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Chapter 7 Section 3 Hardships of Early Industrial Life.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Section 3 Hardships of Early Industrial Life."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 7 Section 3 Hardships of Early Industrial Life

2 Lesson Objectives Compare and contrast the industrial working class and the new middle class Understand how the factory system and mines changed the way people worked. Analyze the benefits and challenges of industrialization.

3 Life in the new industrial city Industrial Rev. brought rapid urbanization (movement of people to cities) – Movement of farmers to the city – Soaring population growth – Increasing demands for workers in factories – Small towns grew around iron & coal mines

4 Manchester, England – 17,000 people in 1750 – 40,000 people in 1780 – 70,000 people in 1801

5 Tenements Tenements (multistory buildings divided into crowded apartments) – No running water – No sewage or sanitation systems – Waste & garbage – Diseases like cholera spread like crazy Wealthy & middle class lived in pleasant neighborhoods

6 Factory System Factory system changed the way people lived – The factory was the heart of the industrial city – Rigid discipline, unvaried, monotonous work – Strict schedule of long hours, hours a day – Exhausted workers suffered accidents - loss of limbs, even lives Coal miners - lungs destroyed Textile workers – breathed in lint Workers got sick or injured, often lost jobs

7 Women Workers Women workers – Preferred by employers – Adapted more easily to machines – More easily managed – Able to pay less for same work – Away from home 12+ hours Return to tenements – feed, clean for & clothe families

8 Child Labor Parents let their children work because families needed the money – Textile mills – Small fingers changed spools – Crawl under machines to fix parts Children worked in coal mines – Pushed carts – Climbed into narrow spaces to chip minerals off mine walls Parliament slowly passed laws to regulate child labor

9 Working Class Developed sense of community Forbidden to: – Organize groups – Bargain for better pay or working conditions – Strike – Protestors were repressed or crushed

10 Luddites Protests led by the mythical Ned Ludd – Resisted “labor-saving” machines, were costing their jobs – Smashed machines, burnt factories

11 Methodism Spread of Methodism – religious movement founded by John Wesley – Promised forgiveness of sin, better life to come & gave workers some comfort – Studied the Bible, learned to read & write – Turned workers away from revolution & toward reform

12 New Middle Class Benefited the most from Industrial Revolution – Were entrepreneurs (business owners) who began Industrial Revolution – Felt poor factory workers were responsible for their own poverty & misery Came from several sources – Rose from rags to riches – Merchants – invested growing profits in factories – Inventors – created new technologies

13 Middle Class Women “Ladylike” activities – drawing, embroidery, playing piano Did not work outside the home or do their own housework

14 Reformers Reformers pressed for laws to improve working conditions – Labor unions (worker’s organizations) won right to bargain with employers for better wages, hours, & working conditions – Working class men gained right to vote & political power Material benefits – Demand for mass-produced goods > new factories > more jobs – Wages rose > extra $$ for reading material & entertainment – Cost of rail travel fell > people able to travel


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