Presentation on theme: "Forming the Multinational Force (MNF) / Coalition or Combined Task Force (CTF) Purpose u Familiarization with the fundamentals of establishing a Multinational."— Presentation transcript:
Forming the Multinational Force (MNF) / Coalition or Combined Task Force (CTF) Purpose u Familiarization with the fundamentals of establishing a Multinational Force (MNF) / Coalition or Combined Task Force (CTF) – USCINCPAC’s Two Tiered Command and Control – MNF / CTF Design – MNF / CTF Headquarters Staff Structure References u Joint Pub 0-2, Unified Action Armed Forces, Feb 95 u JP 3-0, Doctrine for Joint Operations, 10 Sep 01 u JP 3-16, Doctrine for Multinational Operations u JP 3-56 Command and Control Doctrine for Joint Ops, Draft, Apr 97 u JP Joint Task Force Planning Guidance and Procedures, 13 Jan 99 Multinational Planning Augmentation Team (MPAT)
Multinational Operations “ ‘Multinational operations’ is a collective term to describe military actions conducted by forces of two or more nations. Such operations are usually undertaken within the structure of a coalition or alliance” JP 3-16
Crisis Action Planning Process Lead Nation NCA / Supported Strategic Commander Level ISituationDevelopmentISituationDevelopmentIICrisisAssessmentIICrisisAssessmentIVCOASelectionIVCOASelection VI Execution VI Execution CTF HQ Level CAPcrisis action planning COAcourse of action CAPcrisis action planning COAcourse of action Deployment Employment Transition Redeployment PlanningPlanning Execution IIICOADevelopmentIIICOADevelopmentVExecutionPlanningVExecutionPlanning Form CTF HQ Form CTF HQCAPCAP
Command Relationships OPCON Perform functions of command: Authoritative direction for all military operations & training Organize and employ commands and forces Assign tasks & designate objectives Establish plans/requirements for intelligence activity Suspend/reassign subordinate commanders TACON Local direction and control of movements Typical in Functional Command structure Does not include: - Organizational authority - Administrative and logistics support Combatant Command (COCOM) COCOM is the national chain of command at the theater strategic level. It is the authority to organize and employ a nation’s forces. It is never relinquished to a commander of another nation. Authoritative direction over all aspects of military operations, joint training, and logistics necessary for mission accomplishment
Command Relationships “... there should be no mistaking the fact that the greatest obstacles to unity of command during UNOSOM II were imposed by the United States on itself... command arrangements had effectively created a condition that allowed no one to set clear, unambiguous priorities in designing and executing a comprehensive force package.” Somalia Operations: Lessons Learned Jan 95, Page 60
NCA OPCON PRESIDENT SECRETARY OF DEFENSE FUNCTIONAL COMPONENT SUBORDINATE UNIFIED COMMAND Service Forces (Not assigned by “Forces For”) COCOM Chain of Command JOINT/COALITION TASK FORCE Chain of Command Administrative Chain Coordination UNIFIED COMMANDS CJCS SERVICE COMPONENT COMMANDS SERVICE COMPONENTS/ FORCES MILITARY DEPARTMENTS
US JTF (Two-Tiered) Command & Control OperationalLevel TacticalLevel CINC USACOMPSOFCOMPUSMCCOMPUSAFCOMPUSNCOMP JTF NCA SupportingCINC(s) CJCS TheaterStrategic NationalStrategic TIER I TIER II USACOMPSOFCOMPUSMCCOMPUSAFCOMPUSNCOMPJPOTF National Command / Strategic Direction Chain of Command Administrative Chain Coordination
USPACOM’s Potential Coalition / Combined Task Force HQs 3rd Fleet 7th Fleet III MEF I MEF I CORPS ALCOM SOCPAC
MNF / CTF Employment u For a contingency operation, a Lead Nation and theater strategic commander (designated as the ‘Supported Strategic Commander’) will be nominated to lead the operation on behalf of the multinational partners, and a contingency coalition / combined task force (CTF) will be established to conduct military operations. The CTF is formed for a specific limited objective and dissolved upon achieving its assigned objectives. u MNF Chain of Command: – NCA (lead nation) Supported Strategic Cmdr (CINC) CCTF u Use crisis action planning (CAP) Procedures Bottom Line: Requires Combined / Joint Staff employing Combined / Joint Processes
