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Facilitating the Planning Process Deployable Joint Task Force Augmentation Cell (DJTFAC) Multinational Planning Augmentation Team (MPAT) Forming the Multinational.

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Presentation on theme: "Facilitating the Planning Process Deployable Joint Task Force Augmentation Cell (DJTFAC) Multinational Planning Augmentation Team (MPAT) Forming the Multinational."— Presentation transcript:

1 Facilitating the Planning Process Deployable Joint Task Force Augmentation Cell (DJTFAC) Multinational Planning Augmentation Team (MPAT) Forming the Multinational Force (MNF) / Coalition or Combined Task Force (CTF)

2 u Purpose u Purpose Familiarization with the fundamentals of establishing a Multinational Force (MNF) / Coalition or Combined Task Force (CTF) – Terminology and Design – Command and Control – CTF Headquarters Staff and MNF Force Structure References MNF SOP (Working Draft #8) Joint Pub 0-2, Unified Action Armed Forces, 24 Feb 95 JP 3-0, Doctrine for Joint Operations,10 Sep 01 JP 3-16, Doctrine for Multinational Operations JP 3-56 Command and Control Doctrine for Joint Ops, Draft, Apr 97 JP Joint Task Force Planning Guidance and Procedures, 13 Jan 99 References MNF SOP (Working Draft #8) Joint Pub 0-2, Unified Action Armed Forces, 24 Feb 95 JP 3-0, Doctrine for Joint Operations,10 Sep 01 JP 3-16, Doctrine for Multinational Operations JP 3-56 Command and Control Doctrine for Joint Ops, Draft, Apr 97 JP Joint Task Force Planning Guidance and Procedures, 13 Jan 99

3 Multinational Operations “ ‘Multinational operations’ is a collective term to describe military actions conducted by forces of two or more nations. Such operations are usually undertaken within the structure of a coalition or alliance” JP 3-16

4 Key Terminology u MNF : Multinational Force – “Broad Overarching Term” – Describes the “broader force” and includes the participating Nation’s and Strategic Planning Headquarters (HQs). – The entire organization of nations, participating forces, and support based upon “shared interests”. u Two Types of MNF Operations : – Coalition : Ad-Hoc / Crisis Based (East Timor) (East Timor) – Combined : Alliance / Treaty Based (Example: NATO or UNC / CFC - Korea)

5 Key Terminology (continued) u CTF: Coalition / Combined Task Force – Coalition TF (CTF): Ad-Hoc / Crisis-Oriented – Combined TF (CTF): Alliance / Treaty-Based (predetermined guidelines and / or contingency plans present)

6 Strategic Guidance u Effective Mission Accomplishment by a CTF requires clear and legitimate strategic guidance from a higher headquarters u Sources of Guidance: – Multinational Regional Organization guidance based upon alliance / treaty. – Coalition Multinational Organizational guidance based upon crisis action coordination / collaboration and ad-hoc (non-treaty) actions. – UN Security Council or General Assembly resolution and mandate for multinational military operations (UN authorized or UN lead). – UN Security Council or General Assembly resolution and mandate for multinational military operations (UN authorized or UN lead). – Unilateral Operations by a single country that evolves into a coalition operation or UN operation.

7 Essential Strategic Guidance u Essential Strategic Guidance:  Purpose for MNF Action (purpose for CTF activation)  Broad Mission Statement MNF (CTF)  Broad Objectives for MNF (CTF)  Broad Criteria for termination and transition of MNF Opns  Participating Nations and contribution  Lead Nation for effort and MNF SOP that will be used  Agreement on Collective Security Interests Involved  Specific Diplomatic, Economic, Informational, or Military Limitations, Concerns, Sensitivities

8 “The Realities” Essential Strategic Guidance u Guidance may be initially incomplete or fragmentary due to the complex and rapidly evolving crisis situation u Guidance will require ongoing refinements and adjustments as the crisis evolves u Strategic and CTF commanders / staff need to continually press for updated / refined guidance as required by the situation (never-ending process)

