Modern Europe During the 1800s, two powerful forces came together that deeply influence our world today: The growth of the Nation-State (political) Industrial Revolution (socio-economic)
Modern Europe Together these forces generated new loyalties, new wealth, and a new spirit of optimism & self- confidence. They also created a dependence on exploiting workers and other countries (imperialism). Patriotism deteriorated into intense national rivalry that finally exploded in a bloody conflict of global proportions: World War I (The Great War)
Napoleon and Pitt carving up the world “The Plum Pudding in Danger”
Nationalism in the 1800s A Nation-State is an entirely European invention. A nation is a community of people with a distinctive culture, and usually its own territory & language. A nation-state is a government that takes in one nation and one nation only.
The Congress of Vienna 1815 In 1815, a group of monarchs, aristocrats, & diplomats met in Vienna. For ten months, delegates to the Congress of Vienna worked at restoring the old order as it had existed before the French Revolution.
Conservative Backlash in Vienna This helped keep Europe at peace for almost 100 years. A return to the old order, however, led to new upheavals and revolutions by internal forces. These included Italy and Germany, which until this time had remained divided into numerous small states.
Three Clashing Ideologies Conservatives -usually wealthy property owners and nobility – they argued for protecting the traditional monarchies of Europe. Liberals -mostly middle class business leaders and merchants – they wanted to give more power to the parliaments, but they only wanted the educated landowners to be able to vote. Radicals -favored drastic change to extend democracy to the people as a whole; they believed in the ideals of the French Revolution.
“I believe that right now we are sleeping on a volcano", warned a French politician, "can you not sense... that the earth is trembling....? Can you not feel... the wind of revolution in the air?”
Why so many revolutions in 1840s? Growing strength of nationalism Long series of economic downturns and bad harvests – caused decade of the hungry forties- ex. Irish Potato Famine Popular impatience with reactionary rule and the limits on freedoms placed on non- landowning public.
Effects of the Revolts Prussia and Austria granted constitutions and ended feudalism Russia freed the serfs Strong class division remained in many countries like France and the German States Laid the foundation for the unification of Germany and Italy Demonstrated the growing political importance of nationalism Inspired Karl Marx to write “ The Communist Manifesto ” Hammered home the lesson of the French Revolution: that the political, social, and economic demands of ordinary people must be taken seriously 1848 was a watershed year for Europe, and many of the changes of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries have origins in this revolutionary period.