Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Section 3 Hardships of Early Industrial Life"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 7 Section 3 Hardships of Early Industrial Life
2 Lesson ObjectivesCompare and contrast the industrial working class and the new middle classUnderstand how the factory system and mines changed the way people worked.Analyze the benefits and challenges of industrialization.
3 Life in the new industrial city Industrial Rev. brought rapid urbanization (movement of people to cities)Movement of farmers to the citySoaring population growthIncreasing demands for workers in factoriesSmall towns grew around iron & coal mines
4 Manchester, England Manchester, England 17,000 people in 1750
5 TenementsTenements (multistory buildings divided into crowded apartments)No running waterNo sewage or sanitation systemsWaste & garbageDiseases like cholera spread like crazyWealthy & middle class lived in pleasant neighborhoods
6 Factory System Factory system changed the way people lived The factory was the heart of the industrial cityRigid discipline, unvaried, monotonous workStrict schedule of long hours, hours a dayExhausted workers suffered accidents - loss of limbs, even livesCoal miners - lungs destroyedTextile workers – breathed in lintWorkers got sick or injured, often lost jobs
7 Women Workers Women workers Preferred by employers Adapted more easily to machinesMore easily managedAble to pay less for same workAway from home 12+ hoursReturn to tenements – feed, clean for & clothe families
8 Child LaborParents let their children work because families needed the moneyTextile millsSmall fingers changed spoolsCrawl under machines to fix partsChildren worked in coal minesPushed cartsClimbed into narrow spaces to chip minerals off mine wallsParliament slowly passed laws to regulate child labor
9 Working Class Developed sense of community Forbidden to: Organize groupsBargain for better pay or working conditionsStrikeProtestors were repressed or crushed
10 Luddites Protests led by the mythical Ned Ludd Resisted “labor-saving” machines, were costing their jobsSmashed machines, burnt factories
11 MethodismSpread of Methodism – religious movement founded by John WesleyPromised forgiveness of sin, better life to come & gave workers some comfortStudied the Bible, learned to read & writeTurned workers away from revolution & toward reform
12 New Middle Class Benefited the most from Industrial Revolution Were entrepreneurs (business owners) who began Industrial RevolutionFelt poor factory workers were responsible for their own poverty & miseryCame from several sourcesRose from rags to richesMerchants – invested growing profits in factoriesInventors – created new technologies
13 Middle Class Women“Ladylike” activities – drawing, embroidery, playing pianoDid not work outside the home or do their own housework
14 Reformers Reformers pressed for laws to improve working conditions Labor unions (worker’s organizations) won right to bargain with employers for better wages, hours, & working conditionsWorking class men gained right to vote & political powerMaterial benefitsDemand for mass-produced goods > new factories > more jobsWages rose > extra $$ for reading material & entertainmentCost of rail travel fell > people able to travel
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