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Ancient Coin Project created by Latin teacher Cathy Scaife for Ancient Coins for Education classroom attribution project. Photo by Doug Smith;

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Presentation on theme: "Ancient Coin Project created by Latin teacher Cathy Scaife for Ancient Coins for Education classroom attribution project. Photo by Doug Smith;"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ancient Coin Project created by Latin teacher Cathy Scaife for Ancient Coins for Education classroom attribution project. Photo by Doug Smith; http://dougsmith.ancients.info/

2 Ancient Coin Project Part II Production of Roman Coins Photo by Doug Smith; http://dougsmith.ancients.info/

3 The Making of a Coin: ---authority to issue and guarantee coins worth ---possession of metal ---ability to refine metal to desired purity ---tools/techniques to fabricate coin from metal

4 Possession of Metal

5 Ability to Refine Metals (Pliny, Natural History Bk. XXXIII) Alloy:the mixing of precious metals with base metals to create a usable material Electrum: natural alloy of gold and silver Bronze: alloy of copper and tin Silver Gold (rare)

6 Juno Moneta Roman goddess of the mint ---a temple to Juno Moneta was dedicated on the citadel of Rome In 344 B.C. ---an adjoining building contained the mint of Roman state. Tools and Techniques to Mint a Coin

7 The Making of a Coin: Mints in the Roman Empire

8 The Minting of Roman Coins ---casting in a mold ---striking

9 Cast Bronze Coinage: 5 th c.- mid 2 nd c. BCE 5. Arrow or leaf, 6 th -5 th c. 1. Aes rude, central Italy, 3 rd c. 2. AE dolphin money, Olbia, 5-4 th c. 3. Aes grave, wheel coins 4. Tooth-shaped, Akragas, Sicily, 5 th c. http://dougsmith.ancients.info/

10 Aes Grave Janus / Galley As (pl. Asses)

11 Striking: Making a Flan funnel-shaped bronze for pouring liquid metal into cast ancient coin mold

12 Striking: Making of a Flan ---cabo de barro (cob style) cookie dough style (chiseling the end off a rod) Severus Alexander ---hammering a bronze wire

13 The Making of a Coin: Tools/techniques to fabricate coin from metal ---flan ---dies (obverse & reverse) ---tongs ---striking process ---coin rotation Medieval Striking Rig (but set up is similar to a Roman rig)

14 A Coin Makers Tools

15 Display, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

16 Much Slave Labor Required Celatores (signatores) = die engravers cut master die from which working dies were made; dies lasted for 10,000 – 50,000 strikes Suppostores = placers Malleatores = strikers

17 Dies Byzantine die Byzantine coin Islamic die

18 Forgers Dies 1-Sestertius 2-Mark Antony 3-Republican

19 Modern Die and Hub American Numismatic Association Museum, Colorado Springs

20 The Making of a Coin: Tools/techniques to fabricate coin from metal ---flan ---dies (obverse & reverse) ---tongs ---striking process ---coin rotation Medieval Striking Rig (but set up is similar to a Roman rig)

21 Coin Denominations Roman denominations during the Republic

22 Obverse (heads) CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES Constantius Nobilissimus Caesar Reverse (tails) GENIO POPVLI ROMANI to the genius of the Roman people

23 Attribution of the Images on the Coin

24 Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus Pontifex Maximus Tribunicia Potestas Imperator Pater Patriae Caesar Augustus Nero Claudius, High Priest and Ruler of Rome and Germany, Supreme Commander of the armies of Rome, the father of his country, leader of the Triumviratefor as long as he shall live.

25 Gold Coins: Fine Coin Craftsmanship Plantation Place, England

26 The Kentucky Quarter What similarities and differences do you see with ancient coins?

27 GOOFS Brockage: the result of a coin sticking in a die when a second coin gets struck.

28 GOOFS Clashed Dies: Dies are hammered together without a coin in place, so that the softer reverse die receives a partial impression of the obverse. 1.Clodius Albinus, AVG. from Lugdunum 2.Julia Domna denarii

29 SPECIAL TECHNIQUES: Silvering: technique of soaking coins in salt water to give them a silvery appearance Debasement: the weakening of currency by reducing the amount of precious metal content

30 SPECIAL TECHNIQUES Countermark: Small punch mark used by a mint to retariff a coin.

31 Baked Clay Molds used for casting Roman coins made of bronze COUNTERFEITING ??

32 COUNTERFEITING Fouree: the coating of a copper coin with a silver wash. Serrated Edges: perhaps used to prove coin was not a fouree and edges not shaved

33 Image Sources Meshorer, Yaakov. Coins of the Ancient World. Lerner Archaeology Series: Digging Up the Past. (Lerner Publications Company, Minneapolis, 1980). Russell, Solveig Paulson. From Barter to Gold: The Story of Money. (Rand McNally & Company, Chicago, 1961). Website by Doug Smith. http://dougsmith.ancients.info/http://dougsmith.ancients.info/ Website, American Numismatic Museum. www.money.orgwww.money.org Other Images donated by supporters of Ancient Coins for Education, as listed at http://www.bitsofhistory.com/acc/CI.html


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