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USAID-CIFOR-ICRAF Project Assessing the Implications of Climate Change for USAID Forestry Programs (2009) Forests for adaptation Topic 3, Section B.

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Presentation on theme: "USAID-CIFOR-ICRAF Project Assessing the Implications of Climate Change for USAID Forestry Programs (2009) Forests for adaptation Topic 3, Section B."— Presentation transcript:

1 USAID-CIFOR-ICRAF Project Assessing the Implications of Climate Change for USAID Forestry Programs (2009) Forests for adaptation Topic 3, Section B

2 Learning outcomes 2 In this presentation you will learn how ecosystem services contribute to human well-being. You will also learn about the links between ecosystem services and adaptation to climate change, and ways to mainstream forests into adaptation policies. Topic 3, Section B, slide 2 of 32

3 1. Ecosystem services and human well-being 2. Forests for the adaptation of society 3. Mainstreaming forests into adaptation policies Outline Topic 3, Section B, slide 3 of 32

4 1. Ecosystem services and human well-being Ecosystem services are benefits that people obtain from ecosystems. Three types directly contribute to human well- being:  Provisioning services (also called ecosystem goods), such as food and fuel wood  Regulating services, such as regulation of water, climate or erosion  Cultural services, such as recreational, spiritual or religious services  Supporting services are necessary for the production of other services, such as primary production, nutrient cycling and soil formation Topic 3, Section B, slide 4 of 32

5 Ecosystem services Topic 3, Section B, slide 5 of 32

6 Provisioning services Ecosystems produce diverse goods for local people  Wood is an important economic forest commodity for many tropical countries. Fuel wood meets about 15% of energy demand in developing countries - more than 90% in 13 countries  Non-wood forest products are extremely diverse, from fodder for animals and food for people to medicines and cosmetics The livelihoods of 250 million to 1billion people depend on these products Edible forest products include bushmeat, fish and plants Traditional medicines and the development of modern medicines Topic 3, Section B slide 6 of 32

7 Regulating services Ecosystems provide global services  They regulate the global climate and store carbon They also provide local or regional services  Purification of water, mitigation of floods and drought, detoxification and decomposition of wastes, generation and renewal of soil, pollination of crops and natural vegetation, control of agricultural pests, dispersal of seeds, and moderation of temperature extremes and the force of winds and waves Topic 3, Section B, slide 7 of 32 Of particular importance in the context of climate change is the role forests play in regulating water volumes and quality

8 Cultural services  For many local communities, ecosystems have spiritual and religious value  Ecosystem changes can affect cultural identity and social stability  Other services, such as aesthetic, recreation and heritage, are enjoyed by local people, visitors and those for whom the ecosystem has a symbolic importance Topic 3, Section B, slide 8 of 32

9 Ecosystems and human well-being Topic 3, Section B, slide 9 of 32

10 Ecosystems and human well-being Ecosystem services influence all aspects of well-being by:  Increasing the security of people living in the vicinity, for example through the protective role played by regulating services against natural disasters  Determining incomes, food security and water availability - the basic materials for life  Preserving human health  Influencing social relations, for example by offering people the aesthetic and recreational activities and and to express cultural values if they are linked to some habitats or species  Providing freedom - the ability to decide on the kind of life to lead Topic 3, Section B, slide 10 of 32

11 Vulnerability of ecosystem services Ecosystems are threatened by various human-induced pressures other than climate change  Other pressures include land use change, landscape fragmentation, degradation of habitats, over-extraction of resources, pollution, nitrogen deposition and invasive species  Climate change will increase these pressures over the coming decades  This is a major concern for sustainable development  Households, local communities, local businesses and national and international organisations are all affected by the loss of ecosystem services Topic 3, Section B, slide 11 of 32

12 Levels of ecosystem services Ecosystem services are delivered at different ecological levels. For example, carbon storage is a global service, while pollination is local. For this reason, they must be managed at different institutional levels. Topic 3, Section B, slide 12 of 32

13 2. Forests for the adaptation of society Many aspects of well-being can be interpreted as dimensions of vulnerability to climate change Topic 3, Section B, slide 13 of 32