9 Command Relationships & Control / Coordination Relationships u Foundation: Two Chains of Command Always Exist – Within the CTF command, each nations’ forces are commanded by TWO separate chains of command: #1: The Respective “NATIONAL” Chain of Command #2: The CTF “MULTINATIONAL” Chain of Command

10 Command Relationship Terms u Command and Control Relationships / Concepts: – Operational Control (OPCON): Command authority to organize and employ forces, assign tasks, designate objectives, and give authoritive direction necessary to accomplish the mission – Tactical Control (TACON): A more restrictive command authority, limited to the detailed control of movements or maneuvers within a give operational area (AO) necessary to accomplish assigned missions or tasks. – SUPPORT: Command authority for support relationships to assist in the coordination and direction of MNF logistical planning, coordination, and control / direction

11 MOOTW / SSC is most likely scenario u Short Duration / Small Scale / No-Notice u Joint u Multinational / Interagency MOOTW / SSC is most likely scenario u Short Duration / Small Scale / No-Notice u Joint u Multinational / Interagency MNF / CTF Missions NEONEOPeaceEnforcementPeaceEnforcementCMCM HA/DisasterReliefHA/DisasterReliefPeaceKeepingPeaceKeepingSSCSSCMRCMRC

12 Facts and Decisions Affecting MNF/CTF Structure Assigned Tasks CTF Mission Required Capabilities Force Options Force Options Component Structure Component Structure C2 Structure Basing Support Structure CTF Staff Structure MNF Force Structure Facts Decisions

13 COMMON UNDERSTANDING All forces should understand the overall aim and the concept for its attainment. Simplicity of plan and organization are essential COORDINATED POLICY AND PLANS Nations should exchange qualified liaison officers at the earliest opportunity to improve interoperability and mutual understanding TRUST AND CONFIDENCE Commanders and their representatives must establish and maintain trust and confidence. Plain, objective communication and common courtesy are essential. Unified Action in Multinational Operations Coordination and Consensus are key elements for MNF operations Unity of Command is desired -- Unity of Effort is required Principles of Multinational Unity of Effort

14 A MNF/CTF that can: that can: “The” Goal u Rapidly plan in a complex setting u Develop a plan which supports national and strategic theater goals u Continuously integrate logistics u Orient on the threat/enemy’s center of gravity u Efficiently execute a plan based on the commander’s concept u Achieve synergy in the employment of all military and inter-agency capabilities

15 Lead Nation Concept u A Lead Nation is designated by the participating nations within the MNF effort u Lead Nation is responsible for the strategic consultation / coordination for the MNF effort – Among nations – With UN channels – With other Non-Governmental or International Organization (NGO / IO) u Lead Nation acts as the “single channel” of MNF strategic direction / guidance to military forces within the MNF effort based upon collaboration and agreements with participating nations u Provides for “unity of effort”

16 Strategic Guidance OPCON or TACON And Support National Command National Command, Theater Theater Lead Nation NCA (Nation #1) (NAT AUTHORITIES) Lead Nation NCA (Nation #1) (NAT AUTHORITIES) Supported Strategic Commander(CDF) Commander(CDF) Participating Nation #2 Nation #2 (NAT AUTHORITIES) Participating Nation #2 Nation #2 (NAT AUTHORITIES) Participating Nation #3 Nation #3 (NAT AUTHORITIES) Participating Nation #3 Nation #3 (NAT AUTHORITIES) Supporting Strategic Commander Commander Commander (AFP JCS) Supporting Strategic Commander (AFP JCS) Commander Coalition / Combined Task Force (CCTF)Commander Coalition / Combined Task Force (CCTF) Participating US Forces US ForcesParticipating Participating AS Forces Participating Participating AFP Forces Participating Consultation / Coordination Collaboration/Support National Command Element (NCE) National National National Lead Nation Command Structure (Provides for Integrated Command and Control – Unity of Command & Effort)

17 Legend: Strategic Guidance OPCON or TACON And Support National Command National Command, Coordination CCTFCCTF Participating Nation #2 Nation #2Participating Participating Nation #3 Participating Participating Nation #1 CommanderParticipating Commander Participating Nation #1 Nation #1Participating Lead Nation Supported Strategic Commander Commander Nation #1 Supporting Strategic Commander Commander Consultation / Coordination Coordination Collaboration/ Tailored Lead Nation Command Structure (Parallel Command -- Foreign Command of Nation’s Forces is an Issue) Coalition Coordination Center

