Presentation on theme: "Chapter 27 Diversity of Life on Earth"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 27 Diversity of Life on Earth Life ScienceChapter 27Diversity of Life on Earth
2The Main IdeaEarth is home to millions of living species, including one celled bacteria, giant redwood trees and animals like us.About 1.5 million known species live on earth.Many more- estimated to be anywhere between million have yet to be discovered.How do we keep track of all of this and make it easier to study?
327.1 Classifying Living Origin of current classification system Originated by Carolus Linnaeus – 18th centuryCame up with the division of the system: domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
4Linnaeus continuedAlso came up with rules for how an organism is namedAll species have a two-part scientific name made up of the genus name and the species nameExamples:Homo sapiens – human (wise human)Canis familiaris – dog (intimate dog).
5Rules for namingGenus name is always capitalized; species name is always lower case.Italicize or underline scientific names.
6Homo sapiens historyHumans are primates. We belong to a group that also includes monkeys and apes.Humans are also hominids, a group of primates that includes modern man (Homo sapiens) as well as some of our extinct relatives.
7Hominids Humans are the only hominid species in existence today. Fossil hominids provide clues as to how humans evolved.
8Extinct HominidsEarliest known hominids- belongs to the group Australopithecus (dated 3.2 million years old) fossil found called Lucy- 3 ft. 8 in. tall with a brain the size of a chimpanzee- but it is clear she walked upright.Homo habilis fossils 2.2 million years old – larger brains, made stone tools (name means ‘handy man’), males much larger than females
9Homo erectusHomo erectus fossils 400,000 – 2 million years old- even larger brains, skilled tool maker, first species to leave Africa and spread to Europe and Asia. Size differences between males and females slowly changed to make it closer to what it is today.
10Homo sapiensNeanderthals- Homo sapiens neandethalensis are closely related to modern humansLived 30,000 to 200,000 years agoThick muscles, brains about the same size as they are now, complex burial rituals and used plants to treat disease
11Earliest fossils of modern human, Homo sapiens sapiens are from Ethiopia and are 195,000 years old Cultural traits such as religion, art, music appeared only 50,000 years agoThere is a major gap that can’t be explained.Scientists believe it was the evolution of language that allowed human culture to blossom 50,000 years ago.
12Linnaean system-Species are grouped based on how similar they are Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Speices
1327.2 Evolution and Classification Linnaeus came up with his classification system long before Charles Darwin published his theory of evolutionWe now know that Earth’s species are the result of billions of years of evolution, including numerous instances of speciation. Knowing how speciation produced different species allos scientists to describe how different species are related.
14SpeciationA species is a group of organisms whose members can breed with one another but not with members of other species and produce viable offspring (children that can produce offspring).Speciation- the formation of new species- is the evolution of reproductive barriers that stop two different groups of organisms from breeding.
15Types of Reproductive Barriers Some reproductive barriers stop individuals of different species form mating.Different species may mate in different places, at different times, or after different mating courtship behaviors.In other cases, individuals of different species will not mate because their sexual organs simply do not fit together.
16Other reproductive barriers A second type of reproductive barrier causes matings between different species to failThe mating may not produce offspring, or may produce offspring that die or are sterile (unable to reproduce themselves)Example – when a lionand tiger mate,a liger is produced.The liger is sterile.
17Geographic barriers Most common cause of speciation A geographic barrier arises when two populations become physically separated. Can include mountain ranges, glaciers, rivers, oceans, canyons, or land (in the case of aquatic organisms.Geographic barriers allow different populations to evolve independently and sometimes to evolve reproductive barriers.If this happens, the different populations become separate species.
18Evolutionary treesEvolutionary trees are diagrams that show how different species are related.The divergent linesshow when speciationoccurred.
1927.3 Three Domains of Life Life is classified into three domains- BacteriaArchaeaEukaryaProbably 2.5 – 3.5 billion years ago, living organisms split into two separate lineages – one that produced Bacteria and the other that produced Archaea and Eukarya
20Domains Bacteria and Archaea are prokaryotic organisms Eukarya are eukaryotic organismsFurther divided into four kingdomsProtistsFungiPlantsAnimalsCheck out main characteristics on pg 574.
