Presentation on theme: "Multinational Planning Augmentation Team"— Presentation transcript:
1Multinational Planning Augmentation Team (MPAT)Forming the Multinational Force (MNF) / Coalition or Combined Task Force (CTF)PurposeReferencesJoint Pub 0-2, Unified Action Armed Forces, Feb 95JP 3-0, Doctrine for Joint Operations, 10 Sep 01JP 3-16, Doctrine for Multinational OperationsJP Command and Control Doctrine for Joint Ops, Draft, Apr 97JP Joint Task Force Planning Guidance and Procedures, 13 Jan 99Familiarization with the fundamentals of establishing a Multinational Force (MNF) / Coalition or Combined Task Force (CTF)USCINCPAC’s Two Tiered Command and ControlMNF / CTF DesignMNF / CTF Headquarters Staff StructureIn this class we will discuss forming the multinational force-MNF-and forming the CTF staff. Both of these actions require a deliberate and rational process in order to craft the most efficient force and staff structure. This process is based on U.S. doctrine, and is designed to reduce the trauma of forming the MNF and CTF HQs.Before discussing the MNF and CTF, we will briefly cover some basic definitions and concepts. And as an introduction to multinational task force concepts, we will first discuss the U.S. Pacific Command’s joint task force concept, more commonly known as the two tiered command and control concept.We will conclude this module with lessons learned from previous MNF/CTF operations.As always, we begin with an overview of the references we used to develop this briefing. Probably the best source is JP , because it includes detailed procedures that are useful in MNF and CTF forming. Throughout the briefing we’ll show you where we get the quotes we use. We also pull some material from the lessons learned from past CTF and MNF/CTF operations.
2Multinational Operations “ ‘Multinational operations’ is a collective term to describe military actions conducted by forces of two or more nations. Such operations are usually undertaken within the structure of a coalition or alliance”This is a U.S. definition of multinational operations: “Multinational operations’ is a collective term to describe military actions conducted by forces of two or more nations. Such operations are usually undertaken within the structure of a coalition or alliance”Coalitions, as opposed to alliances, are more common in the Asia-Pacific region. An alliance is the result of formal agreements, such as treaties, between two or more nations for broad, long-term objectives. A coalition is an ad hoc arrangement between two or more nations for common action. Normally each coalition develops its own procedures, protocols and contingency plans to guide multinational action.During multinational operations, respect,rapport, knowledge of partners, and patience must be practiced during all activities to ensure unity of effort. Steps to achieve rationalization, standardization, and interoperability will significantly enhance the probability of success in multinational operations.When providing Coalition leadership, the lead nation supported strategic commander ensures that unified action integrates joint and combined operations, in conjunction with all the multinational, interagency, and international organizations, into a strategic unity of effort to achieve the strategic end state.The way a MNF/CTF Commander organizes his forces directly affects the responsiveness and versatility of the MNF operations. Therefore force structure is very important.JP 3-16
3Crisis Action Planning Process Lead Nation NCA / Supported Strategic Commander LevelISituationDevelopmentIICrisisAssessmentIIICOADevelopmentIVCOASelectionVExecutionPlanningVIExecutionPlanningExecutionCTF HQ LevelFormCTF HQCAPDeploymentEmploymentTransitionRedeploymentThis depicts the 6 phase crisis action planning process and indicates when forming the CTF HQ should occur during this process.The lower bar shows the CTF HQ, at the operational level, that must form, plan, deploy and execute the selected military COA. Ideally, the supported strategic commander will designate the CTF cmdr and staff prior to the end of phase II to allow the CTF staff to fully participate in the development of the commander’s estimate process. It is prudent to identify the CTF commander and staff even earlier, possibly in phase I, so they can start developing Situation Awareness.It’s important to have robust MNF/CTF training program. The CINC provides CTF training annually to his primary CTF/JTF staff candidates:- Tempest Express staff HQ planning exercise -- is for the CTF HQ staff and is focused on cmdr’s estimate planning process.CAP crisis action planningCOA course of action
4Command Relationships Combatant Command (COCOM)COCOM is the national chain of command at the theater strategic level. It is the authority to organize and employ a nation’s forces. It is never relinquished to a commander of another nation.Authoritative direction over all aspects of military operations, joint training, and logistics necessary for mission accomplishmentOPCONPerform functions of command:Authoritative direction for all military operations & trainingOrganize and employ commands and forcesAssign tasks & designate objectivesEstablish plans/requirements for intelligence activitySuspend/reassign subordinate commandersCommand relationships is a critical issue which must be properly determined in order to form a cohesive and effective MNF. We will discuss these command relationships in this module. Please note that these are U.S. definitions and these terms may have slightly different meanings in other militaries.Combatant command, or COCOM, is the authority of a combatant commander to organize and employ forces, giving authoritative direction over all aspects of military operations, joint training, and logistics necessary to accomplish missions of the command.Operational control, or OPCON, is significant authority on employment, positioning and administrative functioning of subordinate forces.Tactical Control, or TACON, is limited control. Commander can direct maneuvering and movements and tactical use of combat support assets. Common command relationship in a functional command (ie Land Component Commander)The degree of control a subordinate commander within the MNF/CTF will exercise is determined by MNFC/CCTF decisions on command relationship.TACONLocal direction and control of movementsTypical in Functional Command structureDoes not include:Organizational authorityAdministrative and logistics support
5Command Relationships “... there should be no mistaking the fact that the greatest obstacles to unity of command during UNOSOM II were imposed by the United States on itself command arrangements had effectively created a condition that allowed no one to set clear, unambiguous priorities in designing and executing a comprehensive force package.”We cannot over emphasize the importance of establishing effective command relationships.This quote comes from the Somalia Lessons Learned handbook. This is what happens when the MNF/CTF doesn’t concentrate on the operational level of war; when we lose our focus and delve into matters which take our attention away from our primary mission.The personnel participating in UNOSOM II were competent and motivated, and they did not deliberately set out to create ineffective command relationships.The multinational force staff was hindered in part by the manner in which the MNF was formed; in part by higher headquarters setting priorities and determining force structure without the MNF input; in part by not having a firm understanding on the MNF mission and end state; and finally, in part due to mission creep, or continued additional requirements placed on the organization without adequate analysis of the effects on MNF structure, command relationships and the MNF end state.Somalia Operations: Lessons Learned Jan 95, Page 60