18 CTF Component Structure (Service) Supported Strategic Cmdr CCTF CAFFORCARFOR Simplicity in a Time Compressed Environment Capabilities or functions do not overlap CMARFORCNAVFORCSOTF

19 CTF Component Structure (Functional) CINC CCTF UnityofEffort Organize by capabilities or functions CFMCCCFACCCSOTFCFLCCCCMOTFCPOTF Supported Strategic Commander

20 UnityofEffort Geographic or Mission Specific CTFTRANSCTFMED TF Security TF Eng CCTF CINC Supported Strategic Commander CTF Component Structure (Subordinate TFs & CTFs) TFWEST TFEAST

21 Legend: Lead Nation (NAT AUTH) Supported Strategic Commander Supporting Strategic Commander(s) Commander Coalition / Combined Task Force (CCTF) CFACCAirComponent CFLCCGroundComponent CFMCCMaritimeComponent CCC CCC CSOTF NationalForcesNationalForcesNationalForcesNationalForcesNationalForcesNationalForcesNationalForcesNationalForces CCMOTF CPOTF Strategic Guidance And Support OPCON or TACON National Command Tentative, This component may or may not be activated due to nature of the crisis. Coordination, Support and Consultation Supporting Nation)s) (NAT AUTH) Coalition Coordination Center (used within coalitions) (used within coalitions) CCC CCC Lead Nation CTF Component Organization Functional Component & Task Force

22 Lead Nation (NAT AUTH) Supported Strategic Commander Supporting Strategic Commander(s) Commander Coalition / Combined Task Force (CCTF) CAFFOR CAFFORAirForces CARFORArmyForces CNAVFORNavyForces CCC CCC CSOTF NationalForcesNationalForcesNationalForcesNationalForcesNationalForcesNationalForcesNationalForcesNationalForces CMOTF (Civil Military) CPOTF CPOTF(Psychological) Legend: Strategic Guidance And Support OPCON or TACON National Command Tentative, This component may or may not be activated due to nature of the crisis. Coordination, Support and Consultation Supporting Nation (s) (NAT AUTH) Coalition Coordination Center (used in coalitions) CMARFORMARINEForces CCC CCC Lead Nation CTF Component Organization Service Component & Task Force

23 The CTF Staff u Task Organized to the Specific Mission u Capable of Rapid Information Processing u Organized for Efficiency u Shortened Plan-Decide-Execute Cycle

24 CTF Lead Nation NAT AUTH The Leap to the Operational Level TACTICAL LEVEL A formidable challenge, building an operational staff from single service tactical HQs. A leap from the “Comfort Zone” Supported Strategic Cmdr Cmdr CNAVFORCPOTFCARFORCAFFORCMARFORCSOTF MPAT & MNF SOP

25 CTF Staff Process Operational Level Focus MinimalTime Philosophy Structure Procedures Not Business As Usual Plans Pers Log Intel OpsCellularStaffStructureComm Conducted by a “New” Staff Crisis Action Planning Phase I: Situation Development Phase II: Crisis Assessment Phase III: COA Development Phase IV: COA Selection Phase V:Execution Planning Phase VI: Execution

26 Single Service HQ Staff COMMANDER G1G2G6G3G5G4 FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF

27 CTFHQ C1/Personnel C2/ Intel C3/ Ops C4/ Log C5/ Plans C6/ Comms Lead Nation CTF Headquarters SOPs Cultural Dynamics Infrastructure Differences Communications TTPs Operational Level focus Add’l MPAT SMEs: PSYOP, Civil Affairs, Legal, Medical, Pol-Mil, etc. LNOs from Supporting SupportingCommands MPAT Forming the CTF Staff (MNF Ops)

28 CTF Staff Structure CCTF C1C2C6C3C5C4 FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF LIAISON u Command Group u Battle Staff u Integrated Staff Cells u Routine Support u Liaison How Does It Work? FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF

