down into simpler chemical substances. Elements Everything."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Chapter 6

3 Chapter 1 Lesson 7 Coach Biology

4 An element is a substance that can’t be broken down into simpler chemical substances. Elements Everything – whether it is a rock, frog, or flower – is made of substances called elements. Coach: Lesson 7

5 Of the naturally occurring elements on Earth, only about 25 are essential to living organisms. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen make up more that 96 percent of the mass of a human body. Natural elements in living things Coach: Lesson 7

6 Table 6.1 Some Elements That Make Up the Human Body ElementSymbol Percent By Mass in Human Body Element Symbol Percent By Mass in Human Body Molybdenum Oxygen Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Calcium Phosphorus Potassium Sulfur Sodium Chlorine Magnesium Selenium Iron Zinc Copper Iodine Manganese Boron Chromium Cobalt Fluorine O C H N Ca P K S Na Cl Mg Fe Zn Cu I Mn B Cr Mo Co Se F trace Coach: Lesson 7

7 An atom is the smallest particle of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Section 6.1 Summary – pages Atoms: The Building Blocks of Elements Atoms are the basic building blocks of all matter. Coach: Lesson 7

8 6.3 Section Summary 6.3 – pages A carbon atom has four electrons available for bonding in its outer energy level. In order to become stable, a carbon atom forms four covalent bonds that fill its outer energy level. The Role of Carbon in Organisms Coach: Lesson 7

9 6.3 Section Summary 6.3 – pages The Role of Carbon in Organisms Two carbon atoms can form various types of covalent bonds—single, double or triple. Single Bond Double BondTriple Bond Coach: Lesson 7

10 Carbon compounds vary greatly in size. Molecular chains When carbon atoms bond to each other, they can form: straight chains, branched chains, or rings. Coach: Lesson 7

11 6.3 Section Summary 6.3 – pages Molecular chains Small molecules (monomers) bond together to form chains called polymers. A polymer is a large molecule formed when many monomers bond together. Coach: Lesson 7

12 6.3 Section Summary 6.3 – pages A carbohydrate is a biomolecule composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen with a ratio of (2:1) two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom for every carbon atom. The structure of carbohydrates C 6 H 12 O 6 Coach: Lesson 7

13 6.3 Section Summary 6.3 – pages The largest carbohydrate molecules are polysaccharides, polymers composed of many monosaccharide subunits. (ie. potatoes, liver) The structure of carbohydrates The simplest type of carbohydrate is a simple sugar called a monosaccharide. (ie. glucose, fructose) Coach: Lesson 7

14 6.3 Section Summary 6.3 – pages The structure of carbohydrates Glucose is a quick source of energy. Plants store their energy as starch. Animals store their energy as glycogen (found in liver and muscle cells). Coach: Lesson 7

15 6.3 Section Summary 6.3 – pages Lipids are large biomolecules that are made mostly of carbon and hydrogen with a small amount of oxygen. They have 3 main functions: store energy, make cell membranes and carry chemical messages. (ie. fats, oils, waxes, cholesterol, steroids) The structure of lipids They are insoluble in water because their molecules are not attracted by water molecules. Coach: Lesson 7

16 6.3 Section Summary 6.3 – pages A protein is a large, complex polymer composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur. The structure of proteins Coach: Lesson 7

17 6.3 Section Summary 6.3 – pages Proteins are the building blocks of many structural components of organisms. (ie. components of muscle cells collagen, ligaments, and tendons) The structure of proteins Coach: Lesson 7

18 Proteins form antibodies which help fight infections. The structure of proteins Coach: Lesson 7

19 6.3 Section Summary 6.3 – pages The structure of proteins The basic building blocks of proteins are called amino acids. There are about 20 common amino acids that can make literally thousands of proteins. Coach: Lesson 7

20 6.3 Section Summary 6.3 – pages Peptide bonds are covalent bonds formed between amino acids. The structure of proteins Coach: Lesson 7

21 6.3 Section Summary 6.3 – pages A nucleic acid is a complex biomolecule that stores cellular genetic information in the form of a code. The structure of nucleic acids Nucleic acids are polymers made of smaller subunits called nucleotides. Coach: Lesson 7

22 6.3 Section Summary 6.3 – pages The structure of nucleic acids Nucleotides are arranged in three groups—a nitrogenous base, a simple sugar, and a phosphate group. Phosphate Sugar Nitrogenous base Coach: Lesson 7

23 6.3 Section Summary 6.3 – pages DNA, which stands for deoxyribonucleic acid is a nucleic acid. The structure of nucleic acids Nitrogenous base Sugar Phosphate Coach: Lesson 7

24 6.3 Section Summary 6.3 – pages The structure of nucleic acids The information coded in DNA contains the instructions used to form all of an organism’s enzymes and structural proteins. Coach: Lesson 7

25 6.3 Section Summary 6.3 – pages The structure of nucleic acids Another important nucleic acid is RNA, which stands for ribonucleic acid. RNA is a nucleic acid that forms a copy of DNA for use in making proteins. Coach: Lesson 7


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