Presentation on theme: "1 Social Development in Middle Adolescence Attachment Perspectives Preattachment Attraction and flirting Attachment in-the-Making Falling in love Clear-Cut."— Presentation transcript:
1 Social Development in Middle Adolescence Attachment Perspectives Preattachment Attraction and flirting Attachment in-the-Making Falling in love Clear-Cut Attachment Loving relationship Goal-Corrected Partnership Postromance phase (Life as usual)
2 Social Development in Middle Adolescence Categories of Attachment (Ainsworth, Bell & Stayton, 1971) Anxious-Avoidant Explores readily; little visible distress when left alone; looks away and actively avoids parents upon reunion Secure Uses mother as secure base for exploration; shows signs of missing parent during separations; greets parent positively upon reunion Anxious-Resistant Visibly distressed upon entering playroom; fails to explore; is distressed during separation; shows angry rejection or ambivalence upon reunion Disorganized Does not show a clear-cut attachment strategy; appears confused, disoriented
3 Social Development in Middle Adolescence Family Systems Perspectives Family systems approach the unit of analysis as the family not the individual. General Principals Levels / Families composed of different subsystems (Marital system, parent-child system, sibling system) Boundaries / More or less open to exchanges with surroundings (Walls of house physical boundaries, Internet or cell phones can extend teens relationships) Equilibrium / Families strive to balance relationships (Children who do not want to share controversial info. because it will upset parents)
4 Social Development in Middle Adolescence Gender and Sexuality in Middle Adolescence Components of Gender Identity Membership Knowledge / Knowledge of membership in a gender category (I am a girl) Gender Typicality / The degree to which one feels like a typical member or a category (Im just like the other girls) Gender Contentedness / How happy one is with ones gender (I like being a girl) Pressure for Gender Conformity / Degree to which one feels pressure from parents, peers and oneself to conform to gender stereotypes (I ought to act like a girl) Intergroup Bias / Extent to which one believes ones sex is better than the other (Girls are better than boys)
5 Social Development in Middle Adolescence Stages of Gender-role Identity Stage 1 / 0-2 years / Undifferentiated Gender Role / Child unaware of gender Stage 2 / 2-7 years / Hyper-Gender-Role Differentiation / Gender very important, children actively seek to learn roles Stage 3 / 7-11 years / Gender-Role Differentiation / Cognitive moral thought and growing awareness of social roles Stage 4 / 12-16 years / Transition Phase 1 / Sociocultural forces may produce confusion between gender identity and gender role identity Stage 4 / 12-16 years / Transition Phase 2 / If sociocultural forces provide necessary stimuli, they may transcend gender-role identity as one element of resolution Stage 5 / 16-22 years / Identity and Gender-Role Transcendence / Crises of Stage 4 have been resolved into an integration of masculinity and femininity that transcends gender roles
6 Social Development in Middle Adolescence Middle Adolescent Friendships Closeness with best friends peaks in middle adolescence Closeness defined as emotional cohesion and the degree of mutual impact between friends Closeness measured by: 1.Frequency of social interactions 2.Diversity of social interactions 3.Influence of social interactions Intimacy more important to girls than boys
7 Social Development in Middle Adolescence Four Stages of Dating 1.Affiliative Interchanges / Interactions with opposite-sex peers, often in the context of a crowd 2.Casual Dating / Short-term relationships that may include closeness and/or sexual experimentation 3.Stable Relationships / Exclusive, longer-term relationships with one person 4.Committed Relationships / Long-term relationship that is expected to result in a permanent commitment or marriage
8 Social Development in Middle Adolescence Sexual Disclosure Refers to Coming out as a gay person to your friends or family Adolescents not out to themselves Average age for self-disclosure is just prior to high-school graduation Adolescents not out to others Average age of disclosure to others, usually best friend, just after high-school Adolescents unlikely or unwilling to classify self as gay Adolescents, particularly females may not feel they fir the label Same sex behavior not the best criterion for identification Same sex behavior may or may not indicate sexual preference
9 Social Development in Middle Adolescence Teen Advantages of Having Boy or Girlfriend Companionship / You have someone to go out with, study together … Intimacy / To share my personal stuff with Attachment / I feel that somebody, who is not family, really loves me. Care / Somebody who spoils you and you spoil her. Sex / You can kiss him and do things you cans with a friend. Excitement / It is just great to think that you are involved and to wait for the next time you meet.
10 Social Development in Middle Adolescence Family Relationships Parenting Styles Vary from authoritarian to permissive Parent-Adolescent Conflict Teens may not be stressed out by everyday family struggles, but parents are Sibling Interaction Interactions between older and younger siblings are usually hierarchical based
11 Social Development in Middle Adolescence Sibling Interaction (Continued) Harmonious Compassionate or caring sibling relationships Typical Characterized by ambivalence among siblings Conflicted Relationships that are hostile and/or alienated
12 Social Development in Middle Adolescence Family Contexts Parents support or hostility during middle childhood promoted teenagers supportive or hostile behavior toward a close friend. School Contexts Educational settings can contribute positively to the way both heterosexual and gay, lesbian, bisexual or transgender youth interact when formal school policies define sexual harassment to include sexual orientation (DAugelli, 1996) Community Contexts Parenting practices are given meaning by the culture
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