6Chain of Command NCA PRESIDENT SECRETARY OF DEFENSE CJCS UNIFIED COMMANDSMILITARYDEPARTMENTSCOCOMService Forces(Not assigned by“Forces For”)JOINT/COALITIONTASK FORCEFUNCTIONALCOMPONENTSERVICECOMPONENTCOMMANDSLet’s now discuss how the U.S. forms contingency joint task force, or JTF where there is no standing joint task force. This will be an introduction to discussing the formation of multinational forces/CTF. We must first understand the overarching command structure and relationships.The supported strategic commander, who in the US is called the unified commander in chief or CINC, is vested with combatant command authority, or COCOM. COCOM provides full authority to organize and employ subordinate commands and forces as the commander considers necessary to accomplish assigned missions. COCOM cannot be delegated. The CINC can adapt a command structure within his area of responsibility using several options.He may choose to organize joint task forces; subordinate unified commands; functional component commands; or service component commands. These specific force structures will be discussed later in this module. The Commander in Chief, Pacific Command, or USCINCPAC, uses a combination of these methods to exercise COCOM over forces within his area of operation.For contingency operations, where the U.S. is the lead nation, the CINC will generally establish joint or coalition task forces to conduct military operations, using the U.S. Pacific Command two-tiered command and control structure as a basis for MNF operations.OPCONSERVICECOMPONENTS/FORCESSUBORDINATEUNIFIEDCOMMANDChain of CommandAdministrative ChainCoordination
7US JTF (Two-Tiered) Command & Control NationalStrategicNCACJCSNational Command /Strategic DirectionCINCSupportingCINC(s)TheaterStrategicUSACOMPUSNCOMPUSAFCOMPUSMCCOMPSOFCOMPTIER ITIER IIJTFThis slide depicts two tiers of forces applicable to this discussion: Tier 1, the combatant command and its components, and tier 2, the joint task force and the JTF components. In this slide, each block is color coded by service with purple representing a joint component or headquarters.The 2-tiered command and control concept is designed for the contingency where there is no standing coalition or joint task force. When a contingency response is required, a JTF is built using a single service war fighting command as the core of the headquarters and staff. Each JTF is tailored for a specific mission and limited duration.USCINCPAC uses a single service staff as the core when forming a JTF HQ. A DJTFAC (Deployable JTF Augmentation Cell) from the USCINCPAC staff provides full-time joint expertise to help make the single service staff joint with the addition of planners from all the other services. The staff modifications and augmentation of these single service HQ staff and subordinate command structures are significant in effectively transforming single service staff into JTFs.Effective response to a dynamic crisis situation requires timely communications and decisions up and down the chain of command. Notice the very direct chain of command in the U.S. JTF model: from the national command authorities, to the combatant commander in chief, then to the JTF commander. The entire chain of command is focused on the operation and controlling the components who are operating at the tactical level.The CINC retains combatant command of all forces within his AOR. The CINC’s staff conducts mission analysis and develops courses of action focusing on the strategic theater level of war. The joint task force operates at the operational level, focusing on planning and executing the joint or coalition operation. This entails translating strategic objectives into tactical tasks for the JTF components. The JTF focus is the operation, and controlling the JTF components who are operating at the tactical level, whether it is fighting enemy forces or conducting humanitarian assistance/disaster relief operations.OperationalLevelTacticalLevelUSACOMPUSNCOMPUSAFCOMPUSMCCOMPSOFCOMPJPOTFChain of CommandAdministrative ChainCoordination
8USPACOM’s Potential Coalition / Combined Task Force HQs ALCOMI CORPS7th FleetI MEFIII MEFWhen faced with a contingency/crisis, USCINCPAC may select joint task force headquarters from a list of pre-designated single-service subordinate headquarters that have been trained in joint, coalition and combined operations.The selection is based on the capabilities required for the contingency and the geography of the contingency area of operation. USCINCPAC will assign the JTF commander a force package provided by the US Pacific Command components.Under the PACOM two tier command and control system, there are 3 primary and 3 alternate JTF HQs. These JTFs are able to respond to a broad range of potential crises, and can serve either as a JTF for U.S. unilateral operations or as the nucleus of a multinational force for coalition operations.The three primary single service JTFs are:Seventh Fleet, a Naval command based at Yokosuka, JapanFirst CORPS, an Army command in Washington state, andThird Marine Expeditionary Force, in Okinawa, JapanThe three alternate deployable JTF headquarters are:Third Fleet, in CaliforniaFirst Marine Expeditionary Force, also in California, andAlaska Command, located in AlaskaThe U.S. Special Operations Command Pacific SOCPAC is a small, standing JTF that can deploy very early and quickly in response to a contingency.3rd FleetSOCPAC
9MNF / CTF EmploymentFor a contingency operation, a Lead Nation and theater strategic commander (designated as the ‘Supported Strategic Commander’) will be nominated to lead the operation on behalf of the multinational partners, and a contingency coalition / combined task force (CTF) will be established to conduct military operations. The CTF is formed for a specific limited objective and dissolved upon achieving its assigned objectives.MNF Chain of Command:NCA (lead nation) Supported Strategic Cmdr (CINC) CCTFUse crisis action planning (CAP) ProceduresWithin the US Pacific Command area of responsibility, we can expect a multinational task force to take on a wide variety of missions and responsibilities. These missions are usually in response to fast moving and extremely dynamic situations, require a short chain of command to the various national command authorities, and use crisis action planning procedures.Each crisis requires a separate and unique response. Our challenge is to develop a multinational force with the capabilities needed to solve the crisis.Bottom Line: Requires Combined / Joint Staff employing Combined / Joint Processes
10MNF / CTF Missions MOOTW / SSC is most likely scenario NEOCMPeaceEnforcementMOOTW / SSC is most likely scenarioShort Duration / Small Scale / No-NoticeJointMultinational / InteragencyA multinational force may be employed to conduct a wide range of operations.The most likely scenarios are operations other than war. The operation will be of short duration, with little or no notice or warning; it will be combined; and it will involve multinational and interagency cooperation and coordination.Types of possible operations are shown on this slide:Non combatant operations, or NEO.Consequence management operations.Peace enforcement and peace keeping.Humanitarian assistance and disaster relief.The specific organization and staffing of the MNF will vary based on the mission assigned, the environment within which the operations must be conducted, the makeup of existing and potential enemy forces, or the nature of the threat, and the time available to reach the end state.HA/DisasterReliefSSCPeaceKeeping
11Facts and Decisions Affecting MNF/CTF Structure Assigned Tasks CTF MissionRequired Capabilities Force OptionsForce Options Component StructureComponent Structure C2 StructureBasing Support StructureNow, let’s discuss some of the factors and decisions which affect the MNF/CTF structure.We must develop a multinational force and staff structure that will enable the MNF Commander to accomplish his mission.During mission analysis we will determine what our mission is by examining all specified and implied tasks, determine which tasks are essential for mission accomplishment, and develop MNF mission.Once we understand our mission, we will determine the required capabilities, which in turn will lead to development of our force options. From the force options available, we can develop our component structure. This will in turn have an impact on the command and control structure we develop.And finally, the basing requirements based on our component force structure (which is determined by the control measures) will lead to the required support structure.Staff StructureForce Structure