14 Ecosystem Services Components of Vulnerability to Climate Change (Exposure, Sensitivity, Adaptive Capacity) Ecosystem Services Ecosystem Society Exposure (climate change) Adaptive capacity of the ecosystem (e.g., ability of the ecosystem to conserve its integrity in a changing climate) Ecological sensitivity (e.g., effects of climate change on flooding or the emergence of diseases) Adaptive capacity of the society (e.g., capacity to prevent damages from flooding or diseases) Societal sensitivity (e.g., effects of flooding or diseases on society) Vulnerability of a coupled human–environment system Supporting services Regulating services  Disease regulation  Water regulation  Water purification Regulating services  Climate regulation Cultural services Provisioning services Topic 3, Section B, slide 14 of 32

15 Ecosystem Services Components of Vulnerability to Climate Change (Exposure, Sensitivity, Adaptive Capacity) Ecosystem Services Vulnerability of a coupled human–environment system Topic 3, Section B, slide 15 of 32 Ecosystem Supporting services Regulating services  Disease regulation  Water regulation  Water purification Regulating services  Climate regulation Cultural services Provisioning services Ecosystem Society Exposure (climate change) Adaptive capacity of the ecosystem (e.g., ability of the ecosystem to conserve its integrity in a changing climate) Ecological sensitivity (e.g., effects of climate change on flooding or the emergence of diseases) Adaptive capacity of the society (e.g., capacity to prevent damages from flooding or diseases) Societal sensitivity (e.g., effects of flooding or diseases on society) Vulnerability of a coupled human–environment system Society

16 Ecosystem services Components of Vulnerability to Climate Change (Exposure, Sensitivity, Adaptive Capacity) Ecosystem Services Topic 3, Section B, slide 16 of 32 Supporting services Regulating services  Disease regulation  Water regulation  Water purification Regulating services  Climate regulation Cultural services Provisioning services Ecosystem Society Exposure (climate change) Adaptive capacity of the ecosystem (e.g., ability of the ecosystem to conserve its integrity in a changing climate) Ecological sensitivity (e.g., effects of climate change on flooding or the emergence of diseases) Adaptive capacity of the society (e.g., capacity to prevent damages from flooding or diseases) Societal sensitivity (e.g., effects of flooding or diseases on society) Vulnerability of a coupled human–environment system

17 Ecosystem services Components of Vulnerability to Climate Change (Exposure, Sensitivity, Adaptive Capacity) Ecosystem Services Topic 3, Section B, slide 17 of 32 Supporting services Regulating services  Disease regulation  Water regulation  Water purification Regulating services  Climate regulation Cultural services Provisioning services Ecosystem Society Exposure (climate change) Adaptive capacity of the ecosystem (e.g., ability of the ecosystem to conserve its integrity in a changing climate) Ecological sensitivity (e.g., effects of climate change on flooding or the emergence of diseases) Adaptive capacity of the society (e.g., capacity to prevent damages from flooding or diseases) Societal sensitivity (e.g., effects of flooding or diseases on society) Vulnerability of a coupled human–environment system

18 Ecosystem services Components of Vulnerability to Climate Change (Exposure, Sensitivity, Adaptive Capacity) Ecosystem Services Topic 3, Section B, slide 18 of 32 Supporting services Regulating services  Disease regulation  Water regulation  Water purification Regulating services  Climate regulation Cultural services Provisioning services Ecosystem Society Exposure (climate change) Adaptive capacity of the ecosystem (e.g., ability of the ecosystem to conserve its integrity in a changing climate) Ecological sensitivity (e.g., effects of climate change on flooding or the emergence of diseases) Adaptive capacity of the society (e.g., capacity to prevent damages from flooding or diseases) Societal sensitivity (e.g., effects of flooding or diseases on society) Vulnerability of a coupled human–environment system

19 All sectors vulnerable to climate change benefit from ecosystem services Ecosystem Services Vulnerable Sectors WATER ECO- SYSTEMS FOOD COASTAL AREAS HEALTH Topic 3, Section B, slide 19 of 32

20 Exercise For the country where you are currently working:  Identify five specific examples of ecosystem services provided by forests or trees  How do those services contribute to human-wellbeing and reduce human vulnerability to climate change? Topic 3, Section B, slide 20 of 32

