Presentation on theme: "Deployable Joint Task Force Augmentation Cell (DJTFAC)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Deployable Joint Task Force Augmentation Cell (DJTFAC) Multinational Planning Augmentation Team (MPAT)Forming the Multinational Force (MNF) / Coalition or Combined Task Force (CTF)Facilitating the Planning ProcessGOOD MORNING. I AM XXXXX FROM USCINCPAC J38 REPRESENTING THE DEPLOYABLE JOINT TASK FORCE AUGMENTATION TEAM (DJTFAC) AND MULTINATIONAL PLANNING AUGMENTATION TEAM (MPAT) SECRETARIAT. TODAY WE WILL DISCUSS THE FORMING OF A COALITION OR COMBINED TASK FORCE.
2 Forming the Multinational Force (MNF) / Coalition or Combined Task Force (CTF) Purpose Familiarization with the fundamentals of establishing a Multinational Force (MNF) / Coalition or Combined Task Force (CTF)Terminology and DesignCommand and ControlCTF Headquarters Staff and MNF Force StructureReferencesMNF SOP (Working Draft #8)Joint Pub 0-2, Unified Action Armed Forces, 24 Feb 95JP 3-0, Doctrine for Joint Operations,10 Sep 01JP 3-16, Doctrine for Multinational OperationsJP Command and Control Doctrine for Joint Ops, Draft, Apr 97JP Joint Task Force Planning Guidance and Procedures, 13 Jan 99Both the process of forming the multinational force-MNF-and forming the CTF HQ staff requires a deliberate and rational process in order to craft the most efficient force and staff structure. This process is designed to reduce the trauma of forming the MNF and CTF HQs.Before discussing the MNF and CTF, we will briefly cover some basic definitions and concepts…and as an introduction to multinational task force concepts, we will briefly discuss the U.S. Pacific Command’s joint task force concept, more commonly known as the two tiered command and control concept.We will conclude this module with lessons learned from previous MNF/CTF operations.As always, we begin with an overview of the references we used to develop this briefing. Probably the best source is JP , because it includes detailed procedures that are useful in MNF and CTF forming. Throughout the briefing we’ll show you where we get the quotes we use. We also pull some material from the lessons learned from past CTF and MNF/CTF operations.
3 Multinational Operations “ ‘Multinational operations’ is a collective term to describe military actions conducted by forces of two or more nations. Such operations are usually undertaken within the structure of a coalition or alliance”This is a U.S. definition of multinational operations: “Multinational operations’ is a collective term to describe military actions conducted by forces of two or more nations. Such operations are usually undertaken within the structure of a coalition or alliance”Coalitions, as opposed to alliances, are more common in the Asia-Pacific region. An alliance is the result of formal agreements, such as treaties, between two or more nations for broad, long-term objectives. A coalition is an ad hoc arrangement between two or more nations for common action. Normally each coalition develops its own procedures, protocols and contingency plans to guide multinational action.During multinational operations, respect, rapport, knowledge of partners, and patience must be practiced during all activities to ensure unity of effort. Steps to achieve rationalization, standardization, and interoperability will significantly enhance the probability of success in multinational operations.When providing Coalition leadership, the lead nation supported strategic commander ensures that unified action integrates joint and combined operations, in conjunction with all the multinational, interagency, and international organizations, into a strategic unity of effort to achieve the strategic end state.The way a MNF/CTF Commander organizes his forces directly affects the responsiveness and versatility of the MNF operations. Therefore force structure is very important.JP 3-16
4 Key Terminology MNF: Multinational Force – “Broad Overarching Term” Describes the “broader force” and includes the participating Nation’s and Strategic Planning Headquarters (HQs).The entire organization of nations, participating forces, and support based upon “shared interests”.Two Types of MNF Operations:Coalition: Ad-Hoc / Crisis Based(East Timor)Combined: Alliance / Treaty Based (Example: NATO or UNC / CFC - Korea)Briefing Notes:Cover definitions of MNF and the two types of MNF operations. Go slow on this slide. Definitions on the slides.
5 Key Terminology (continued) CTF: Coalition / Combined Task ForceCoalition TF (CTF): Ad-Hoc / Crisis-OrientedCombined TF (CTF): Alliance / Treaty-Based (predetermined guidelines and / or contingency plans present)Cover the definitions of CTF and go over some examples:Combined Example: UN / CFC Command in Korea – fully combined and integrated based upon mutual defense treaty and UN resolution / mandate.Coalition Example: Crisis Response operation for humanitarian operations involving 5 nations. Disaster unexpected, but has major impact on the Affected Nation.