2127.4 BacteriaLive on your body by the millions, occupy habitats no other organism can survive and devastate human populations with diseases such a plague and tuberculosis.Earth’s oldest fossils – 3.5 billion years old are of bacteriaProkaryotes that are so diverse it is hard to make generalizations about them
22Bacteria characteristics Some make their own food through photosynthesis; Some obtain food from other organismsMost are single-celled but others gather together in multicellular clustersCome in different shapes- including spheres, rods and spiralsMany can move with flagellaReproduce asexually by dividing (as often as every 20 minutes)In poor conditions many can form spores (tough, thick-walled structures) that can survive for long periods of time until conditions improve.
23More on bacteriaImportant role as decomposers- break down organic material; life on earth would be impossible without themImportant for humans- help with digestion, make vitamins that we can use; good bacteria keep bad bacteria awayUsed to make foods such as yogurt and cheeseHelp make human insulin and other medicinesCan also cause disease (tuberculosis, syphilis, Lyme) but antibiotics (substances that kill bacteria) have helped with this.
2427.5 Archaea Once considered a funny looking bacteria Now considered to be a distinct group of prokaryotes that are more closely related to eukaryotes than prokaryotes.Many live in extreme environmentsThis group is called ‘extremophiles’ because they can survive in extremely salty environments, very hot springs and hydrothermal vents.
25More on Archaea- pronounced our-kee-uh Not all are extremists. Many live in the ocean.Some are chemoautotrophs that make food using chemical energy rather than energy from sunlight.Those that live in hydrothermalvents get energy fromhydrogen sulfide- entirelyindependent of the sun.
2627.6 ProtistsEukaryotes that are not plants, fungus or animals are lumped together in a group called protists.Include species that can photosynthesize as well as those that get their food form other organisms.Some are single-celled, others are multicellular.Many reproduce asexually, while others reproduce sexually.Because there are so many different species that are just lumped together, scientists are in the process of splitting this group up.
27Photosynthetic protists Single-celled protists that float in the ocean.Have elaborate shells made out of silicaUsed in man-made products like toothpasteDiatoms
28Dinoflagellates Singled-celled protists that live in the ocean. When sunlight and nutrients are plentiful, they ‘bloom’ (reproduce rapidly) causing ‘red tides’ – ocean actually turns red because of the large amount of themSome red tides are toxicWhen shellfish eat the dinoflagellates, they become contaminated and poisonous to humans.
29Multi-cellular photosynthetic protists All seaweeds are protists.Kelp is a protist that forms huge ocean forests.
30Heterotrophic Protists –getting their food from other organisms Most are active, single-celled huntersAmoebas move by extending part of their body forward and then pulling the rest behind- called cytoplasmic streamingThey eat by engulfing their prey
31Other heterotrophic protists Ciliates – move by beating numerous hairlike projections called ciliaFlagellates- move by whipping a long flagellum
32Diseases from protists Malaria- protist divides its time between mosquitoes and humansAfrican sleeping sickness- protist divides time between tsetse fly and humansAmoebic dysentery- Montezuma's revenge
3327.8 FungiBecause they don’t move, scientists used to put fungus with plants. But they are more closely related to animals than they are plants.Like animals, they obtain their food from other organisms.They obtain food by releasing digestive enzymes over organic matter and then absorbing the nutrients..Animals digest their food inside their bodies- fungus digest their food outside their bodies.
34More on fungi Reproduce asexually or sexually Reproduce by making spores- tiny reproductive bodies that can exist in a dormant state for long periods until conditions are good for growth.Fungal spores spread through the air or water.Examples of fungus: mushrooms, mold, mildew, yeastSome Fungal diseases: yeast infections, ringworm, athlete's footUses: yeast- baking, brewing; mushrooms- food; cheese making; antibiotics (penicillin) found in a fungus
3627.7 PlantsMulti-cellular organisms that can photosynthesize- use the energy from sunlight to make their own food and organic molecules.They share many adaptationsRoots- anchor the plant to the ground and absorb water and nutrients from the soilShoots- stems and leaves of the plant- where photosynthesis occursMany have a vascular system- a plant ‘circulatory system’ that distributes water and other resources – called sap
37Major Groups of Plants- mosses, ferns, seed plants Small plants with no vascular systemAbsorb water directly through the environment through diffusionTo reproduce, spermhave to swim through a filmof water to the eggsHave to live in moisthabitats like bogs andshady forests
38Ferns Have a vascular system Sperm must swim to eggs Must live is moist environmentHave distinctive feathery leaves
39Seed Plants- largest group Key to their success – pollen and seedsPollen- male reproductive cells wrapped in a protective coatingCan be transported to female reproductive structures by wind or by animals – don’t need to swimSeed- a small plant embryo that is placed inside a tough outer covering with a supply of foodCan survive in a dormant state where no growth or development occurs until environmental conditions are good
40Two main groups of seed plants- conifers and flowering plants Conifers- redwoods, pines, cedars & firsgymnospermsWaxy, needle-like leavesReproductive structures called conesMale cones produce pollen that is carried by the wind to female conesFertilization occurs in the female cones and seeds are eventually dropped form the female cones
42Flowering Plants- angiosperms Biggest and most successful group because they have flowers and fruitFlowers function in reproduction- they contain male structures that make pollen and female structures that produce eggsIn many flowering plants, pollen is transported by insects or animalsFlower petals, scent and nectar have evolved to attract these polinators
43fruitFlowering plants surround their seeds with a structure called a fruitFruits help flowering plants spread their seeds aroundAnimals can eat the fruit and the seeds get dispersed through their digestive tracksOr, the fruit can attach itself to the animal’s fur (burrs)Allows the seeds to be moved far from the parent plant- helps ensure survival
44Important: Fruit is the name for the seed covering of a flowering plant- it refers not to just our ’fruits’ but also manyof our vegetables
4527.9 AnimalsMulti-cellular organisms that obtain nutrients by eating other organisms. They usually take food into their bodies for digestionMost animals also have muscles for moving, sense organs for making sense of their environments, and nervous systems for controlling their actions.
