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York Information Management and Systems Process Mapping Workshop.

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Presentation on theme: "York Information Management and Systems Process Mapping Workshop."— Presentation transcript:


2 York Information Management and Systems Process Mapping Workshop

3 Agenda 2.00Introduction Why are you here? What is a business process? Why adopt a process view? Methodology Mapping Tools 2.45Break 3.00Group exercise 3.45 Feedback 4.15Summary 4.30Finish

4 What is a business process? “The unique way in which an organisation co-ordinates and organises its work activities, information and knowledge to produce a valuable product or service” (Laudon and Laudon, 1998)

5 Manage processesSupport processes Primary processes What is a business process? Add Provide infrastructure and other support Co-ordinate and control Recruit students Teach students Assess students Graduate students Personnel Finance IT Payroll Set direction Make strategy

6 Primary Processes Undergraduate Education Research Applied Research & Consultancy Postgraduate Education - Research Postgraduate Education - Taught Develop Proposal Get Funding Carry Out Research Disseminate Findings Report to Sponsor Develop Courses Get Students Teach Students Assess Students Graduate Develop Courses Get Students Teach Students Assess Students Graduate Get Student Develop Proposal Supervise Research Assess Get Order Fulfil Order Support Get Funding

7 Traditional functional view of an organisation SALES AND MARKETING PLANNINGPRODUCTION FINANCE OTHER

8 Recording exam results MARKER SECRETARY REGISTRY DEPARTMENT EXAM BOARD DEGREE CERTIFICATE SIGNATORY leaves room for error encourages duplication encourages waste

9 The process view... ACADEMIC DEPARTMENT PLANNINGPERSONNELFINANCE ? OTHER.... provides a complete uninterrupted view of how things are actually done.

10 Why Adopt A Process View? it encourages a customer focus it allows flexibility needed to meet changing environment it makes duplication and waste more visible it encourages innovation and creativity it facilitates cost reduction it facilitates team ownership it helps address quality issues

11 Process review in other Universities Aberdeen Abertay Aston Cranfield Glasgow Glasgow-Caledonian Herriot-Watt Hull Keele Leeds Leicester Liverpool John Moores London Guildhall Loughborough Napier Newcastle-upon-Tyne Northumbria at Newcastle Nottingham Trent The Open University Queens University of Belfast Sheffield Hallam Surrey Thames Valley Ulster UWE Staffordshire De MontfordBath Essex

12 Drivers for Change Financial pressures Growth Desire for transparency and quality of information Concern over increasing administration costs Information systems review and implementation of new systems

13 Success Factors Readiness for Change Change Agent Ownership Support from Senior Management Communication Team’s ability to listen Non-threatening approach

14 Problems/Barriers Structures set in stone Lack of leadership and drive Politics Bureaucracy People defend their own interests Lack of performance measures “Just another initiative” syndrome

15 BPR in UK Universities Methodology (Dr J MacBryde, Strathclyde University) Phase 1:Planning & Preparation Phase 2:Understand Existing Processes Phase 3:Redesign Phase 4:Plan Implementation Phase 5:Implementation Phase 6:Continuous Process Improvement & Measurement

16 Phase 1: Planning & Preparation identify opportunity/need for review develop and sell business case communicate build and train the team produce a detailed plan including responsibilities

17 Phase 2: Understand Existing Processes Identify customer/stakeholder requirements model processes identify value adding activities

18 Phase 3: Redesign identify duplication and waste simplify processes identify where technology can be used gain consensus and support identify training requirements define new working procedures specify job changes and team roles

19 Phase 4: Plan Implementation design change management programme plan implementation

20 Phase 5: Implementation train staff pilot redesigned processes and seek feedback full scale implementation

21 Phase 6 : Continuous Process Improvement and Measurement measure improvements and communicate benefits set up periodic reviews to ensure processes are still effective encourage continuous analytical thinking “why am I doing this? Do I need to? Is there a better way to do this?”

22 Why map current processes? it shows exactly where existing processes fall down it gives you a benchmark which allows you to measure improvements and savings made following redesign

23 Requirements for a mapping tool easy to learn guidelines to ensure everyone uses a common language show why an activity is carried out show who does the activity highlight bottlenecks and waste

24 What are you looking for? what are the key steps/activities/tasks that are performed? how long does the whole process take ? how long does each task take ? what are the delays, waiting times etc.. where do bottlenecks build up question whether each step is necessary

25 How do we map processes? Structured Systems Analysis & Design Method (SSADM) Soft systems methods IDEF diagrams Flow charts Role activity diagrams

26 IDEF Diagram

27 Flowchart

28 Flow Chart The starting point of a process is depicted by a circle Each processing step is indicated by a rectangle the process ends with an oval a decision point is shown by a diamond a parallelogram contains useful information but is not a processing step arrows show flow (material or information)

29 Flow Chart good because it has a common language good because it’s quite simple an established method used in work study and quality programmes drawback is that it doesn’t show why an activity takes place doesn’t explicitly show who carried out each activity

30 Role Activity Diagram (RAD)

31 Similar to a flow chart, but it also shows: how activities are divided amongst roles interactions between individual roles how many roles are involved

32 Role Activity Diagram (RAD) In a workshop setting: Easy to produce using Post-Its Don’t worry about circles, diamonds etc Don’t be afraid to get it wrong - easy to move things around Don’t write on anything else!

33 Process improvement we look for waste: – waiting – transport (e.g. internal mail) – inappropriate processing – unnecessary transport – duplication – correction of mistakes – unnecessary controls

34 Process improvement number of staff involved in steps in the process time spent by staff on steps in the process delay time associated with each step quality measurements such as error rates, customer complaints etc. why errors or quality problems arise what are the value adding steps in the eyes of the customer where (location) is each step performed the number of controls and approvals required - and reasons why these are needed any seasonal or cyclical changes to the volume of transactions

35 Some problems with mapping teams can get bogged down in existing (“as is”) processes which in turn encourages the team to stick with what they know and only look for incremental improvements rather than radical change

36 Example Role Activity Diagrams Recruitment Course Transfers Tuition fees Accommodation applications

37 Exercise Mapping York’s Processes STEP 1 Role Activity Diagram for what happens now STEP 2 Look for improvements


39 Summary Did you find it easy or difficult? Were the start & end of the process clear? Did mapping the process help in identifying improvements? Next steps?

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