12CTF Organization MNF Operations “Nothing that I have ever been taught prepared me for the mental jump needed to go from being Chief of Operations in NATO army group to being Chief of Staff of a UN Operation, where I had to bring together the staff from ten different nations and staff the deployment in less than three weeks from the Security Resolution.”In the Asia-Pacific theater, we will rarely operate unilaterally. As such, we should be prepared to conduct multinational operations.This quote from a senior NATO officer highlights the mental jump, or leap, we must make when forming a multinational force.Major General R.A.Cordy-Simpson UKAR
13Our Goal A MNF/CTF that can: Rapidly plan in a complex setting Develop a plan which supports national and strategic theater goalsContinuously integrate logisticsOrient on the enemy’s center of gravityEfficiently execute a plan based on the commander’s conceptAchieve synergy in the employment of all military and inter-agency capabilitiesEssentially, then, our goal is to form a multinational force and staff that is capable of the following:The crisis we are responding to is dynamic. Our CTF needs to be able to keep pace with rapidly changing requirements.Our plan needs to support national and strategic theater goals. Supported strategic headquarters guidance will provide focus to this effort.We must set the conditions for success in the battlespace by developing a force flow and logistic support structure that meets the requirements of the components.We must focus on the enemy, or the threat. Ensure all efforts are focused on overcoming the threat, and the protection of friendly forces.Perhaps most importantly, we must ensure that the CTF is a tool that the commander can use to execute a plan based on the commander’s concept of the operation. The staff we develop must be good enough to allow the commander the time and opportunity to make timely decisions, and not become so overcome by events that we become reactive rather than proactive.Finally, we need to synchronize efforts of all components at the operational level, and integrate the capabilities of other agencies. We need to establish and maintain the tempo of operations.
14Lead Nation Command Structure ParticipatingNation #2(US NCA)Lead Nation(Nation # 1)(AS NCA)ParticipatingNation #3(ROK NCA)Supporting StrategicCommander(CINC)Supported StrategicCommander(CDF)Supporting StrategicCommander(ROK JCS)CCTF Staffis augmentedby participatingNations andMPATCadreCCTFLead Nation command structure for multinational force operations is normally applicable for coalition efforts. In this approach all the coalition members subordinate their forces to a single commander for unity of effort with a single unifying Lead Nation NCA to lead the NCA consultation process and strategic guidance function for the multinational effort.To ensure equal representation throughout the command, the CTF Hqs and staff can be formed by augmentation from participating nations and MPAT cadre. Further, the Deputy CCTF can be from a different nation with commanders and deputies throughout the force being mixed to represent nation’s relative contribution to the CTF. This provides the CCTF with representative leadership and a balanced perspective on the respective coalition members capabilities and limitations. This also facilitates and supports unity of command and effort.This form of command structure provides to an integrated approach to command and control; the degree of integration being dependent on the mix of staff augmentation and component sub organization.ParticipatingUS ForcesParticipatingAS ForcesParticipatingROK ForcesLegend:1. Strategic Guidance OPCON or TACONAnd Support2. National Command Theater or COCOMCommand4. Consultation / CoordinationProvides for Integrated Command and Control – Unity of Command & Effort
15Parallel Command Structure Nation #1NCANation #2NCATheater StrategicCommander – Nation # 1Theater StrategicCommander – Nation # 2TF East SectorCommanderTF West SectorCommanderCoordination CenterUnder parallel command structure, no single force commander is designated. Such a structure is normally used for coalition efforts where there is differing views on how the command relationships should be established, concerns about foreign command of a nations forces are an issue, and other national interests preclude a lead nation command structure. Geography aspects can also lead to choosing this command structure.Coordination centers are essential for this type of command structure since there is no Unity of Command. Unity of effort is the driving focus of this structure and this is achieved by teamwork, partnership, and thorough coordination of planning and execution actions. Integrated planning staffs within the coordination centers are also key for effective multinational coordination and planning.Clear delineation of tasks using geographical areas are essential in such command structures to provide for unity of “command” at the tactical levels of command (i.e. Sectors assigned based upon National Task Forces with little or no integration of forces at the tactical level).ParticipatingNation #1 ForcesParticipatingNation #2 Forces1. Strategic Guidance OPCON or TACONAnd Support2. National Command Theater or COCOMCommand4. Consultation / CoordinationMinimal Integrated Command and Control –Unity of Effort Through Coordination
16Combination Command Structure (Lead Nation and Parallel) Supporting StrategicCommanderSupported StrategicCommanderUsed inDesert Shield /Desert StormParticipatingNation #1CommanderParallelCCTFLead NationCoordinationCenterThis combination command structure is essentially a “tailored” approach to the Lead Nation concept and is normally used for coalition multinational efforts. These structures are designed to maximize “unity of command” as can be best achieved while at the same time respecting selected nation’s concerns about foreign command of their troops.Such a structure can be very flexible and adaptable to meet the concerns of nations while balancing the operational requirements of the CCTF. Once again, the coordination center concept is essential in such structures to ensure thorough coordination or planning and execution.This command structure was used in the Gulf War coalition effort (Desert Shield / Desert Storm) … Lead Nation was the U.S. with USCINCCENT as the CTF with OPCON of British, French, and US forces. The “Joint Forces/Theater of Ops. Commander (Saudi)” was a parallel command within the multinational force structure (with command of these forces reserved by the National Leaders of Arab/Islamic Nations. A “Friendly Forces Coordination Council” was established for coordination of the coalition efforts of all forces.ParticipatingNation #1ParticipatingNation #2ParticipatingNation #31. Strategic Guidance OPCON or TACONAnd Support2. National Command Theater or COCOMCommand4. Consultation / CoordinationPartial Integrated Command and Control – Tailored Lead Nation Concept