MOOTW / SSC is most likely scenario – Short Duration / Small Scale / No-Notice – Joint – Multinational / Interagency MNF / CTF Missions NEOPeaceEnforcementCM HA/DisasterReliefPeaceKeepingSSC
Facts and Decisions Affecting MNF/CTF Structure Assigned Tasks CTF Mission Required Capabilities Force Options Force Options Component Structure Component Structure C2 Structure Basing Support Structure Staff Structure Force Structure Facts Decisions
CTF Organization MNF Operations “Nothing that I have ever been taught prepared me for the mental jump needed to go from being Chief of Operations in NATO army group to being Chief of Staff of a UN Operation, where I had to bring together the staff from ten different nations and staff the deployment in less than three weeks from the Security Resolution.” Major General R.A. Cordy-Simpson UKAR
A MNF/CTF that can: Our Goal u Rapidly plan in a complex setting u Develop a plan which supports national and strategic theater goals u Continuously integrate logistics u Orient on the enemy’s center of gravity u Efficiently execute a plan based on the commander’s concept u Achieve synergy in the employment of all military and inter-agency capabilities
Lead Nation (Nation # 1) (AS NCA) Supported Strategic Commander (CDF) Participating Nation #2 (US NCA) Participating Nation #3 (ROK NCA) Supporting Strategic Commander (CINC) Supporting Strategic Commander (ROK JCS) CCTF Participating US Forces Participating AS Forces Participating ROK Forces Lead Nation Command Structure Provides for Integrated Command and Control – Unity of Command & Effort Legend: 1. Strategic Guidance 3. OPCON or TACON And Support 2. National Command 5. Theater or COCOM Command 4. Consultation / Coordination CCTF Staff is augmented by participating Nations and MPAT Cadre
Parallel Command Structure TF East Sector Commander Participating Nation #1 Forces Nation #2 NCA Theater Strategic Commander – Nation # 2 Nation #1 NCA Theater Strategic Commander – Nation # 1 Participating Nation #2 Forces TF West Sector Commander Coordination Center Minimal Integrated Command and Control –Unity of Effort Through Coordination 1. Strategic Guidance 3. OPCON or TACON And Support 2. National Command 5. Theater or COCOM Command 4. Consultation / Coordination
Combination Command Structure (Lead Nation and Parallel) CCTF Participating Nation #2 Participating Nation #3 Participating Nation #1 Commander Participating Nation #1 CoordinationCenter Lead Nation Supported Strategic Commander Nation #1 Supporting Strategic Commander Parallel Lead Nation Partial Integrated Command and Control – Tailored Lead Nation Concept Used in Desert Shield / Desert Storm 1. Strategic Guidance 3. OPCON or TACON And Support 2. National Command 5. Theater or COCOM Command 4. Consultation / Coordination
Integrated Command Structure (Integrated Alliance or Lead Nation Alliance) Provides for Integrated Command and Control – Unity of Command & Effort Legend: OPCON or TACON Designated Lead Nation NCA Or Legitimizing Authority (Treaty) With Strategic Guidance Committee or Governing Body (Example: National Defense Committee) Multinational Force Multinational Force Multinational Force Alliance Commander (Cmdr Combined TF – CCTF) CCTF Staff is fully integrated with alliance Personnel Components are fully integrated normally at the Brigade / Squadron Levels of command and above (no integration Below this Level)
CTF Component Structure (Service) Supported Strategic Cmdr (CINC) CCTF CAFFORCARFOR Simplicity in a Time Compressed Environment Capabilities or functions do not overlap CMARFORCNAVFORCSOTF
CTF Component Structure (Functional) CINC CCTF Unity of Effort Organize by capabilities or functions CFMCCCFACCCSOTFCFLCCCCMOTFCPOTF Supported Strategic Cmdr (CINC)