46Major Animal groups Sponges Cnidarians Flatworms Roundworms Arthropods MollusksAnnelidsEchinodremsChordates
47Sponges Sedentary (nonmoving) animals that live in the ocean Most have a tube-like shape with a large central cavityWater enters the cavity through many pores carrying food with it and exits through the top
48Cnidarians Animals such as jellyfish, sea anemones and corals Catch prey using stinging tentaclesMany start their lives as polyps (sedentary) and grow into medusa that swim. Some (corals, sea anemones) spend their lives as polyps
49Flatworms Long, ribbon-like worms Many are parasites that live in or on organisms doing them harmBest known flatworm- the tapeworm that lives as a parasite in humans and other animals
50Roundworms Live either in the water or on land Different from earthworms, they are very small (can be thousands in a handful of soil)Slender bodies with muscles that run from head to tail
51Found in every known habitat on earth ArthropodsAll have an outer skeleton- exoskeleton- that protects and supports the organismExoskeleton doesn’t grow- it is shed repeatedly as the organism growsInsects are the largest group of living organisms on the planet- more than a million known insect speciesImportant as plant pollinators; many can carry disease (West Nile virus, malaria, etc)Huge group of animals that includes lobsters, barnacles, spiders, scorpions, ticks, centipedes, insects, and many other speciesFound in every known habitat on earth
52MollusksSoft-bodied animals such as clams, oysters, squids, octopuses, snails, slugsMost have a protective shell although the shell is tiny in some species (squid) and absent in some (octopus, slugs)
53Annelids Worms such as earthworms and leeches Bodies divided into segmentsEarthworms-important decomposersLeeches- parasites that eat blood of host
54Echinoderms Starfish, sea urchins, sea cucumbers Have small sucker-like tube feet that they use to moveCan use them to pry open shellfishMove very, very slowly
55Chordates Include vertebrates, the group to which humans belong Vertebrates are animals with backbones- fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals
56Chordates- groups of fish Cartilaginous fish- sharks, rays, skatesDon’t have bones- skeletons made of cartilageRay-finned fish (bony fish)what we think of as fishTuna, bass, salmon, etc.Swim bladders allow them to maintain the same density as the water- they don’t sink or float- gives them great mobility
57Chordates- amphibians Live both on land and in the waterInclude animals like salamanders and frogsCan live only in moist environments or their skin dries outAmphibian eggs have no shell and require moisture to develop
58Chordates- reptiles Includes turtles, lizards and snakes, crocodiles All are ectoderms- what we used to call ‘cold- blooded’ they use behaviors to regulate their body temperatureAll reptiles- skin made of dead cells (doesn’t dry out)Eggs have shells (keeps them form drying out)
59Chordates- birdsBirds have adaptations for flight – wings, feathers, hollow bones (lightweight)Endoderms- keep a constant, high body temperature by breaking down large amounts of food- this process generates heat
60Chordates- mammals Have hair and feed their young milk All are endodermsMost live on land, but bats fly and two groups, seals and whales are partly or fully aquatic3 major groupsMonotremes- (platypus) lay eggsMarsupials – (possums, koalas, kangaroos)- give birth to immarture young that develop in a pouchPlacentals- give birth to more mature live young