17Integrated Command Structure (Integrated Alliance or Lead Nation Alliance)Designated Lead Nation NCAOrLegitimizing Authority (Treaty)With Strategic Guidance Committee or Governing Body(Example: National Defense Committee)CCTF Staffis fully integratedwith alliancePersonnelComponents arefully integratednormally at theBrigade / SquadronLevels of commandand above(no integrationBelow thisLevel)Alliance Commander(Cmdr Combined TF – CCTF)The Integrated command structure is not for crisis action situations: This command structure is one that is applicable for alliances and can be based upon a “legitimizing authority” (treaty, UN mandate, alliance organizational structure such as NATO, etc) or it can be based upon a “Lead Nation” concept that has a formal treaty or alliance as the basis for organization and mission.If there is no Lead Nation identified, then some form of “strategic guidance” committee or forum is required for “strategic guidance and direction” and for “approval of” operational concepts and orders submitted by the CCTF.This structure is the most integrated form of multinational operations … examples are the NATO command where the strategic command and staff and commanders of lower commands are fully multinational in makeup.A single commander is designated and the CTF components are multinational in flavor and organization (with integration of forces at the tactical levels .. Normally at the Bde / Squadron level of command and above. Below this command level, national unity is maintained at the tactical level).MultinationalForceMultinationalForceMultinationalForceLegend:OPCON or TACONProvides for Integrated Command and Control – Unity of Command & Effort
18CTF Component Structure (Service) Simplicity in aTime CompressedEnvironmentSupported Strategic Cmdr(CINC)Capabilities or functions do not overlapCCTFNow we will discuss the various options for MNF/CTF component structure. One option is to structure the CTF with Service Components. Generally this option is prefered for most crisis scenarios or situations for the following reasons:First, the service component structure is appropriate or optimum when stability, continuity, economy, ease of long-range planning and the scope of the operation dictate service, or component, organizational integrity. These conditions apply when the required functions in a particular dimension (air, land, sea) are unique to a single-service force, or when service force capabilities or responsibilities do not significantly overlap.And second, administrative and logistic support of the MNF forces is the responsibility of the service component commanders.When a MNF is subordinate to another MNF, the CINC supporting the senior MNF also supports the subordinate MNFMNF commanders should allow service tactical and operational groupings to function generally as they were designed. In this way, the MNF requirements will be met while allowing for efficient disposition of forces.CNAVFORCAFFORCARFORCMARFORCSOTF
19CTF Component Structure (Functional) Organize by capabilities or functionsUnityofEffortSupported Strategic Cmdr(CINC)CINCCCTFAnother option for CTF subordinate command structure is organize the CTF with Functional ComponentsThis type of structure is appropriate, or optimal, when the scope of operations requires that similar capabilities and functions of forces from two or more services be directed toward the same, or similar objectives; when unity of effort is important, and when these forces must operate in the same dimension or medium.For example, to command an air campaign and ensure appropriate coordination with other components, it may be useful to establish a functionally oriented Joint Forces Air Component Command, or JFACC, responsible for air operations, as in Operation Desert Storm.CFMCCCFACCCFLCCCSOTFCPOTFCCMOTF
20Supported Strategic Cmdr Subordinate TFs & CTFsGeographic orMission SpecificUnityofEffortSupported Strategic Cmdr(CINC)CINCCCTFAnother structure option is subordinate coalition/combined task forces or subordinate component task forces. This structure is appropriate when operations are organized geographically or by specific functions.For example, in a humanitarian assistance or disaster relief mission covering a wide geographical area, the best way to conduct relief operations might be to form separate combined task forces for each area. Or, if one aspect of the operation entails a massive engineering effort requiring most of the engineering resources from the MNF, then an engineer task force might be appropriate.Certain functions, such as special operations and psychological operations, are usually executed through a combined task force, such as a combined special operations task force or combined psychological operations task force.CTFTRANSCTFMEDTF EngTF Security
21The Leap to the Operational Level Lead Nation NCASupported StrategicCmdr / CINCMPAT& MNF SOPCTFTACTICAL LEVELCMARFORCNAVFORCARFORCAFFORCSOTFCPOTFA formidable challenge,building an operational stafffrom single service tactical HQs.A leap from the“Comfort Zone”This slide depicts perhaps the hardest task we face when forming the multinational force: ensuring the staff makes the leap from tactical level thinking to operational level thinking, and stays at the operational level.All of us began our professional military development in our respective service cultures. Each one of us has demonstrated proficiency at the tactical level of war. We are comfortable operating at this level, as we have completely mastered the subject material at this level. Now we must make a giant, mental leap. We are no longer, for example, infantrymen checking maps for fields of fire; pilots briefing wingmen on the flight formation into the target area; watch standers ensuring ships are maintaining correct formation. We have to expand our thinking and concentrate on joint command and control issues, logistics priorities, and operational level objectives. We must now focus on those things necessary to permit the components to plan and execute at the tactical level.MPAT and DJTFAC personnel trained in joint and coalition processes. In addition, a well-crafted MNF HQ SOP will aid in making this leap from the tactical to the operational level.MEF HQFLEET HQCORPS HQAEF HQ
22Crisis Action Planning CTF Staff ProcessCrisis Action PlanningMinimalTimePhilosophyStructureProceduresNot BusinessAs UsualPhase I: Situation DevelopmentPhase II: Crisis AssessmentPhase III: COA DevelopmentPhase IV: COA SelectionPhase V: Execution PlanningPhase VI: ExecutionOperationalLevel FocusCrisis action planning is different than deliberate planning. Shown on the left are the phases of crisis action planning. Crisis action planning requires a different planning philosophy and different procedures than deliberate planning and normal day-to-day operations, and because of this difference, a different headquarters structure might be desired to support planning and execution of a contingency operation. The Multinational Planning Augmentation Team, or MPAT, and the U.S. Deployable Joint Task Force Augmentation Cell, or DJTFAC, assist the MNF staff with crisis action planning expertise.As mentioned earlier, the MNF staff has to change its level of thinking. Generally, most members of the MNF staff will come from component level commands, and they do not necessarily focus on operational level issues. The tendency is to delve into the tactical arena, where most of us are comfortable. However, once a component headquarters is designated as the core of the MNF staff, this staff must concentrate on operational issues. It often requires effort by the commander, chief of staff, or senior planner, to focus the conversation and the analysis to the operational level. The subordinate components will focus on tactical matters.We also recommend the development and use of a cellular organization within the staff. Each cell is staffed with personnel from multiple disciplines. This structure contributes to better cross-communication and provides for more rapid staffing of issues. We will discuss cells more thoroughly later in this module.PlansPersLogIntelOpsCellularStaffStructureCommConducted by a “New” Staff
23The CTF Staff Task Organized to the Specific Mission Capable of Rapid Information ProcessingOrganized for EfficiencyShortened Plan-Decide-Execute CycleIt must be a mission-oriented organization, task organized for the specific contingency.The MNF/CTF staff needs to be able to process an incredible amount of information efficiently and effectively.It must be organized for efficiency, which means appropriate use of functional cells, liaison officers, and a battle rhythm that facilitates the planning and decision making processes.And finally, the MNF/CTF staff must be able to get inside the enemy’s decision cycle and seize and maintain the initiative.