6 Strategic GuidanceEffective Mission Accomplishment by a CTF requires clear and legitimate strategic guidance from a higher headquartersSources of Guidance:Multinational Regional Organization guidance based upon alliance / treaty.Coalition Multinational Organizational guidance based upon crisis action coordination / collaboration and ad-hoc (non-treaty) actions.UN Security Council or General Assembly resolution and mandate for multinational military operations (UN authorized or UN lead). Unilateral Operations by a single country that evolves into a coalition operation or UN operation.Effective mission accomplishment is directly related to clear strategic guidance.The Commander of the CTF does not develop this guidance … this is the responsibility of the strategic levels of military and governmental planning within a nation(s).The four sources of Guidance are shown. Discuss each briefly.
7 Essential Strategic Guidance Purpose for MNF Action (purpose for CTF activation)Broad Mission Statement MNF (CTF)Broad Objectives for MNF (CTF)Broad Criteria for termination and transition of MNF OpnsParticipating Nations and contributionLead Nation for effort and MNF SOP that will be usedAgreement on Collective Security Interests InvolvedSpecific Diplomatic, Economic, Informational, or Military Limitations, Concerns, SensitivitiesShown here is the “essential strategic guidance” for a MNF / CTF effort. This guidance is not found in any “one document”; rather, it represents the compilation of many doctrinal publication and collaboration with the 28 countries involved in the MPAT program within the Asia Pacific area. The GOAL is complete and thorough guidance for the areas outlined. Clearly this will be a challenge, but employment of multinational military forces is a complex and challenging operation in and of itself. There are numerous examples of where “incomplete or insufficient” guidance result in less than desire operational results.Once again, this is a not an easy effort to coordinate such guidance at the national levels with multiple nations; however, it MUST be done, and done well. The Commander of the CTF SHOULD NOT BE BURDENED with this responsibility. His focus is “operational” and “mission execution” …… the command relationships discussed later will outline the structure by which this guidance is developed at the “right level within the multinational effort”.
8 “The Realities” Essential Strategic Guidance Guidance may be initially incomplete or fragmentary due to the complex and rapidly evolving crisis situationGuidance will require ongoing refinements and adjustments as the crisis evolvesStrategic and CTF commanders / staff need to continually press for updated / refined guidance as required by the situation (never-ending process)The reality of crisis action situations is simply that norm just may be that “guidance may be incomplete or fragmentary”. This does not mean that operations cannot be executed if the crisis requires an immediate response to relieve human suffering, restore stability, or protect vital / survival interests; however, CTF commanders and staff need to PRESS for updated and refined guidance.Clear strategic guidance cannot be overemphasized.As the crisis evolves, so will the dynamics of the crisis and, in turn, so will mission requirements. Strategic guidance must continually be reviewed and updated. The CTF Planning System inherently has a “long term” planning function built into it to address this requirement. Further, the CTF command relationships, if properly established, will address this requirement for a continual focus on the strategic level.
9 Command Relationships & Control / Coordination Relationships Foundation: Two Chains of Command Always ExistWithin the CTF command, each nations’ forces are commanded by TWO separate chains of command:#1: The Respective “NATIONAL” Chain of Command#2: The CTF “MULTINATIONAL” Chain of CommandBriefer Notes: Stress this is a very critical fact to recognize in ALL MULTINATIONAL operations.There are always two chains for command within a Multinational Effort. A nation does not give up national sovereignty or national command of its military forces by joining or participating in a multinational operation.Further, within the “multinational” chain of command, there will be some form of command, control, or coordination procedures that military forces will operate under and by which the Commander of the CTF can execute missions based upon established “commander authorities”.Thus, two chains of command are always operating within a Multinational command.This “fact” can work against unity of effort if not recognized, planned for, and respected by all participants.
10 Command Relationship Terms Command and Control Relationships / Concepts:Operational Control (OPCON): Command authority to organize and employ forces, assign tasks, designate objectives, and give authoritive direction necessary to accomplish the missionTactical Control (TACON): A more restrictive command authority, limited to the detailed control of movements or maneuvers within a give operational area (AO) necessary to accomplish assigned missions or tasks.SUPPORT: Command authority for support relationships to assist in the coordination and direction of MNF logistical planning, coordination, and control / directionShown here are the three fundamental “command and control” relationships that are “desired” within a CTF command. The goal is to form a cohesive and effective MNF.Not shown here, the US has a term “Combatant command”, or COCOM, which is the authority of a theater strategic CINC combatant commander to organize and employ forces, giving authoritative direction over all aspects of military operations, joint training, and logistics necessary to accomplish missions of the command.Operational control, or OPCON, is significant authority on employment, positioning and administrative functioning of subordinate forces.Tactical Control, or TACON, is limited control. Commander can direct maneuvering and movements and tactical use of combat support assets. Common command relationship in a functional command (ie Land Component Commander)The degree of control a subordinate commander within the MNF/CTF will exercise is determined by MNFC/CCTF decisions on command relationship. In every situation tailoring thru consultation must be accomplished to address “concerns about foreign command” of a nation’s forces. The options for addressing and solving such concerns will be addressed later in this brief.