29 Command Group u Decision Makers – Intent – Guidance – CCIR CCTF C1C2C6C3C5C4 FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF LIAISON

30 Battle Staff u Chief of Staff Direction u Staff Cognizance over Integrated Cells u Represents all Key Battlefield Operating Systems u Deals with Processed Data CCTF C1C2C6C3C5C4 FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF LIAISON FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF

31 Integrated Staff Cells u Cross Functional Representation u LNO Representation u Information Management u Battle Rhythm u Plans Handover CCTF C1C2C6C3C5C4 FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF COALITION / COMBINED PLANNING GROUP (CPG) INFORMATION OPERATIONS CELL COALITION / COMBINED OPERATIONS CENTER (COC) FORCES DEPLOYMENT / TPFDD WORKING GROUP LIAISON

32 Routine Staff Support u More Closely Aligned with Normal Staff Organization u Representatives on Integrated Cell u More meetings than Bodies: Battle Rhythm u Linkage to staffs higher and lower CCTF C1C2C6C3C5C4 FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF LIAISON FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF

33 Liaison u Liaison supporting, higher and lower staffs u Liaisons to CTF staff become key members of Integrated Cells u More meetings than Bodies: Battle Rhythm u Rank/Experience critical: Must be able to speak for the commander CCTF C1C2C6C3C5C4 FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF LIAISON “They are crucial to success, and you have to pick your best people. They have to have the moxie to stand up in front of a two or four star general, and brief him on what their commander is thinking, their unit’s capabilities, and make their recommendations.” LTG Stiner, USA Cdr, JTF South, Operation Just Cause FUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONALFUNCTIONAL STAFFSTAFFSTAFFSTAFF

34 Standardized CTF HQs MNF REL = MULTINATIONAL FORCE RELEASABLE LIAISON & COORD = Commander Coalition / Combined Task Force (CCTF) DCCTF DCCTF Personal Staff CoalitionCoordinationCenter (CCC ) Civil-MilitaryOperationsCenter (CMOC ) Coalition / Combined Logistics Coordination Center (CLCC) Secret – MNF REL CTF PLANNING PROCESS (PLANS, FOPS, AND COPS) Red Area “ Shared Top Level Classification Info Area SpecialAccessOps(SOF) Classification: Secret – MNF REL Classification: Case by Case Multinational and CTF Media Support Staffs (Coalition / Combined Media Pools) COS C1PERS C2INTEL C3OPNS C4LOG C5PLANS C6COMMS C7CIV-MIL

35 12 Command Group Prioritize/Task CTF Planning Efforts & Provide Direction/Guidance Command Group Prioritize/Task CTF Planning Efforts & Provide Direction/Guidance CTF: 0-96 Hrs Issues Orders, Drafts Pertinent Messages Issues Orders, Drafts Pertinent Messages Monitor, Assess, Monitor, Assess, Direct & Control Direct & Control Execution. Execution. Maintain SA. Maintain SA. CAP Products CTF: 168 Hrs / Next Phase Next PhaseTransition, or Termination Initial & Campaign Plan Follow-on Phase - Plans What’s Next? CTF: Hrs Refines, Adjusts & Refines, Adjusts &ModifiesOPORDs-OPLANs (Based upon Current (Based upon CurrentSituation) “Hand-Off” of Plan OPORD-OPLANS / Campaign PlanOPORD-OPLANS / Campaign Plan Sequel plans for future phasesSequel plans for future phases –Concept of operations –Draft Cmdr’s Intent Initial Cmdr’s guidanceInitial Cmdr’s guidance Wargaming resultsWargaming results Pol-Mil IssuesPol-Mil Issues OPORD-OPLANS / Campaign PlanOPORD-OPLANS / Campaign Plan Sequel plans for future phasesSequel plans for future phases –Concept of operations –Draft Cmdr’s Intent Initial Cmdr’s guidanceInitial Cmdr’s guidance Wargaming resultsWargaming results Pol-Mil IssuesPol-Mil Issues Branch plans with triggersBranch plans with triggers Draft Commander’s IntentDraft Commander’s Intent Commanders EstimateCommanders Estimate Orders (WARNO, FRAGO, Etc.)Orders (WARNO, FRAGO, Etc.) Recommend CCIR, ROERecommend CCIR, ROE CCIR & ROECCIR & ROE Situational Awareness (SA / COP)Situational Awareness (SA / COP) Monitor Plan ExecutionMonitor Plan Execution BriefingsBriefings SITREP/ near-term FRAGOsSITREP/ near-term FRAGOs Message ReleaseMessage Release Track Actions / SuspensesTrack Actions / Suspenses CAP Products “Hand-Off” of Plan C3 Future Operations(FOPS) C3 Current Operations(COPS) C5 Future Plans(PLANS) CollaborationTools Battle Staff CTF Battle Staff CAP Phase VI Execution Plans and Operations Synchronization

