Presentation on theme: "Full Cost Accounting of Food Wastage State-of-art after the E-Forum"— Presentation transcript:
1Full Cost Accounting of Food Wastage State-of-art after the E-Forum
2Full Cost Accounting of Food Wastage Why bother?After coal power generation, agriculture has globally the highest impact sector on the environment when measured in monetary termsThe economic loss incurred by food wastage has not triggered the necessary investments in reduction measures, despite decades of FAO assistance to countries on post-harvest losses; at the retail and consumer levels, it is economically “profitable” to waste foodFCA seeks to lower the “profitability” of unsustainable production and consumption practices by monetizing unpriced natural resources’ inputs to food productionSocial costs are used to assess the contribution of ecosystems to human wellbeing and inform strategic decision-making
3Food Wastage Footprint Environmental ImpactsEnvironmental impact of 1.3 Gtonnes of food wastage/ yearCarbonLandBiodiv.WaterCO23.7 Gt CO2eq/year=3rd largest emitter if food wastage was a country250 km3/year3 times lake Geneva1.5 billion ha used to grow food that is wasted30% of agricultural land66% of endangered/vulnerable species threatened by food production
4Food Wastage Footprint Economic ImpactEconomic quantification of 1.3 Gtonnes of food wastage$If using producer pricesIf using trading prices<<USD 920 billion / yearUSD 750 billion / yearInferior to South Korea GDPSuperior to Saudi Arabia GDPThis cost is much higher numbers when socio-environmental costs monetizedFull Cost Accounting of Food Wastage
5Food Wastage Footprint FCA FrameworkFood wastage duringReduced food availability => Food security concernsIncreased waste management challenges => Landfill concernsProductionPost-harvestProcessingDistributionConsumptionIncreased pressure on land for production => Planetary boundaries concernsLoss of productivityDirect and indirect impactsEnvironmental impactsSocio-economic impactsIncreased food pricesIncreased public costsIncreased pesticide and nitrate exposureReduced access to ecosystem services (regulating, provisioning and supporting)Increased labour demandIncreased safety and displacement risksReduced vulnerabilityPillars of sustainable livelihoodsIncomeHealth and wellbeingFood securitySustainable use of the natural resource baseDirect impactsScarcityAirpollutionClimate changeEnergyLand occupationLand degradationP-resourcesWater useWater pollutionLandBiodiversity lossEcosystem servicesWaterDeforestationLoss of wild landscapes(grasslands, wetlands)
6Full Cost Accounting of Food wastage Carbon AccountingSelected Carbon valuation methodologiesMarginal abatement costMarket price of CarbonCost of reducing emissionsefficient mostly if > USD 20/tValue of traded carbon emissionsdepends on volatile marketsvalues are currently lowUSD 5/t (was 45/t few years ago)CO2Social cost of CarbonCarbon taxes and finesValue defined by governments & intergovernmental organizationsvalues have a wide range and reflect political reality (EU/ETS is Euro 100), not damage costsFull cost of a tonne of carbon (or equivalent GHG), emitted today, over the course of its lifetime in the atmosphere.includes external costs + society willingness to pay to avoid future damageswide range of variation (USD 8-85/tonne) depending on coverage and key parameters choice, such as discount rate, time-horizon, risk aversion and climate sensitivity.Cf notes from Soren apart for the carbon taxes and fines
7Full Cost Accounting of Food wastage Carbon AccountingThe Social Cost of Carbon frameworkUncertainty in ValuationUncertainty in Predicting Climate ChangeMarketNon-Market(Socially Contingent)Projection (e.g. sea level Rise)Coastal protectionHeat stressRegional costsLoss of drylandLoss of wetlandInvestmentEnergy (heating/cooling)Bounded Risks (e.g. droughts, floods, storms)AgricultureEcosystem changeComparative advantage & market structuresWaterBiodiversityVariabilityLoss of lifeSecondary social effectsSystem change& surprises (e.g. major events)Above, plusHigher order social effectsRegional collapseSignificant loss of land and resourcesNon-marginal effectsIrreversible lossesStudies proposed:Waldhoff et al. (2011)Stern (2007)The Social Cost of Carbon Risk Matrix adapted from Watkiss (2008) illustrating the gradient of difficulty (from green to red) in taking different climate effects categories into consideration
8Full Cost Accounting of Food wastage Carbon AccountingDraft Carbon monetizationFood Wastage GHG Emissions= 3.7 Gt CO2eq/yearUSD 315 billionStern (2007)USD 55 billion(although with a range of billion)Waldhoff et al. (2011)Remark: a wide range of social costs included such as health, insurance for damage, climate refugees, poverty, etc.