Subordinate TFs & CTFs Unity of Effort Geographic or Mission Specific CTFTRANS CTF MED TF Security TF Eng CCTF CINC Supported Strategic Cmdr (CINC)
CTF Lead Nation NCA The Leap to the Operational Level MEF HQ CORPS HQ TACTICAL LEVEL FLEET HQ AEF HQ A formidable challenge, building an operational staff from single service tactical HQs. A leap from the “Comfort Zone” Supported Strategic Cmdr / CINC Cmdr / CINC CNAVFORCPOTFCARFORCAFFORCMARFORCSOTF MPAT & MNF SOP
CTF Staff Process Operational Level Focus Minimal Time Philosophy Structure Procedures Not Business As Usual Plans Pers Log Intel Ops Cellular Staff Structure Comm Conducted by a “New” Staff Crisis Action Planning Phase I: Situation Development Phase II: Crisis Assessment Phase III: COA Development Phase IV: COA Selection Phase V:Execution Planning Phase VI: Execution
The CTF Staff u Task Organized to the Specific Mission u Capable of Rapid Information Processing u Organized for Efficiency u Shortened Plan-Decide-Execute Cycle
Single Service HQ Staff COMMANDER G1G2G6G3G5G4 FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFF
CTF HQ C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 Lead Nation Headquarters SOPs Cultural Dynamics Infrastructure Differences Communications TTPs Operational Level focus Add’l MPAT SMEs: PSYOP, Civil Affairs, Legal, Medical, Pol-Mil, etc. LNOs from Supporting Commands MPAT MPAT TE-3 Focus: Forming the CTF HQ Staff
CTF Augmentation Source: DJTFAC u USCINCPAC Staff (20) – O-6 Team Chief – 1xJ1 – 1xJ2 – 2xJ3 (OPS) – 3xJ3 (Plans) – 3xJ3 (IO / CA / PSYOP) – 2xJ4 (Plans / Eng) – 2xJ5 (TPFDD) – 1xJ5 (Pol-Mil) – 1xJ6 – 1xPA – 1xSJA – 1xMed u USCINPAC Components (20) – PACAF (5) F Airlift & Fighter Ops F Airlift Management F Logistics & Ops Planners – USARPAC (4) F Logistics & Ops Planners F Terrain Analysis Tm – CINPACFLT (2) F Logistics & Ops Planners – MARFORPAC (2) F Logistics & Ops Planners – JICPAC (6) F IAT Officers & NCOs – SOCPAC (1) TRAINED---EXPERIENCED---READY TO DEPLOY---WORK FOR THE CTF
The Result: A CTF Staff CCTF C1C2C6C3C5C4 FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFF LIAISON u Command Group u Battle Staff u Integrated Staff Cells u Routine Support u Liaison How Does It Work? FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFF
Battle Staff u Chief of Staff Direction u Staff Cognizance over Integrated Cells u Represents all Key Battlefield Operating Systems u Deals with Processed Data CCTF C1C2C6C3C5C4 FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFF LIAISON FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFF
Integrated Staff Cells u Cross Functional Representation u LNO Representation u Information Management u Battle Rhythm u Plans Handover CCTF C1C2C6C3C5C4 FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFF COALITION / COMBINED PLANNING GROUP (CPG) INFORMATION OPERATIONS CELL COALITION / COMBINED OPERATIONS CENTER (COC) FORCES DEPLOYMENT / TPFDD WORKING GROUP LIAISON
Integrated Staff Cells u COALITION/COMBINED PLANNING GROUP (CPG) u FUTURE OPS (FOPS) u FUTURE PLANS (PLANS) u CURRENT OPS (COPS) u DEPLOYMENT MGT TEAM (DMT) u COALITION COORDINATION CENTER (CC-CENTER) u MULTINATIONAL JOINT LOGISTICS COORDINATION CENTER (MJL-CC) u C/C INTERROGATION CELL u C/C COLLECTION BOARD u FORCE FIRES u C/C TARGET BOARD u CIVIL MILITARY OPS CENTER (CMOC) u C/C AV LOG SPT BD u OPERATIONAL PLANNING TM (OPT) u POLITICAL MILITARY GROUP u COMMUNICATIONS COORD CELL u RULES OF ENGAGE COMM u C/C DISEASE CONT BD u C/C INFORMATION BUREAU u MORALE, WELFARE, AND RECREATION u MILITARY COORD CENTER u SECURITY ASSESSMENT TEAM u SPECIAL OPS CELL u C/C MEDICAL CONT BD u HEALTH SERV SPT BD u C/C VISITORS BUREAU u INFORMATION MANAGEMENT CTR u C/C MORTUARY AFF BD u C/C HNS SPT BD u C/C CONTRACTING BD u EPW MANAGEMENT BOARD u C/C CAPTURED MATERIAL EXPLOIT CELL u COMBAT OPERATIONS CENTER u C/C MOBILITY AND ENG BD u C/C TERRAIN MANAGE BD u LOGISTICS READINESS CENTER u C/C PETROLEUM BD u C/C LOG COORD BD u REAR AREA OPERATIONS CTR u C/C MOVEMENT CONT CTR u C/C RECEPTION CENTER Note: Coalition/Combined (C/C)
