Presentation on theme: "Introduction to International Relations 4 th Week Presentation Linda Pratiwi Darmadi/I36015."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction to International Relations 4 th Week Presentation Linda Pratiwi Darmadi/I36015
TOPIC: MAJOR ACTORS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS/ THE EVOLUTION OF INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM AND SOCIETY
“A society of states (or international society) exists when a group of states, conscious of certain common interests and common values, forms a society in the sense that they conceive them-selves to be bound by a common set of rules in their relations with one another, and share in the working of common institutions. (Bull 1977:13) What is International Society?
The key principals are 1. States’ sovereignty 2. Non-intervention 3. Rules of international law
What is The Westphalian Sovereignty? The Peace of Westphalian is made in Osnabrück and Münster (1648). Leading in the contemporary international system. The agreement was made.
What is The Westphalian Sovereignty? Three institutional which are the balance of power, diplomacy, and international law. The context is each state that being acknowledged by international society has their own sovereignty in their territory without intervention from external.
What is Globalization? “The intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa.” (Giddens 1990:21)
How has globalization eroded sovereign statehood? In which way globalization has affected the Westphalian international system- the one based on states’ sovereignty. Why does the state persist in the contemporary era of globalization?
The Globalization generate various challenges such as: New forms of community, failing states, American hyper-power, growing resistance to Western ideas, global poverty and environmental issues.
Tony Blair in 1999 said that Westphalian approach become anachronistic (chronologically misplaced) because effect of globalization. Based on David Armstrong, some issues that might be affected the International Society could be seen from:
1.The Global Financial Markets limit the states’ freedom to control their own economic policies. Another perspective of globalization: Gnerate new cosmopolitan culture which is make the key of norm focus on individuals’ right rather the states.
2.New forms of community were created, especially non-governmental organization (i.e Amnesty or Greenpeace).
3.After cold-war failed states were increasing in numbers. The failed states unable to perform their function in international stages. There is internal problem rather than within international society. Implementation of sovereign equality is not only up to participate as an equal on international stage. In that moment, turn the skepticism of principle of international society.
4.‘The uni-polar moment’ (the center of world power is unchallenged superpower) was exist, for instance condition after 9/11 the Hyper- power state which is USA with its unchallenged military power showed their ability to defend. At the same time, for Iraq and Afghanistan appeared with limitation military power to aim the complex political objective.
5.Different interpretations and tendency in developing states to see the ideas of human rights, norm and democracy that made by Western as part of hypocritical Western strategy for imperialism. In this case, developing country might have perspective that their states’ sovereignty not equally fair in international society.
6.The condition of environment and severe poverty especially in undeveloped or developing states need involvement from richer states to face the problem together.
Criticism from several people related the principle of Sovereignty: “Sovereignty was never more than a legal fiction - or an ‘organized hypocrisy’ – that disguised the extent to which powerful states were able to pursue their own interests without hindrance”. (Stephen Krasner,1999)
Is globalization really eroded the sovereign state?
A lot of issues occurred in Globalization. It is not the globalization that necessarily eroded the sovereign state, but the state sovereignty itself transforming to aim the ideal sovereign statehood in the era of dynamic globalization. That is why the post-Westphalian order was appeared.
How the sovereignty is transformed?
The sovereignty of states is aimed become legal claim to supreme power rather than become bargaining tools for rule-making with other actors. The Westphalian sovereignty is public power as the new sovereignty regime As a shared privilege of public.
Globalization give more benefits for people rather than the negative things. Globalization is not to bury the Westphalian sovereignty. States could be still remain in era of globalization because they likely remain firmly based on sovereignty principle.
References: Al-Rodhan, R.F. Nayef and Gérard Stoudmann. (2006) Definitions of Globalization: A Comprehensive Overview and a Proposed Definition. Armstrong, David. “The Evolution of International Society” Scott, Len. “International History 1900 – 1990” Cox, Michael, “From the Cold War to The World Economic Crisis” John Baylis, Steve Smith, Patricia Owen. “THE GLOBALIZATION OF WORLD POLITICS an introduction to international relations Fifth edition”, Oxford University Press, 2011.