9Full Cost Accounting of Food wastage Water Use AccountingFocusing on direct and indirect use of waterTotal Economic ValueUse valueNon-use valueDirect use valueBequestvalueExistenceConsumptivee.g. IrrigationNon-Consumptivee.g. RecreationIndirectuse valueOption valueAltruisticValue as a necessary input for ecosystems and thus, their existence and their services, such as:Biodiversity/species habitatWater purification servicesMitigation of salinization“Water pollution” from agricultural runoff will be accounted for as an external cost of fertilizer and pesticide use. However, water withdrawal beyond natural rate of flow may lead to a reduction in water purification servicesCurrent scope of the FWF study
10Full Cost Accounting of Food wastage Water Use AccountingDraft Water use monetizationDirect use (irrigation water)Food wastage water use= 250 km3/yearUSD 280 billion(using benefit transfer for USD 0.25/m3 in Bangladesh)USD 0.56 billion(using benefit transfer for USD 0.01/m3 in the UK)Realistic estimateUSD billionIndirect use (ecosystem services)Open questionsThe realistic number is based on taking into account which values are the most frequent values. It is less extreme than the other values for the large range. It corresponds to a range of 0.2 cent to 1 Dollar, instead of the extreme range from 0.01 to 5 DollarsAs water for irrigation is not viable if water cost more than USD 1/m3, could 10 cents/m3 be a realistic global estimate for the valuation?There is need to account for water scarcities under direct use value: best method?How to do benefits transfer of ecosystem services?
11Full Cost Accounting of Food wastage Land Use AccountingFocusing on direct and indirect use of landTotal Economic ValueUse valueNon-use valueDirect use valueBequestvalueExistenceProvisioning: Food, fiber and timber productionRegulating: Carbon storageCultural: Tourism, recreational huntingIndirectuse valueOption valueStewardship valueSupporting: Nutrient cycling, micro-climateRegulating & Cultural: Watershed protection, flood attenuation, pollution assimilationRegulating: Area used for waste recyclingCultural: Area that becomes of recreational valueProvisioning: biodiversity possibly useful for humans
12Full Cost Accounting of Food wastage Land Use AccountingDraft land use monetizationLand occupationLand occupation by food wastage= 1.5 billion ha/yearTrucost, 2013 uses land values dependent on provision of ecosystem services > USD 200 billionLand degradationFood wastage degradation potential (using crops degradation potential)USD 130 billionLarge spectrum assessment of costs including damages on site (e.g. yield loss, drop in land value) and off site (e.g. flooding, sedimentation, health)Pimentel, Harvey et al. (1995)USD 10 billionconsidering only financial costs from agriculture to society (i.e. treatment, prevention, administration and monitoring costs)Pretty, Brett et al. (2011)Note: The USD 200 billion is a partial estimate as it only includes the 19 couples agricultural sector/regions with the strongest land degradation as these are only ones showcased in TruCost reportQuestionWhich methodology could be used to best estimate land occupation costs: opportunity cost, rental cost, possible production value, etc.?
13Full Cost Accounting of Food Wastage Biodiversity/Ecosystems AccountingTotal Economic ValueUse valueNon-use valueDirect use valueAltruisticvalueExistenceDirect harvest of wild species for pharmaceutics; pollination services of pollinatorsIndirectuse valueOption valueBequest valueWater purification, climate change mitigation (e.g. soil carbon sequestration in wetlands)Pharmaceutics not yet discoveredExistence of the Great Barrier ReefKnowledge that others can use the Great Barrier Reef (e.g. for tourism)Conserving the Great Barrier Reef for future generationsFocus area for the FWF Project
14Full Cost Accounting of Food Wastage Biodiversity/ Ecosystems AccountingDrivers of biodiversity loss (MEA, 2005) and draft indicatorsHabitat changeLossClimate changeOver-exploitationPollutionInvasive SpeciesFisheries depletionGrassland degradation(cf land use component)Global Warming Potential(cf carbon component)N-eutrophicationP-eutrophicationPollinator loss (linked to pesticides)Deforestation (cf land use component)
15Full Cost Accounting of Food Wastage Biodiversity/ Ecosystems AccountingDraft Biodiversity/Ecosystem Loss MonetizationOverfishing costs for lost/wasted fishUSD 50 billion/ yearNDamages due to N runoff into protected areasUSD 20 billion/ yearLoss of pollinatorsUSD billion/ yearRemark: the quantification of biodiversity impact is too rough, incomplete and difficult to estimate meaningfully
16Full Cost Accounting of Food Wastage Accounting for part of the environmental externalities doubles
17Full Cost Accounting of Food Wastage The way ahead for environmental monetizationReality check for upper estimatesInclusion of water scarcities into costs evaluationImproving the databaseIdentifying the adequate estimate for the social costs of CarbonCarbonLandBiodiv.WaterCO2Alternative land occupation valuationsRefined erosion rates per countryImprovement of current calculationsInclusion of new parameter valuations: P-eutrophication, species’ loss
18Full Cost Accounting of Food wastage ChallengesChallenges ahead for Full-Cost AccountingWhat I mean by Ethics in Social Costs is « how do you ethically value a life? »
19Full Cost Accounting of Food Wastage So what?Monetizing the environmental and social cost of food waste has several limitations but acts as a wake-up call on the magnitude of the problem and future risks (e.g. increased mitigation costs, ecosystem services collapse, natural events)Agriculture does not generate enough revenue to cover its environmental damage: natural capital cost is USD billion when revenue is USD billion – with an impact ratio of 1.5 (Trucost, 2013)Integrating FCA in market prices would unrealistically inflate food prices!Valuation studies identify hotspots requiring consideration in the food supply chain (price volatility from scarcity) in order to:anticipate decreased company profitabilityconsider shadow pricing in sustainable procurementappraise natural resources assets and risks for investmentsevaluate trade-offs and opportunities among sectoral policiesdevelop forward-looking regulation