Routine Staff Support u More Closely Aligned with Normal Staff Organization u Representatives on Integrated Cell u More meetings than Bodies: Battle Rhythm u Linkage to staffs higher and lower CCTF C1C2C6C3C5C4 FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFF LIAISON FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFF
Liaison u Liaison higher and lower u Liaisons to CTF staff become key members of Integrated Cells u More meetings than Bodies: Battle Rhythm u Rank/Experience critical: Must be able to speak for the commander CCTF C1C2C6C3C5C4 FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFF LIAISON “They are crucial to success, and you have to pick your best people. They have to have the moxie to stand up in front of a two or four star general, and brief him on what their commander is thinking, their unit’s capabilities, and make their recommendations.” LTG Stiner, USA Cdr, JTF South, Operation Just Cause FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFF
Principles of Multinational Unity of Effort COMMON UNDERSTANDING All forces should understand the overall aim and the concept for its attainment. Simplicity of plan and organization are essential COORDINATED POLICY AND PLANS Nations should exchange qualified liaison officers at the earliest opportunity to improve interoperability and mutual understanding TRUST AND CONFIDENCE Commanders and their representatives must establish and maintain trust and confidence. Plain, objective communication and common courtesy are essential. ~~ Unified Action in Multinational Operations ~~ Coordination and Consensus are key elements for MNF operations Unity of Command is desired -- Unity of Effort is required
Forming a CPG C-1 C-2 C-3 C-4 C-5 C-6 CTF Comp C-1 Rep C-2 Rep C-3 Rep C-4 Rep C-5 Rep C-6 Rep PA Rep Comp LNOs Med Rep SJA Rep Comp -ComponentCPG - Combined Planning Group CTF - Combined Task ForceLNOs - Liaison Officers PA - Public AffairsRep - Representative SJA - Staff Judge Advocate Combined Training Team Med SJA Public Affairs CPG Staff Coordination Operations Planning Team
9-14 Expandable CPG : “core” group of experienced planners expands to the full CPG. Members include representatives from each staff section as well as component LNO planners INFO OPS CELL IO Planner(s) C2W Planner(s) Deception Planner(s) JSOTF Rep JPOTF Rep ORDERS CELL Warning Order Planning Order Ops Order Cmdr’s Estimate Other Orders INFO MGT CELL Message Boards RFI Control GI&S Suspense Mgt Agendas PLANNING CELL Core Planners DJTFAC LNOs / Reps as Req POSSIBLE SUBCELLS Mission Analysis COA Development WARNORD COA Analysis COA Comparison Synch Matrix Cmdr’s Estimate OPORD Development Branch Plans DEPLOYMENT CELL JOPES / TPFDD Planner USTRANSCOM LNO C-4 Transportation Rep C-4 Logistics Rep C-3 Rep Component LNOs REPRESENTATIVES TO THE CPG Component LNOs: AFFOR, ARFOR, NAVFOR, MARFOR JTF Staff: J1, J2, J3/JOC, J4, J5, J6, Engineer Support Combatant Command LNOs: POLAD, Surgeon, PAO, SJA, JCTB, USSPACECOM, USTRANSCOM, USSTRATCOM, NORAD CPG
CTF Battle Staff Staff CAP Phase VI Execution Plans and Operations Synchronization Branch plans with triggers Draft Cdr’s Intent Cmdr’ Assessment /Estimate Orders (WARN, FRAG, Etc.) Recommend CCIR, ROE CINC SITREP OPORD-OPLANS / Campaign Plan Overall Sequel plans for future phases – Concept of operations – Risks – Draft Cdr’s Intent Initial CJTF guidance Any wargaming results Pol-Mil Issues Situational Awareness (SA) -- COP Briefings SITREP/ near-term FRAGOs Message Release Track Actions / Suspenses Commander’s SITREP 12 Coalition / Combined Planning Group (CPG), C3 or C5 Chairs Prioritize/Task Planning Efforts for CTF Provide Centralized Direction and Guidance Coalition / Combined Planning Group (CPG), C3 or C5 Chairs Prioritize/Task Planning Efforts for CTF Provide Centralized Direction and Guidance CTF: 0-24 Hrs C3 Current Operations (COPS) Issues OPORDS / FRAGOs Drafts Pertinent Messages Monitor, Assess, Direct, & Control Order Execution. “SA” for CPG and CTF Products CAP Products Collaboration Tools CTF: 96 Hrs / Next Phase Transition, or Termination C5 Future Plans (PLANS) Initial Plan / Campaign Plan Follow-on Phase - Plans What’s Next? OPT CTF: Hrs C3 Future Operations (FOPS) Refines / Adjusts Modifies OPORDs-OPLANs (Based upon Current Situation) OPT “Hand-Off” Of Plan “Hand-Off” Of Plan