24Single Service HQ Staff COMMANDERG1G2G3G4G5G6FUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFThe first tool is the exiting staff structure of the typical single service headquarters staff. This will be the basis for the MNF headquarters.In a single service headquarters, the staff is generally organized as shown on this slide. Each staff section is composed of a command group with a colonel or naval captain that provides senior leadership, and staff personnel who do the majority of the work in their functional areas; that is, the G or N -1,2,3,4,5, and 6.
25MPAT TE-3 Focus: Forming the CTF HQ Staff Lead Nation Headquarters LNOs fromSupportingCommandsAdd’l MPAT SMEs:PSYOP,Civil Affairs,Legal, Medical,Pol-Mil, etc.MPATLead Nation HeadquartersC1C2C3C4C5C6All of the challenges inherent in forming a joint task force staff for unilateral operations also exist when forming a multinational staff. In addition, these challenges are compounded by the differences in communications, national interests, cultural dynamics, and basic differences in staff infrastructure, techniques and procedures.The MNF headquarters staff is immediately challenged with integrating multiple service expertise, establishing flexible standing operating procedures (SOP) to accommodate dynamic MNF planning and execution, and changing normal staff focus from the tactical to the operational level of conflict. Additionally, augmentees, including liaison officers, DJTFAC, and MPAT personnel, arrive at the headquarters and immediately become a manpower management challenge which can easily overwhelm a staff that is not prepared with a good augmentee integration plan.One way to overcome these difficulties is the early infusion and integration of appropriate DJTFAC and MPAT personnel into the MNF HQs staff. DJTFAC and MPAT personnel can provide trained personnel (augmentation) to the lead nation staff that forms the core MNF staff. The MPAT and DJTFAC provide augmentation to the staff with personnel who are trained, experienced, and knowledgeable in multinational doctrine and operations, and who have trained together during workshops and exercises. These personnel, being familiar with multinational procedures and SOPs, can help accelerate the planning process.Liaison officers represent their parent command to facilitate two-way communications and collaborative planning between the MNF staff and the commands. Multinational operations will require liaison officers from participating nations, supporting and supported commands, and higher and lower commands and agencies as appropriate.SOPsCulturalDynamicsCTFHQInfrastructureDifferencesCommunicationsOperationalLevel focusTTPs
26CTF Augmentation Source: DJTFAC USCINCPAC Staff (20)O-6 Team Chief1xJ11xJ22xJ3 (OPS)3xJ3 (Plans)3xJ3 (IO / CA / PSYOP)2xJ4 (Plans / Eng)2xJ5 (TPFDD)1xJ5 (Pol-Mil)1xJ61xPA1xSJA1xMedUSCINPAC Components (20)PACAF (5)Airlift & Fighter OpsAirlift ManagementLogistics & Ops PlannersUSARPAC (4)Terrain Analysis TmCINPACFLT (2)MARFORPAC (2)JICPAC (6)IAT Officers & NCOsSOCPAC (1)This is the make-up of the US Pacific Command’s Deployable Joint Task Force Augmentation Cell, DJTFAC. Australia, Thailand and Philippines also have DJTFAC cadres, and Canada has a standing Deployable Joint Force Headquarters that has a similar training and crisis response charter.MPAT, similar to DJTFAC, provides a cadre of planners from many of the nations with interests in the Asia-Pacific region, and with representation from all the functional areas of expertise. MPAT consists of planners who have built habitual relationships through a series of staff planning workshops, know the common doctrine and SOP, and are familiar with command and control and communications networks and state-of-the-art collaborative planning tools.TRAINED---EXPERIENCED---READY TO DEPLOY---WORK FOR THE CTF
27The Result: A CTF Staff How Does It Work? Command Group Battle Staff CCTFCommand GroupBattle StaffIntegrated Staff CellsRoutine SupportLiaisonC1C2C3C4C5C6FUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFOnce we fold the DJTFAC and MPAT into the MNF, the DJTFAC and MPAT cease to exist as separate entities. They become full members of the new MNF staff, working for the MNF commander and staff.Liaison personnel are another important addition to the MNF headquarters. The MNF can expect to receive liaisons from virtually every organization with which it has routine contact. The subordinate components must have key liaison officers in place. The supported strategic command, other national commands, host nation governmental agencies and other entities-all will need to have liaison officers at MNF headquarters. Once all of the augmentees and liaison officers arrive, we have a “purple” organization, a Coalition/Combined Task Force. The number of personnel who will be working in the MNF HQ’s can be staggering.But how does this newly formed staff work? One of the things we’ve found in recent MNF experience is the evolution of the breakout of duties and responsibilities of the commander and staff. On the left portion of this slide is the Napoleonic staff we’re all familiar with: the commander, his staff, J1 through J6, and liaison officers. On the right the way we’ve seen the MNF HQ’s interact.The Napoleonic staff structure is vertical. If a planner in J3 needs logistical information, he submits a request for that information to the J3 who transmits it to the J4. The J4 assigns an action officer to work the issue, and the action officer solves the issue, obtains the J4 approval for his solution, and then the information is transmitted back down the J3 chain to the planner who originally requested the information. This system is characterized by centralized control (the J heads) and long timelines.We have already discussed how MNFs need to be agile, able to respond to fast moving crisis situations. The structure on the right is how recent MNF staffs have adjusted to these crisis situations. We will cover each of the points shown on the right.LIAISONHow Does It Work?
