2METAL CLASSIFICATIONWhen making products in industry, or completing a school project in a metals lab, it is important to know which metal-or combination of metals-is best suited for a particular job.
3METALS FOR INDUSTRIAL USE FERROUS MEALSNONFERROUS METALSPRECIOUS METALSHIGH-TEMPERATURE METALSRARE METALS
4FERROUS METALS Use iron as their basic ingredient Most ferrous metals are alloys, or mixtures of two or more metals.Iron is a base metal, or pure metallic element used as the principle alloying agent in many different tools.Ferrous metals include the major types of iron and steel alloys using different metallic elements in their composition.
5FERROUS METALS CAST IRON WROUGHT IRON STEEL CARBON STEELS ALLOY STEELS TOOL STEELSTUNGSTEN CARBIDESTAINLESS STEELS
6FERROUS METALSCast iron is a hard and brittle metal with excellent wear resistance. Widely used in industry, used in considerable quantities for products like automotive and machine tool parts.Wrought Iron is an alloy that is tough and bends easily hot or cold. Rusts slowly and easy to weld, it is usually used to make ornamental iron work.
7FERROUS METALSSteel is an iron-based alloy. It is very hard, strong and used in the production of many materials.Carbon Steels use carbon as their major alloying element. There are 3 types: Low carbon steel, medium carbon steel, and high carbon steel.Medium and High Carbon steels are used to fabricate hammer heads and clamps. These can be heat treated to harden and strengthen the metal so it resists wear and breaking. Heat treated high carbon steel is used in the manufacture of hand tools and parts for heavy machinery.
8FERROUS METALSAlloy steels include many other elements that make steel harder, tougher, and stronger. Types are: Chromium, Manganese, Nickel, Tungsten and Vanadium.CHROMIUMTUNGSTENVANADIUM
9FERROUS METALSTool steels are tough steels used to make tools that hold a cutting edge. Used for drill bits, milling cutters, punches and dies.
10FERROUS METALSTungsten carbide is the hardest human-made metal. Used to make cutting tools, these tools are more expensive but have a much faster cutting speed.
11FERROUS METALSStainless steels come in hundreds of different types. The one characteristic that every type has in common is the amount of chromium. They all have enough chromium to make the metal very resistant to corrosion.
12NONFERROUS METALSMetals that do not have iron as their basic ingredient.Contain combinations of properties that make them ideal for tasks not suitable for ferrous metals.
14NONFERROUS METALSAluminum has many alloys, but when it is first produced it is very soft and not very strong. It can be strengthened to be stronger than structural steel. This is done by adding alloying elements or heat treatment.
15NONFERROUS METALSMagnesium is the lightest of structural metals. Usually used as an alloying agent, magnesium chips are very dangerous due to high flammability. Burning chips cannot be extinguished by a regular extinguisher, only special class D extinguishers will work because they are specifically designed for flammable metal fires.
16NONFERROUS METALSTitanium is one of the strongest metals in use today. Most titanium alloys are capable of continuous operation at about 800 degrees F. It is half as heavy as other metals with the same strength. Used widely in airplanes.
17NONFERROUS METALSCopper is a base metal used as an alloying element in a variety of products. It is an excellent conductor of electricity and can be shaped easily. Copper is used for many things because of its easy-to-work qualities.
18NONFERROUS METALSBRASS IS SIMPLY AN ALLOY OF COPPER AND ZINC. THE WORKING CHARACTERISTICS ARE ALMOST IDENTICAL TO THOSE OF COPPER.BRONZE IS ALSO A COPPER ALLOY, SIMILAR TO BRASS IN TERMS OF APPLICATION, BUT MORE EXPENSIVE AND HARDER.
19NONFERROUS METALSZINC is a base metal used in applications that require strong resistance to corrosion. It is mostly used as a protective coating for steel and iron. This coating process is called galvanizing.
20NONFERROUS METALSTIN is a soft, shiny metal rarely used except as an alloying agent. When alloyed with copper, tin forms bronze. In our class we will be using sheets of tin in one of our projects. It is also used as the chief ingredient of pewter.