11 MNF / CTF Missions MOOTW / SSC is most likely scenario NEOCMPeaceEnforcementMOOTW / SSC is most likely scenarioShort Duration / Small Scale / No-NoticeJointMultinational / InteragencyA multinational force may be employed to conduct a wide range of operations.The most likely scenarios are operations other than war. The operation will be of short duration, with little or no notice or warning; it will be combined; and it will involve multinational and interagency cooperation and coordination.Types of possible operations are shown on this slide:Non combatant operations, or NEO.Consequence management operations.Peace enforcement and peace keeping.Humanitarian assistance and disaster relief.The specific organization and staffing of the MNF will vary based on the mission assigned, the environment within which the operations must be conducted, the makeup of existing and potential enemy forces, or the nature of the threat, and the time available to reach the end state.HA/DisasterReliefSSCMRCPeaceKeeping
12 Facts and Decisions Affecting MNF/CTF Structure Assigned Tasks CTF MissionRequired Capabilities Force OptionsForce Options Component StructureComponent Structure C2 StructureBasing Support StructureNow, let’s discuss some of the factors and decisions which affect the MNF/CTF structure.We must develop a multinational force and staff structure that will enable the MNF Commander to accomplish his mission.During mission analysis we will determine what our mission is by examining all specified and implied tasks, determine which tasks are essential for mission accomplishment, and develop MNF mission.Once we understand our mission, we will determine the required capabilities, which in turn will lead to development of our force options. From the force options available, we can develop our component structure. This will in turn have an impact on the command and control structure we develop.And finally, the basing requirements based on our component force structure (which is determined by the control measures) will lead to the required support structure.CTF Staff StructureMNF Force Structure
13 Unified Action in Multinational Operations Coordination and Consensus are key elements for MNF operationsUnity of Command is desired -- Unity of Effort is requiredPrinciples of MultinationalUnity of EffortCOMMON UNDERSTANDINGAll forces should understand the overall aim and the concept for itsattainment. Simplicity of plan and organization are essentialCOORDINATED POLICY AND PLANSNations should exchange qualified liaison officers at the earliestopportunity to improve interoperability and mutualunderstandingTRUST AND CONFIDENCECommanders and their representatives must establish andmaintain trust and confidence. Plain, objective communicationand common courtesy are essential.1. Unity of Effort is “REQUIRED” within a MNF whereas Unity of Command is desired (a MNF effort is consensus vice command based).Key principles for MNF Unity of Effort are:#1 – Develop and maintain a common understanding of the aim and concept of operations of the MNF.#2 – Coordinated policy and plans are critical. This is where the liaison offices and the Coalition / Combined Planning Group (CPG) plays a key role within the CTF structure .#3 – Finally, there must be trust and confidence among all members of the staff – a positive and mutually respectful relationship needs to be established early on in the CTF forming process.
14 “The” Goal A MNF/CTF that can: Rapidly plan in a complex setting Develop a plan which supports national and strategic theater goalsContinuously integrate logisticsOrient on the threat/enemy’s center of gravityEfficiently execute a plan based on the commander’s conceptAchieve synergy in the employment of all military and inter-agency capabilitiesEssentially, then, our goal is to form a multinational force and staff that is capable of the following:The crisis we are responding to is dynamic. Our CTF needs to be able to keep pace with rapidly changing requirements.Our plan needs to support national and strategic theater goals. Supported strategic headquarters guidance will provide focus to this effort.We must set the conditions for success in the battlespace by developing a force flow and logistic support structure that meets the requirements of the components.We must focus on the enemy, or the threat. Ensure all efforts are focused on overcoming the threat, and the protection of friendly forces.Perhaps most importantly, we must ensure that the CTF is a tool that the commander can use to execute a plan based on the commander’s concept of the operation. The staff we develop must be good enough to allow the commander the time and opportunity to make timely decisions, and not become so overcome by events that we become reactive rather than proactive.Finally, we need to synchronize efforts of all components at the operational level, and integrate the capabilities of other agencies. We need to establish and maintain the tempo of operations.