21 Examples of relevant ecosystem services for vulnerable sectors Topic 3, Section B, slide 21 of 32

22 Assessing vulnerability of coupled human and environment systems  The vulnerability of economic sectors depends on the vulnerability of the ecosystems they rely on  Most vulnerability assessments use a sectoral approach, which overlooks the linkages between sectors and ecosystems.  Vulnerability assessments should: Deal with the vulnerabilities of both human and environment systems at the same time Consider the linkages between them Topic 3, Section B, slide 22 of 32

23 Climate changeOther drivers of change Vulnerability of a coupled human and environment system to the loss of ecosystem services Ecosystem Services Management Adaptive capacity Society Ecosystem Sensitivity Adaptive capacity Sensitivity Adaptive capacity Assessing vulnerability of coupled human and environment systems Topic 3, Section B, slide 23 of 32 Vulnerability of ecosystem services to climate change and other threats Human system and its vulnerability to the loss of ecosystem services Capacity of human systems to reduce the loss of ecosystem services Exposure

24 Exercise Considering a concrete example, answer the following questions:  Who benefits from ecosystem services?  Which ecosystem services are more important for people?  Which ecosystems deliver these services?  How does people’s vulnerability depend on these services?  How could ecosystem changes affect people?  What to do? Topic 3, Section B, slide 24 of 32

25 3. Mainstreaming forests into adaptation policies In addition to mainstreaming adaptation into development, projects and programmes should include forests in adaptation strategies using two complementary approaches:  Adaptation for forests Designing adaptation policies that encourage the adaptive management of forests  Forests for adaptation Recognising the role of forests in reducing societal vulnerability and encouraging the sectors that benefit from forest ecosystem services to participate in forest adaptation. Topic 3, Section B, slide 25 of 32

26 Mainstreaming forests into adaptation policies Forest policies Adaptation policies Bring forests into the adaptation arena by:  Forests should be included in National Adaptation Programmes of Action  Forests should be included in the Adaptation Fund and other financing schemes Bring adaptation into the forest arena by:  Integrate adaptation in National Forest Programmes Topic 3, Section B, slide 26 of 32 Mainstreaming adaptation into forest policies

27 Current place of forests in adaptation policies Forests play a secondary role - if any role at all - in adaptation policies, despite their importance.  Forests are not usually a priority in National Adaptation Programmes of Action or in National Communications.  National adaptation policies propose traditional instruments without analysing the “lessons learned” of past failures in the forest sector  There has been no success so far in mainstreaming adaptation and integrating forests  There are no linkages between adaptation and political issues such as land tenure reforms and property rights  There is a lack of horizontal and vertical institutional coordination  Innovative policy approaches are needed for adaptive management of forests and for engaging other sectors that benefit from forest ecosystem services in forest adaptation. Topic 3, Section B, slide 27 of 32

28 Promoting adaptation for forests National policies should be designed to:  Reduce non-climatic threats to forests  Encourage large-scale decision making  Consider climate change threats in conservation policies  Promote information sharing and monitoring  Promote partnerships in the forestry sector  Strengthen local institutions by capacity building and funding Climate change can be a catalyst for achieving better forest management or conservation Topic 3, Section B, slide 28 of 32

29 Policies promoting forests for adaptation  Forest ecosystem services are of great importance for the livelihoods of local populations, national development and the international community  Yet, the sectors depending on forest ecosystem services are currently not involved in forest adaptation. Natural resources management is often done by stakeholders with few - if any - links with those benefiting from ecosystem services or bearing the consequences of the loss of ecosystem services.  Ecosystem-based adaptation policies should link non-forest actors with those engaged in forest management or conservation  Engaging non-forest actors can take many forms, for example, participating in decision making, capacity building, monitoring and financing using incentive-based policy instruments. Topic 3, Section B, slide 29 of 32

30 The role of policy-relevant science  Science should play a fundamental role in mainstreaming forests into adaptation policies by: Informing policy-makers about vulnerabilities, Identifying response options and designing adaptation strategies  Assessment of vulnerabilities should prioritise places or sectors with the highest vulnerabilities and demonstrate how forest adaptation can contribute to reducing the vulnerability of non-forest actors  Building a policy-science dialogue is essential  Scientists must analyse structures and identify responses Topic 3, Section B, slide 30 of 32

31 References See references in “Facing an uncertain future: How forests and people can adapt to climate change” Topic 3, Section B, slide 31 of 32

32 Thank you for your attention


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