28Command Group Decision Makers CCTF C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 LIAISON FUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFThe command group provides guidance and direction for the MNF. It is instrumental in building a cohesive MNF and translating the supported strategic commander’s intent into action.Some of the specific issues and items of consideration are discussed below. Normally the CCTF exercises OPCON over assigned and attached forces. The commander is ultimately responsible for developing plans and orders (as required by Joint Operations Planning Execution System (JOPES) or another crisis action planning response system that the lead nation uses.The commander shapes the operation through the commander’s intent and commander’s guidance.The commander also provides the staff with the Commanders Critical Information Requirements (CCIR) to shape the information management and decision-making process.The MNF deputy commander is not normally of the same service or from the same nation as the commander. He is usually of equal rank or senior in rank to component commanders and may be dual hatted as the chief of staff..The MNF commander may be one of the service component commanders. This is not recommended because it places the commander in an unwieldy position and creates potential conflicts of interest.LIAISON
29Battle Staff Chief of Staff Direction CCTFChief of Staff DirectionStaff Cognizance over Integrated CellsRepresents all Key Battlefield Operating SystemsDeals with Processed DataC1C2C3C4C5C6FUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFThe battle staff is a major subset of the MNF headquarters and is responsible for the day-to-day management of the MNF operation.The most critical staff position is the Chief of Staff. He ensures staff coordination and direction. The Chief of Staff develops and enforces the daily schedule, or battle rhythm, for the staff. Daily events (briefings, meetings, shift changes) should support each other and follow a consistent pattern. The Chief of Staff also formulates and announces staff policies and procedures; for example, message release authority, request for information, and information processing, and security management. The Chief of Staff is also the lead coordinator for all Liaisons officers.The O-6 “Board of Directors” or “Council of Colonels” is probably the most critical layer of the MNF staff. This group consists of the coordinating staff chiefs and other senior officers of the headquarters. It is here we see the fusion of the functional areas and integrated staff cells. It is at this level that the pace of the operation is determined, tasking is prioritized and planning cell guidance is given.The coordinating and special staff chiefs are constantly in meetings, managing their respective functional areas as well as integrating issues affecting the entire MNF. Each staff chief normally has staff cognizance over several integrated cells as well as their own functional staff. They ensure that all battlefield operating systems are appropriately represented in the required cells. They deal with processed data, developing policy and direction for the MNF/CTF. Staff chiefs provide executive oversight and direction. It is critical that this level of the MNF staff not get mired in details of planning and operations that should be the responsibility of action officers within the staff.LIAISON
30Integrated Staff Cells CCTFCross Functional RepresentationLNO RepresentationInformation ManagementBattle RhythmPlans HandoverC1C2C3C4C5C6FUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFCOALITION / COMBINED PLANNING GROUP (CPG)INFORMATION OPERATIONS CELLCOALITION / COMBINED OPERATIONS CENTER (COC)Integrated cells cross the functional lines of the staff to develop specific products which require input from all staff areas. Rather than staff all issues through the Napoleonic staff system, we create cells, boards, elements, centers, groups, or teams, using existing staff personnel who meet together, as required, to work on a specific requirement. Some of these cells, or entities, may be permanent, addressing recurring issues or tasks. Others may be formed to address an infrequent task. These entities are sometimes referred to as “tiger teams”. Critical to this process is the participation by personnel from all staff areas as well as liaisons. What we are trying to do is rapidly disseminate information, develop answers, and produce products.Successful MNF staffs have developed these cells by staffing each cell with one to four “core” personnel and developing a meeting schedule to bring in experts from other sections to provide input into the process. For example, to enhance the crisis action planning process, the MNF would form a Joint Planning Group, or JPG. The core personnel of this planning group are personnel assigned to the C3 plans section. But this core group needs input from the other headquarters staff sections. This input, and initial staff coordination, is provided through JPG meetings.A solid meeting schedule, firmly embedded in the headquarters battle rhythm, is paramount. Some elements, such as component liaison officers, are required at virtually every cell meeting.While cells, boards, centers and other entities provide rapid dissemination of information and completion of tasks which require multi-staff expertise, this method of staff work is manpower intensive and you rapidly run out of personnel to attend meetings. Let me show you why.FORCES DEPLOYMENT / TPFDD WORKING GROUPLIAISON
31Integrated Staff Cells COALITION/COMBINED PLANNING GROUP (CPG)FUTURE OPS (FOPS)FUTURE PLANS (PLANS)CURRENT OPS (COPS)DEPLOYMENT MGT TEAM (DMT)COALITION COORDINATION CENTER (CC-CENTER)MULTINATIONAL JOINT LOGISTICS COORDINATION CENTER (MJL-CC)C/C INTERROGATION CELLC/C COLLECTION BOARDFORCE FIRESC/C TARGET BOARDCIVIL MILITARY OPS CENTER (CMOC)C/C AV LOG SPT BDOPERATIONAL PLANNING TM (OPT)POLITICAL MILITARY GROUPCOMMUNICATIONS COORD CELLRULES OF ENGAGE COMMC/C DISEASE CONT BDC/C INFORMATION BUREAUMORALE, WELFARE, AND RECREATIONMILITARY COORD CENTERSECURITY ASSESSMENT TEAMSPECIAL OPS CELLC/C MEDICAL CONT BDHEALTH SERV SPT BDC/C VISITORS BUREAUINFORMATION MANAGEMENT CTRC/C MORTUARY AFF BDC/C HNS SPT BDC/C CONTRACTING BDEPW MANAGEMENT BOARDC/C CAPTURED MATERIAL EXPLOIT CELLCOMBAT OPERATIONS CENTERC/C MOBILITY AND ENG BDC/C TERRAIN MANAGE BDLOGISTICS READINESS CENTERC/C PETROLEUM BDC/C LOG COORD BDREAR AREA OPERATIONS CTRC/C MOVEMENT CONT CTRC/C RECEPTION CENTERThis is a partial list of integrated cells taken from a briefing given by then LTG Anthony Zinni, former commanding general of Ist Marine Expeditionary Force. He developed this list from his experience with multinational forces in combat and military operations other than war.These cells require a large number of core personnel, and the other staff members who must devote a substantial portion of their time to these cells must also do their own staff work. Now, look at your organization. Are there enough folks to provide multifunctional coverage for every one of these cells?The answer is probably “no”. However, if we develop a schedule and “deconflict” the times of these meetings; if we use meeting management techniques to abide by the schedule, and if we share information across the staff we can support each of these functions.Note: Coalition/Combined (C/C)
