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The Global Context Lecture 1 Unit Introduction and The International Business Environment.

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1 The Global Context Lecture 1 Unit Introduction and The International Business Environment

2 ESSENTIAL READING The International Business Environment (2009) Hamilton, L & Webster, P. ISBN: Sage Publications £31-99

3 Unit Assessment 70% Examination – 1.5 hrs – Closed Book – Answer 2 questions from 3 – Essay type 30% Presentation – Student Led Seminar – Full details in Unit Document – Organised during first seminar

4 UNIT OBJECTIVES Discuss the reasons for organizations choosing to expand outside their borders. Examine how various aspects of the International Business Environment impinge upon organizational life.

5 Use appropriate theory to appreciate how culture affects organizational activity. Discuss the ways in which a country’s political and legal systems affect organizational life. UNIT OBJECTIVES

6 Consider the ways in which technology impinges upon the choices made by organizations as they operate internationally. Understand how the global economy impinges upon operations of organizations operating across borders. UNIT OBJECTIVES

7 Appreciate the role of Corporate Social Responsibility in the 21 st century international business Consider global trends and future challenges faced by international business. UNIT OBJECTIVES

8 Appreciate the role of International Business in causing, preventing and rectifying environmental and ecological problems

9 INTRODUCTION “The starting point for understanding the world today is not the size of its GDP or the destructive power of its weapons systems, but the fact that it is so much more joined together than before. It may look like it is made up of separate and sovereign individuals, firms, nations or cities, but the deeper reality is one of multiple connections.” (Mulgan, 1998, p3)

10 GLOBALIZATION - Defined 5 Broad Definitions (Scholte, 2000) Globalization as Internationalization Globalization as Liberalization Globalization as Universalization Globalization as Westernization or Modernization Globalization as Deterritorialization

11 Globalization as Internationalization Simply another adjective to describe cross- border relations between countries. Describes the growth in international exchange and interdependence

12 Globalization as Liberalization A process of removing government imposed restrictions on movements between countries in order to create an ‘open’, ‘borderless’ world economy

13 Globalization as Universalization The process of spreading various products and/or services to people across all corners of the world

14 Globalization as Westernization or Modernization Understood as a dynamic, whereby the social structures of modernity (capitalism, rationalism, industrialism, bureaucratism etc) are spread the world over, normally destroying pre-existent cultures and local self-determination in the process. Sometimes called ‘Americanization’!

15 Globalization as Deterriorialization The intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa

16 Globalization Defined? Held et al (1999,p16) define globalisation as: ‘the widening, deepening and speeding up of worldwide interconnectedness in all aspects of contemporary social life, from the cultural to the criminal, the financial to the spiritual.“ Thus, they see globalisation as pervading all areas of society.

17 Domestic? International? Export? Global? Multi-national? Multi-domestic? So What’s in a Term? Born Global?

18  Think back over everything you have done today.  Make a quick list of what you did.  Note how people, goods and services from other countries affected your actions.  What does this tell you ? The Importance of International Business ?

19 International Business is important to us all, whether we are simply ‘consumers’ of its output or workers within it. The Importance of International Business ?

20 A Model of International Business

21 Issues Impinging on International Business  Trade & International Competitiveness  Cultural Change  Technological Transformation  Political Flux  Population Dynamics  Resource Demands  Changing Work Roles  The Role of the Nation State

22 Global Integration

23 References Held, D., McGrew, A., Goldblatt, D. & Parraton, J. (1999) Global Transformations – politics, economies and culture Cambridge, Polity Press Mulgan, G. (1998) Connexity: Responsibility, freedom, business and power in the new century (revised edition) London, Viking Scholte, J.A. (2000) Globalization. A Critical Introduction London, Palgrave


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