15 Lead Nation ConceptA Lead Nation is designated by the participating nations within the MNF effortLead Nation is responsible for the strategic consultation / coordination for the MNF effortAmong nationsWith UN channelsWith other Non-Governmental or International Organization (NGO / IO)Lead Nation acts as the “single channel” of MNF strategic direction / guidance to military forces within the MNF effort based upon collaboration and agreements with participating nationsProvides for “unity of effort”Lead Nation command structure for multinational force operations is normally applicable for coalition efforts. In this approach all the coalition members subordinate their forces to a single commander for unity of effort with a single unifying Lead Nation NCA to lead the NCA consultation process and strategic guidance function for the multinational effort.This form of command structure provides to an integrated approach to command and control; the degree of integration being dependent on the mix of staff augmentation and component sub organization.For the Lead Nation concept and the Lead Nation is “designated” by the participating nations. The Lead Nation DOES NOT DIRECT, rather it collaborates and coordinates the MNF effort.It is the SINGLE CHANNEL of strategic direction / guidance to the military forces within the MNF effort.
16 Lead Nation Command Structure (Provides for Integrated Command and Control – Unity of Command & Effort)ParticipatingNation #2(NAT AUTHORITIES)Lead Nation NCA(Nation #1)(NAT AUTHORITIES)ParticipatingNation #3(NAT AUTHORITIES)Supporting StrategicCommanderSupported StrategicCommander(CDF)Supporting StrategicCommander(AFP JCS)CommanderCoalition / CombinedTask Force(CCTF)Consultation /CoordinationNationalCommand Element (NCE)NationalCommand Element (NCE)Collaboration/SupportTo ensure equal representation throughout the command, the CTF Hqs and staff can be formed by augmentation from participating nations and MPAT cadre. Further, the Deputy CCTF can be from a different nation with commanders and deputies throughout the force being mixed to represent nation’s relative contribution to the CTF. This provides the CCTF with representative leadership and a balanced perspective on the respective coalition members capabilities and limitations. This also facilitates and supports unity of command and effort.It is important to understand the term and roles of the Supported Strategic Commander and Supporting Strategic CommandersSupported: The senior military commander at the strategic level by which the Lead Nation NCA passes strategic guidance and direction to the CCTF. Is responsible for the development of “strategic plans / orders” and is responsible for coordinating such plans, and follow-on support from the Supporting Strategic Commanders.Supporting: The senior military commander through which “national command” is maintained with national forces within a CTF command and is the senior strategic level of “national planning and support” for a nations participation within a CTF effort. Coordinates and supports the Supported Strategic Commander as required and agreed upon by the Lead Nation level of planning with participating Nations NCAs.Two chains of command are “ever present” (national command through the NCE and multinational through the CCTF). The CCTF is the commander of the CTF and the NCE is the senior military rep from each respective nation within the CTF.ParticipatingUS ForcesParticipatingAS ForcesParticipatingAFP ForcesStrategic Guidance OPCON or TACONAnd SupportNational Command National Command,Theater
17 Tailored Lead Nation Command Structure (Parallel Command -- Foreign Command of Nation’s Forces is an Issue)Nation #1Lead NationConsultation /CoordinationSupporting StrategicCommanderSupported StrategicCommanderCollaboration/CoordinationParticipatingNation #1CommanderCCTFThis combination command structure is essentially a “tailored” approach to the Lead Nation concept and is normally used for coalition multinational efforts. Designed to maximize “unity of command” as can be best achieved while at the same time respecting selected nation’s concerns about foreign command of their troops.Structure can be very flexible and adaptable to meet the concerns of nations while balancing the operational requirements of the CCTF. Once again, the coordination center concept is essential in such structures to ensure thorough coordination or planning and execution. This was used in the Gulf War coalition effort (Desert Shield / Desert Storm) … Lead Nation was the U.S. with USCINCCENT as the CTF with OPCON of British, French, and US forces. The “Joint Forces/Theater of Ops. Commander (Saudi)” was a parallel command within the multinational force structure (with command of these forces reserved by the National Leaders of Arab/Islamic Nations. A “Friendly Forces Coordination Council” was established for coordination of the coalition efforts of all forces.Briefer Points: stress such a concept does not make the Lead Nation concept invalid, quite the opposite it “underscores” the importance of a “Lead Nation” for consultation and coordination. Stress that “command” is not the key in this relationship, “coordination” is the key in such arrangements, and the use of the Coalition Coordination Center concept is essential in such situation. It is assumed that within a “combined” effort, such concerns will not be present due to the mutual defense treaties present and degree of integration possible within a combined command. Once again, this is NOT desired, but may be REQUIRED for securing some nations participation and support.Coalition Coordination CenterParticipatingNation #1ParticipatingNation #2ParticipatingNation #3Legend:Strategic Guidance OPCON or TACONAnd SupportNational Command National Command,Coordination