32Routine Staff SupportCCTFMore Closely Aligned with Normal Staff OrganizationRepresentatives on Integrated CellMore meetings than Bodies: Battle RhythmLinkage to staffs higher and lowerC1C2C3C4C5C6FUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFUsually, the MNF staff chiefs and senior planners and action officers; that is, the colonels, lieutenant colonels, majors, and naval equivalents, constantly attend meetings. In between meetings, they return to their functional areas for functional update briefings, and pass additional requirements and guidance to the remainder of the staff.With all these functional and integrated cell meetings, there is a tremendous appetite for information. Someone has to develop information, do routine staff work and provide staff connectivity to both higher and lower staffs.A balance must be achieved between the work that must be done in functional areas and the participation in the integrated cells. This is where augmentation becomes critical. A robust MNF HQs engaged in a complex, high intensity operations, can easily exceed 600 positions on the staff.LIAISON
33Liaison“They are crucial to success, and you have to pick your best people. They have to have the moxie to stand up in front of a two or four star general, and brief him on what their commander is thinking, their unit’s capabilities, and make their recommendations.”LTG Stiner, USACdr, JTF South, Operation Just CauseCCTFLiaison higher and lowerLiaisons to CTF staff become key members of Integrated CellsMore meetings than Bodies: Battle RhythmRank/Experience critical: Must be able to speak for the commanderC1C2C3C4C5C6FUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFLiaison officers, or LNOs or LOs, are extremely important to successful functioning of the MNF headquarters.The liaison’s function is to monitor, coordinate, advise, and assist the command to which attached.The MNF commander must identify the requirement for liaison personnel and request them.With competent liaison officers, the MNF staff and components can more easily conduct collaborative planning. When ideas and plans begin to form in the MNF headquarters, the LNO must communicate them to his parent organization. It is important that the LNO also convey the MNF commander’s intent, sense of urgency, and other factors that affect the MNF headquarters planning efforts. Then both headquarters can be working on the same issues at the same time.The MNF staff’s goal is produce the best plan in the shortest amount of time. LNOs ensure that subordinate headquarters, higher headquarters, and any other relevant organization provide appropriate and timely input. This will help eliminate staffing problems later in the planning process. The LNOs should have uncovered any significant problems and assisted the MNF staff in resolving the issues.You can find a good LNO checklist in US Joint Pup , page II-36.LIAISON
34~~ Unified Action in Multinational Operations ~~ Coordination and Consensus are key elements for MNF operationsUnity of Command is desired -- Unity of Effort is requiredPrinciples of MultinationalUnity of EffortCOMMON UNDERSTANDINGAll forces should understand the overall aim and the concept for itsattainment. Simplicity of plan and organization are essentialCOORDINATED POLICY AND PLANSNations should exchange qualified liaison officers at the earliestopportunity to improve interoperability and mutualunderstandingTRUST AND CONFIDENCECommanders and their representatives must establish andmaintain trust and confidence. Plain, objective communicationand common courtesy are essential.1. Unity of Effort is “REQUIRED” within a MNF whereas Unity of Command is desired (a MNF effort is consensus vice command based).Key principles for MNF Unity of Effort are:#1 – Develop and maintain a common understanding of the aim and concept of operations of the MNF.#2 – Coordinated policy and plans are critical. This is where the liaison offices and the Coalition / Combined Planning Group (CPG) plays a key role within the CTF structure .#3 – Finally, there must be trust and confidence among all members of the staff – a positive and mutually respectful relationship needs to be established early on in the CTF forming process.
35Forming a CPG C-2 C-3 C-1 C-4 CTF Comp CPG C-5 Med C-6 Public Affairs OperationsPlanningTeamCombinedTrainingTeamC-2C-3C-1C-2RepC-4C-3RepC-1RepC-4RepCTF CompCompLNOsCPGC-5RepC-5MedRepC-6RepWe have talked about cells, groups, and boards. An important cross-functional group is the joint, or combined planning group, or CPG.Planning is a dynamic, interactive process, requiring constant coordination and communication between all participants. This is especially true for concurrent planning at the supported strategic CINC, MNF headquarters, and MNF component levels.The C5 or the C3 serves as the driver of the planning process and is supported by the remainder of the staff. One of the most helpful planning tools for the crisis action planning process is a joint planning group, or in a multinational setting, a combined planning group, or CPG. The MNF commander can greatly enhance the planning process by directing the formation of a CPG. The CPG provides a cross-staff functional environment that is conducive to developing concepts and sharing information.The CPG provides a forum for this interaction, and must maintain the flow of information among group members to be of true value. Members act as a conduit to provide information back to their respective staffs and components on the current planning effort as well as requirements for additional support or information. In addition, the CPG should institute a practice of periodic informal briefs to the commander and principle staff members, including LNO’s, on the status of the planning process.MedSJARepPARepC-6Public AffairsSJAStaff CoordinationComp -Component CPG - Combined Planning GroupCTF - Combined Task Force LNOs - Liaison OfficersPA - Public Affairs Rep - RepresentativeSJA - Staff Judge Advocate
36ORDERS CELLWarning OrderPlanning OrderOps OrderCmdr’s EstimateOther OrdersExpandable CPG:“core” group of experienced planners expands to the full CPG. Members include representatives from each staff section as well as component LNO plannersINFO OPS CELLIO Planner(s)C2W Planner(s)Deception Planner(s)JSOTF RepJPOTF RepINFO MGT CELLMessage BoardsRFI ControlGI&SSuspense MgtAgendasPLANNING CELLCore PlannersDJTFACLNOs / Reps as ReqPOSSIBLE SUBCELLSMission AnalysisCOA DevelopmentWARNORDCOA AnalysisCOA ComparisonSynch MatrixCmdr’s EstimateOPORD DevelopmentBranch PlansCPGDEPLOYMENT CELLJOPES / TPFDD PlannerUSTRANSCOM LNOC-4 Transportation RepC-4 Logistics RepC-3 RepComponent LNOs9-14The size of the CPG is critical; too small and the planning process lacks fidelity; too large and the planning process lacks efficiency. A technique is to build in an expandable CPG that consists of a “core” group of experienced planners that drive the process and prepare planning products. This “core” expands to the full CPG by inclusion of planners from each staff section and component LNO planners who provide the fidelity and detail to the concepts generated by the “core.”The “core” CPG should develop a planning timeline that projects the completion date of each step of the planning process, with enough flexibility to revisit a step if conditions change. In addition, the core planners of the CPG should include an officer who monitors task completion to ensure no critical step was missed in the planning process.Other cells, such as special staff cells or component cells can augment the core cell as required. Additionally, specialized cells can fill technical planning tasks while force deployment cells develop movement plans. Other cells can be held on-call as necessary.REPRESENTATIVES TO THE CPGComponent LNOs: AFFOR, ARFOR, NAVFOR, MARFORJTF Staff: J1, J2, J3/JOC, J4, J5, J6, EngineerSupport Combatant Command LNOs: POLAD,Surgeon, PAO, SJA, JCTB, USSPACECOM,USTRANSCOM, USSTRATCOM, NORAD