DCCTF C-5 Combined Visitors Bureau Coalition / Combined Reception Center C-4 C-3 C-2 C-1 C-6 Chief of Staff Coalition / Combined Communications Control Center Coalition/Combined Planning Group Sub Area Petroleum Office Logistics Readiness Center Facilities Utilization Board Coalition / Combined Movement Center Coalition / Combined Operations Center Coalition / Combined Information Bureau Public Affairs Chaplain Comptroller Legal Advisor Surgeon Blood Program Office Patient Movement Requirements Center Coalition / Combined Interrogation Facility Document Exploitation Center Captured Material Exploitation Center Coalition / Combined Search and Rescue Center Civil Military Operations Center Coalition / Combined Targeting Coordination Board Coalition / Combined Intelligence Support Element National Support Team Recommended As Required CCTF Determines Staff Relationship Mortuary Affairs Office Personal Staff CCTF
Lesson Learned: Clearly define command relationships between components - especially “supported” and supporting relationships. Summary: Lessons Learned - Forming Lesson Learned: Augmentation “cells” from the CINC clearly provide a “jump start” to the processes of forming and planning during a crisis. Lesson Learned: Keep the number of cells/boards/agencies/centers to a minimum, but if the function is required, forming them is usually beneficial.
Lessons Learned - Planning Lesson Learned: “Master the mechanics & techniques; understand the art and profession; and be smart enough to know when to deviate from it.” GEN Zinni, CINCCENT Lesson Learned: “Leaders should use the military decision- making process to expedite or facilitate planning, but should not let it hinder their efforts to understand the complex issues that lay beneath the operation’s surface.” LTC D. Scalard, Military Review, 1998
Lessons Learned - Deploying Lesson Learned: A CCTF should almost daily ask the following question: “What are we doing to ensure that CTF personnel & their equipment arrive at the PODs at approximately the same time?” Lesson Learned: CCTFs must balance combat vs. support forces in the deployment process. When inadequate support forces are deployed, backlogs of personnel & equipment at the PODs will occur (I.e., adequate JRSOI is on-hand).
Lessons Learned - Employing u Deter… u Fight to win... Lesson Learned: A CCTF should always seek to gain & maintain the initiative -- this applies not only to conventional combat operations, but to the information domain as well. Lesson Learned: There is no replacement for the application of overwhelming force at the proper time & place. Seek or create enemy weakness and attack it quickly, decisively, and relentlessly. Lesson Learned: Keep your logisticians abreast of the operational situation -- only with full situational awareness can they anticipate future requirements as operations unfold. Lesson Learned: Always maintain a reserve ready for immediate employment to reinforce success, capitalize on unanticipated opportunities, or to address unforseen exigencies.
Lessons Learned - Transition Lesson Learned: Transition may occur between the CTF with a US command, with another military command (i.e. UN follow-on forces), with host nation forces, or to civilian control. Regardless, the command must prepare for and coordinate the transition to ensure an orderly change of authority and responsibility.
Lessons Learned - Redeploying Lesson Learned: Redeployment is essentially the reverse of deployment. Redeployment can begin at any point during CTF operations and planning for it should begin as soon as possible.
Forming the Multinational Force (MNF) Multinational Planning Augmentation Team CONGRATULATIONS!