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The Buckner Clay Endowment for the Humanities Center for the Liberal Arts Archaeological Institute of America Archaeology Workshop March 14, 2015.

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Presentation on theme: "The Buckner Clay Endowment for the Humanities Center for the Liberal Arts Archaeological Institute of America Archaeology Workshop March 14, 2015."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Buckner Clay Endowment for the Humanities Center for the Liberal Arts Archaeological Institute of America Archaeology Workshop March 14, 2015

2 Roman coins, Roman history, and succession to power: UVA digital images and your classes John Dobbins Professor of Classical Art & Archaeology McIntire Department of Art University of Virginia

3 Fun with Roman Coins!

4 Telling stories with Roman Coins!

5 The UVA Coin Website coins.lib.virginia.edu

6 Caligula  AugustusTiberius ClaudiusNero Caligula

7 Caligula  Augustus 27 BC-AD 14 Tiberius Claudius Nero Caligula Augustus and the Julio-Claudian Emperors

8 Ancient coins are “struck.” They are not “cast.” 1.Engrave two dies: obv. & rev.

9 Ancient coins are “struck.” They are not “cast.” 1.Engrave two dies: obv. & rev. 2.Set the obv. die into the anvil and the rev. die onto a punch

10 Ancient coins are “struck.” They are not “cast.” 1.Engrave two dies: obv. & rev. 2.Set the obv. die into the anvil and the rev. die onto a punch

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12 A precious metal coinage Gold Silver Orichalcum (brass: copper, zinc, cadmium) Bronze (copper & tin) aureus 25 denarii 400 asses denarius 16 asses as sestertius 4 asses

13 From The Roman Imperial Coinage, vol. 1, revised edition, 1984, p. 3

14 The problem of succession in the Roman empire

15 The problem of succession in the Roman empire: Lacking a systematic policy, what are the possibilities for achieving the transition from one emperor to the next?

16 YOUR LIST:

17 1.Do nothing and let history work itself out

18 1. Do nothing and let history work itself out 2. Have a son

19 1. Do nothing and let history work itself out 2. Have a son 3. Adopt an heir

20 1. Do nothing and let history work itself out 2. Have a son 3. Adopt an heir 4. Turn it over to powerful women

21 1. Do nothing and let history work itself out 2. Have a son 3. Adopt an heir 4. Turn it over to powerful women 5. Assassinate the emperor

22 1. Do nothing and let history work itself out. 2. Have a son 3. Adopt an heir 4. Turn it over to powerful women 5. Assassinate the emperor 5A.... and let the Praetorian Guard select a successor

23 1. Do nothing and let history work itself out. 2. Have a son 3. Adopt an heir 4. Turn it over to powerful women 5. Assassinate the emperor 5A.... and let the Praetorian Guard select a successor 5B.... and let the Praetorian Guard auction off the empire to the highest bidder.

24 1. Do nothing and let history work itself out. 2. Have a son 3. Adopt an heir 4. Turn it over to powerful women 5. Assassinate the emperor 5A.... and let the Praetorian Guard select a successor 5B.... and let the Praetorian Guard auction off the empire to the highest bidder. 5C.... and take power yourself!

25 1. Do nothing and let history work itself out. 2. Have a son 3. Adopt an heir 4. Turn it over to powerful women 5. Assassinate the emperor 5A.... and let the Praetorian Guard select a successor 5B.... and let the Praetorian Guard auction off the empire to the highest bidder. 5C.... and take power yourself! 6. When there is a power vacuum, seize power

26 1. Do nothing and let history work itself out. 2. Have a son 3. Adopt an heir 4. Turn it over to powerful women 5. Assassinate the emperor 5A.... and let the Praetorian Guard select a successor 5B.... and let the Praetorian Guard auction off the empire to the highest bidder. 5C.... and take power yourself! 6. When there is a power vacuum, seize power 7. Retire and let your pre-selected successor take the job

27 Augustus 27 BC-AD 14 Tiberius Claudius Nero Caligula Augustus and the Julio-Claudian Emperors

28 Augustus Good planning -- Bad luck! Term: exergue Not UVA

29 Obv. CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE Caesar Augustus, son of the Deified (Julius), Father of the Country

30 Obv. CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE Caesar Augustus, son of the Deified (Julius), Father of the Country Rev. C L CAESARES AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT Gaius and Lucius Caesar, sons of Augustus, consuls designate, leaders of the youth

31 Obv. CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE Rev. C L CAESARES AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT Gaius: b. 20 BC; d. AD 4 Lucius: b. 17 BC; d. AD 2

32 Not UVA

33 Rev. TI CAESAR AVG F TR POT XV Tiberius Caesar, son of Augustus, with tribunician power for the 15 th time

34 How did Tiberius plan? He didn’t, at least not initially. Augustus meddled and planned for him. Drusus Germanicus Drusus the Younger

35 How did Tiberius plan? He didn’t, at least not initially. Augustus meddled and planned for him. Drusus Germanicus Drusus the Younger Germanicus died in 19

36 As of Tiberius depicting his son Drusus Upon the death of Germanicus in 19, Drusus the Younger became the new heir.

37 As of Tiberius depicting his son Drusus DRVSUS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N Upon the death of Germanicus in 19, Drusus the Younger became the new heir.

38 Obv. DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N Drusus Caesar, son of Tiberius Augustus, grandson of the deified Augustus

39 Good news! Also in 19, Drusus and his wife Livilla give birth to twin sons, Tiberius Gemellus & Germanicus Gemellus!!!

40 Rev. DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N PONT TR POT II Drusus Caesar, son of Tiberius Augustus, grandson of the Deified Augustus, Priest, with tribunician power for the second time SC Senatus consulto By decree of the Senate

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42 Drusus and his son, Germanicus Gemellus die in 23. Tiberius must make new plans. Key words: Caligula, Capri, Tiberius Gemellus, Sejanus Tiberius dies in 37

43 Caligula (Gaius) Caligula & his mother, Agrippina the Elder Not UVA

44 Caligula (Gaius) Caligula & his mother, Agrippina the Elder

45 Agrippina: grand daughter of Augustus

46 Caligula & his mother, Agrippina the Elder Agrippina: grand daughter of Augustus Germanicus (C’s father): son of Tiberius’ brother; grandson of Livia

47 Caligula & his mother, Agrippina the Elder Agrippina: grand daughter of Augustus Germanicus (C’s father): son of Tiberius’ brother; grandson of Livia Caligula: great grandson of Augustus great grandson of Livia

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49 A brief summary of Caligula’s reign: excess, incest, and unfinished aqueducts Assassinated in 41 Not UVA

50 Claudius 41-54

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54 Claudius Agrippina the Younger sister of Caligula

55 Claudius Agrippina the Younger Persuades Claudius to adopt her son, Nero

56 Claudius Agrippina the Younger The poison mushroom caper of 54. (This was not good for Claudius  )

57 Nero Agrippina the Younger Not UVA

58 Obv. Agrippina, wife of the deified Claudius, mother of Nero Caesar

59 Rev. For Nero Caesar Augustus Germanicus, son of the deified Claudius, imperator, with tribunician power By decree of the Senate

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61 Augustus 27 BC-AD 14 Tiberius Claudius Nero Caligula Augustus and the Julio-Claudian Emperors

62 Civil War!

63 Year “The year of the four emperors” Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian

64 Vesapasian Titus Flavius Vespasianus Flavian Dynasty VespasianTitusDomitian

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