Presentation on theme: "Social Impact of IR Friday March 30 th 2012 Vocab: 1.Urbanization 2.Middle Class 3.Tenements 4.Luddites Guiding Questions 1.What were working conditions."— Presentation transcript:
Social Impact of IR Friday March 30 th 2012 Vocab: 1.Urbanization 2.Middle Class 3.Tenements 4.Luddites Guiding Questions 1.What were working conditions like? 2.What was life like for children?
Urbanization The IR brought rapid urbanization—the movement of people to cities Literally small towns became sprawling cities Manchester England had 17,000 people in 1750 and in 1780 40,000 and in 1801 70,0000
New Social Classes The IR created a middle class and a working class Middle class owned and operated the new factories, mines, and railroads More comfortable than the working class Lived in well furnished, big homes on paved streets Took pride in their work, little sympathy for the poor Working class worked in mines or factories Very difficult life, awful working conditions Lived in Tenements—multistory building divided into apts No sewage or sanitation systems
Working Conditions Labor unions were illegal at the time, but some secret unions existed Tried to reform the workplace, but had no power First industrial riots occurred in England from 1811 to 1813 Textile workers, known as the Luddites, resisted the labor-saving machines that were taking their jobs and would smash the machines in secret at night. Workers faced horrible working conditions Shifts were from 12 to 16 hours long, 6 or 7 days a week Lost lots of limbs to accidents with machines Most factory workers were women because they could pay them less
Miners and Children Miners were paid more but the working conditions were far worse than factories, Had to work in the dark, and dust destroyed their lungs Dangers of explosions, flooding and collapsing tunnels Children were valuable workers in both the mines and factories Most started working at 7 Small fingers were easier for machines Small bodies could crawl under the machines Many were forced to work in the mines Child labor laws were passed in the early 1800’s to remove children under 8 but were not enforced