36 Coalition/Combined Planning Group (CPG) C-4StaffC-4Staff C-5StaffC-5Staff C-6Staff PAStaffPAStaff SJAStaffSJAStaff MedicalStaffMedicalStaff JTFCompJTFComp C-3StaffC-3Staff C-2StaffC-2Staff C-1StaffC-1Staff C-3 Reps C-5 Reps C-6 Reps C-4 Reps PA Reps SJA Reps Med Reps LNOs C-2 Reps C-1 Reps Deployment Cell IO Cell IM Cell Orders Cell CPG

37 Lesson Learned: Clearly define command relationships between components (especially “supported” and supporting relationships) Summary: Lessons Learned - Forming Lesson Learned: Augmentation “cells” (i.e. MPAT) clearly provide a “jump start” to the processes of forming and planning during a crisis. Lesson Learned: Keep the number of cells/boards/agencies/centers to a minimum, but if the function is required, forming them is usually beneficial.

38 Lessons Learned - Planning Lesson Learned: “Master the mechanics & techniques; understand the art and profession; and be smart enough to know when to deviate from it.” GEN Zinni, CINCCENT Lesson Learned: “Leaders should use the military decision-making process to expedite or facilitate planning, but should not let it hinder their efforts to understand the complex issues that lay beneath the operation’s surface.” LTC D. Scalard, Military Review, 1998

39 Lessons Learned - Deploying Lesson Learned: A CCTF should almost daily ask the following question: “What are we doing to ensure that CTF personnel & their equipment arrive at the PODs at approximately the same time?” Lesson Learned: CCTFs must balance combat vs. support forces in the deployment process. When inadequate support forces are deployed, backlogs of personnel & equipment at the PODs will occur (I.e., adequate JRSOI is on-hand).

40 Lessons Learned - Employing u Deter… u Fight to win... Lesson Learned: A CCTF should always seek to gain & maintain the initiative -- this applies not only to conventional combat operations, but to the information domain as well. Lesson Learned: There is no replacement for the application of overwhelming force at the proper time & place. Seek or create enemy weakness and attack it quickly, decisively, and relentlessly. Lesson Learned: Keep your logisticians abreast of the operational situation -- only with full situational awareness can they anticipate future requirements as operations unfold. Lesson Learned: Always maintain a reserve ready for immediate employment to reinforce success, capitalize on unanticipated opportunities, or to address unforseen exigencies.

41 Lessons Learned - Transition Lesson Learned: Transition may occur between the CTF with a UN command, with another military command with host nation forces, or to civilian control. Regardless, the command must prepare for and coordinate the transition to ensure an orderly change of authority and responsibility.

42 Lessons Learned - Redeploying Lesson Learned: Redeployment is essentially the reverse of deployment. Redeployment can begin at any point during CTF operations and planning for it should begin as soon as possible.

43 Multinational Force SOP “A Journey Starts with a first step” u MNF SOP – “ A Step in the Right Direction” – A “Guide” for Operational Start Points and CTF procedures F Not prescriptive, binding, or directive – Focus on Operational Level – CTF HQs and Command – Purpose: F Speed of Initial Response F Interoperability F Overall Mission Effectiveness – Is a Multinational Product F 28 Nations -- Multinational Planning Augmentation Team (MPAT)

44 Forming the Multinational Force (MNF) Multinational Planning Augmentation Team Questions?


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