37CAP Phase VI Execution Plans and Operations Synchronization Coalition / Combined Planning Group (CPG), C3 or C5 ChairsPrioritize/Task Planning Efforts for CTFProvide Centralized Direction and GuidanceCTF: HrsC3 FutureOperations(FOPS)CTF Battle Staff StaffCTF: 96 Hrs /Next PhaseTransition,or TerminationC5 FuturePlans(PLANS)CTF: 0-24 HrsC3 CurrentOperations (COPS)CAP ProductsThis slide depicts the crisis action planning process as it occurs after the CTF has been formed and the course of action (COA) is being executed. Planning simultaneously occurs in C5 Future Plans, C3 Future Ops, and in C3 Current Ops. These cells will, consequently, be primary locations for MPAT planners. The CPG meets daily to review status and manage the CTF planning process for the CTF COS and Commander.The supported strategic CINC and MNF HQs staffs simultaneously conduct concurrent long range and short term planning and execution. This slide represents the continuum of C5 long range deliberate planning through short range branch plans and execution in current ops. Long range planning Includes sequel planning, such as transition and exit planning, and limited combat to peacekeeping and nation building. At some point the C5 plans will need to be prepared for execution, and all the ideas and visions have to be developed into a plan that can be executed. This is the job of C3 Future Ops.The key to successful planning and execution is to have an efficient process to move plans under development from one cell to the next efficiently. This will ensure that products are developed to support timely decisions by the supported strategic CINC and MNF decision makers while giving plans visibility and input as appropriate by both levels.The “CAP products” and “Collaboration Tools” reference in the slide is the distributive collaborative planning software aids and information systems that give decision makers situation awareness and decision support for timely and efficient decision process.The council of colonels generally meets each day to provide senior level direction and guidance to these crisis action organization cells. They keep the planning process on track.“Hand-Off”Of Plan“Hand-Off”Of PlanInitial Plan / Campaign PlanFollow-on Phase - PlansWhat’s Next?Refines / AdjustsModifies OPORDs-OPLANs(Based upon CurrentSituation)Issues OPORDS / FRAGOsDrafts Pertinent MessagesMonitor, Assess, Direct, &Control Order Execution.“SA” for CPG and CTFCollaborationToolsOPTOPTProductsOPORD-OPLANS / Campaign Plan OverallSequel plans for future phasesConcept of operationsRisksDraft Cdr’s IntentInitial CJTF guidanceAny wargaming resultsPol-Mil IssuesBranch plans with triggersDraft Cdr’s IntentCmdr’ Assessment /EstimateOrders (WARN, FRAG, Etc.)Recommend CCIR, ROECINC SITREPSituational Awareness (SA) -- COPBriefingsSITREP/ near-term FRAGOsMessage ReleaseTrack Actions / SuspensesCommander’s SITREP12
38CCTFPatient MovementRequirements CenterPersonalStaffCoalition / CombinedReception CenterBloodProgram OfficeCoalition / CombinedCommunicationsControl CenterDCCTFC-1C-6SurgeonCoalition / Combined InterrogationFacilityChaplainCoalition/CombinedPlanning GroupLegalAdvisorDocument ExploitationCenterComptrollerChiefofStaffC-2C-5Coalition / Combined IntelligenceSupport ElementCombined VisitorsBureauCapturedMaterial ExploitationCenterPublicAffairsNational SupportTeamMortuaryAffairs OfficeCoalition / Combined InformationBureauThis slide depicts what the CTF HQs organization with various boards, cells, etc. may look like. Each time a MNF/CTF HQ is formed the organization must be tailored to the situation.Coalition / CombinedSearch and Rescue CenterC-4C-3Sub Area PetroleumOfficeCivil MilitaryOperations CenterCoalition / Combined MovementCenterCoalition / Combined OperationsCenterLogisticsReadiness CenterCoalition / Combined TargetingCoordination BoardFacilitiesUtilization BoardCCTF DeterminesStaff RelationshipAs RequiredRecommended
39Summary: Lessons Learned - Forming Lesson Learned:Clearly define command relationships between components - especially “supported” and supporting relationships.Lesson Learned:Augmentation “cells” from the CINC clearly provide a “jump start” to the processes of forming and planning during a crisis.This slide depicts what the MNF organization with various boards, cells, etc. may look like. Each time a MNF/CTF HQ is formed the organization must be tailored to the situation.Lesson Learned:Keep the number of cells/boards/agencies/centers to a minimum, but if the function is required, forming them is usually beneficial.
40Lessons Learned - Planning Lesson Learned:“Master the mechanics & techniques; understand the art and profession; and be smart enough to know when to deviate from it.”GEN Zinni, CINCCENTLesson Learned:“Leaders should use the military decision-making process to expedite or facilitate planning, but should not let it hinder their efforts to understand the complex issues that lay beneath the operation’s surface.”LTC D. Scalard, Military Review, 1998The crisis action planning process, as taught in this series of modules, is the doctrinal basis planning contingency operations. Widespread familiarity of this planning process among the MPAT member nations will facilitate rapid and effective multinational planning for a contingency.Because of the rapidly changing situation facing an MNF, and the need for planners to be able to respond accordingly, planners must be flexible in their thinking and course of action development. Cross-functional cells and boards are important in this regard.
41Lessons Learned - Deploying Lesson Learned:A CCTF should almost daily ask the following question: “What are we doing to ensure that CTF personnel & their equipment arrive at the PODs at approximately the same time?”Lesson Learned:CCTFs must balance combat vs. support forces in the deployment process. When inadequate support forces are deployed, backlogs of personnel & equipment at the PODs will occur (I.e., adequate JRSOI is on-hand).Forming the MNF and deploying to the area of operations is always going to be a major challenge in multinational operations. Here are some points of consideration that must be addressed in planning for this phase of the operation.
42Lessons Learned - Employing Lesson Learned:A CCTF should always seek to gain & maintain the initiative -- this applies not only to conventional combat operations, but to the information domain as well.Lesson Learned:Keep your logisticians abreast of the operational situation -- only with full situational awareness can they anticipate future requirements as operations unfold.Deter…Fight to win...Lesson Learned:There is no replacement for the application of overwhelming force at the proper time & place. Seek or create enemy weakness and attack it quickly, decisively, and relentlessly.Lesson Learned:Always maintain a reserve ready for immediate employment to reinforce success, capitalize on unanticipated opportunities, or to address unforseen exigencies.Here are other lessons learned in planning and monitoring operations. This highlights the need to build a headquarters staff that can be proactive and anticipate issues.
43Lessons Learned - Transition Lesson Learned:Transition may occur between the CTF with a US command, with another military command (i.e. UN follow-on forces), with host nation forces, or to civilian control. Regardless, the command must prepare for and coordinate the transition to ensure an orderly change of authority and responsibility.We must plan for the transition of the military effort back to civilian control. In a humanitarian assistance or disaster relief operation, this may mean transitioning our assistance to the host government. In a peace keeping mission, we might transition to a UN force.
44Lessons Learned - Redeploying Lesson Learned:Redeployment is essentially the reverse of deployment. Redeployment can begin at any point during CTF operations and planning for it should begin as soon as possible.Finally, the MNF headquarters must plan for the redeployment of its forces.
45Multinational Planning Augmentation Team Forming the Multinational Force (MNF)CONGRATULATIONS!That completes our discussion of Forming the Multinational Force, do you have any questions.