2Common MarketCommon Market = CU + integration of factor markets (capital and labor)Basic Concern: Additional benefits that can be derived by going beyond a CUTrade and factor mobility are sometimes substitutes for each other. In such a case allowing free factor mobility will reduce the trade creation/diversion effects of integration.
3Common MarketAssume that foreign investment has occurred in H, from outside the area prior to the formation of the CU, but that no capital movement among countries occurs as a result of integration.Then, the gains to H from the CU may be greater or smaller depending on whether foreign capital is invested in H’s import-competing industries or in its export industries.
4Common MarketIf the high cost firm in H is foreign-owned and following the formation of the CU, production is transferred to a locally-owned company in P, the fall in production in H will be a loss to the foreign company, not to domestic producersforeign profit diversionGain from the formation of the CU will be greater than in the basic case
5Common MarketIf H is an exporter of a product, and assume that foreign capital is invested in the export industry. After formation of the CU, the demand for the firm’s product will increaseforeign profit creationA national loss for the CU
6Reasons for the establishment of multinationals Three possible strategies open to firms:Produce at home and exportProduce at home and sell licenses to allow the production of the good abroad by other companiesEstablish subsidiaries and produce abroad
7Reasons for the establishment of multinationals The choice among these strategies depends on the balance among three types of advantages:Ownership-specific advantages: Anything which gives the firm a quasi-monopolistic position in foreign markets; a patent, technical know-how, marketing knowledge, economies of scaleInternalization advantages: Gains from making use with the firm of the ownership-specific advantages. Firms will internalize these advantages if they believe that they can make more profit from doing so than from selling the knowledge, patents etc. to other firms.Locational advantages in the target market: The benefits from producing in a foreign market including savings on tariffs and transport costs and lower prices for some factors of production.
8Reasons for the establishment of multinationals A firm with only ownership-specific advantages will sell licenses to produce abroad.A firm with both ownership-specific and internalization advantages is likely to produce at home and export.The additional possession of locational advantages may well cause firms to produce abroad.
9The direction of FDIReorganization of investment: Multinational enterprises already located within the new CU will have an incentive to reorganize their existing investments to take advantage of trade creation effects, leading to a concentration of their activities in fewer locations.Defensive import-substituting investment: Multinational companies not located within the new CU but exporting to it and thus facing losses through trade diversion or trade suppression will be tempted to invest directly within the CU to avoid the CET.
10The direction of FDIRationalized investment: Multinational companies not located within the new CU will invest directly within it, in order to avoid loss of markets as a result of the reduced costs of the domestic firms within the CU .Offensive import-substituting investment: Multinational corporations not previously exporting to the new customs union investing in order to take over new markets following on the market integration and the possible increased rate of economic growth within the CU.
11Common Market: EU Experience Freedom of capital was a necessary condition for the achievement of totally integrated markets for all goods and services and also for promoting the free movement of labor across borders.It was a powerful incentive for governments to adopt macroeconomic policies conducive to price and exchange rate stability.Opening up the capital market would widen the freedom of choice for European investors and contribute to a more-efficient allocation of savings.
12Common Market: EU Experience Mobility of CapitalTreaty of Rome (1957): Article 67Extensive liberalization took place in 1960s with direct investments, commercial credits and the acquisition of securities on the foreign stock exchanges being liberalized.1979: UK removed all capital controls, in the following years Germany, Netherlands etc. followed.The Single European Act (1986) set the end of 1992 as the date for removal of all controls.
13Common Market: EU Experience Mobility of LaborTreaty of Rome (1957):Objective of full mobility of laborSupplemented by rules which provide for migrants from within the EU to have the same social rights as the citizen of the host country.Labor mobility is slow ???