18 CTF Component Structure (Service) Simplicity in aTime CompressedEnvironmentSupported Strategic CmdrCapabilities or functions do not overlapCCTFNow we will discuss the various options for MNF/CTF component structure. One option is to structure the CTF with Service Components. Generally this option is preferred for most crisis scenarios or situations for the following reasons:First, the service component structure is appropriate or optimum when stability, continuity, economy, ease of long-range planning and the scope of the operation dictate service, or component, organizational integrity. These conditions apply when the required functions in a particular dimension (air, land, sea) are unique to a single-service force, or when service force capabilities or responsibilities do not significantly overlap.And second, administrative and logistic support of the MNF forces is the responsibility of the service component commanders.When a MNF is subordinate to another MNF, the CINC supporting the senior MNF also supports the subordinate MNFMNF commanders should allow service tactical and operational groupings to function generally as they were designed. In this way, the MNF requirements will be met while allowing for efficient disposition of forces.CNAVFORCAFFORCARFORCMARFORCSOTF
19 CTF Component Structure (Functional) Organize by capabilities or functionsUnityofEffortSupported StrategicCommanderCINCCCTFAnother option for CTF subordinate command structure is organize the CTF with Functional ComponentsThis type of structure is appropriate, or optimal, when the scope of operations requires that similar capabilities and functions of forces from two or more services be directed toward the same, or similar objectives; when unity of effort is important, and when these forces must operate in the same dimension or medium.For example, to command an air campaign and ensure appropriate coordination with other components, it may be useful to establish a functionally oriented Joint Forces Air Component Command, or JFACC, responsible for air operations, as in Operation Desert Storm.CFMCCCFACCCFLCCCSOTFCPOTFCCMOTF
20 CTF Component Structure (Subordinate TFs & CTFs) Geographic orMission SpecificUnityofEffortSupported StrategicCommanderCINCCCTFAnother structure option is subordinate coalition/combined task forces or subordinate component task forces. This structure is appropriate when operations are organized geographically or by specific functions.For example, in a humanitarian assistance or disaster relief mission covering a wide geographical area, the best way to conduct relief operations might be to form separate combined task forces for each area. Or, if one aspect of the operation entails a massive engineering effort requiring most of the engineering resources from the MNF, then an engineer task force might be appropriate.Certain functions, such as special operations and psychological operations, are usually executed through a combined task force, such as a combined special operations task force or combined psychological operations task force.CTFTRANSCTFMEDTF EngTF SecurityTFWESTTFEAST
21 Lead Nation CTF Component Organization Functional Component & Task ForceLegend:Strategic GuidanceAnd SupportOPCON or TACONNational CommandTentative, This componentmay or may not beactivated due to nature ofthe crisis.Coordination, Supportand ConsultationLead Nation(NAT AUTH)Supporting Nation)s)(NAT AUTH)Supported StrategicCommanderSupporting StrategicCommander(s)CCCCoalition Coordination Center(used within coalitions)CommanderCoalition / CombinedTask Force(CCTF)CCCThis Chart shows the second option of CTF component organization.Talk through the “Functional Approach” to component commands. Such organization provides for “integrated operations functionally”.Note the optional components.CFMCCMaritimeComponentCFACCAirComponentCFLCCGroundComponentCSOTFNationalForcesNationalForcesNationalForcesNationalForcesNationalForcesNationalForcesNationalForcesNationalForcesCCMOTFCPOTF
22 Lead Nation CTF Component Organization Service Component & Task Force Legend:Strategic GuidanceAnd SupportOPCON or TACONNational CommandTentative, This componentmay or may not beactivated due to nature ofthe crisis.Coordination, Supportand ConsultationLead Nation(NAT AUTH)Supporting Nation (s)(NAT AUTH)Supported StrategicCommanderSupporting StrategicCommander(s)CCCCoalition Coordination Center (used in coalitions)CommanderCoalition / CombinedTask Force(CCTF)CCCThis charts shows using lead nation concept in the MNF SOP the first option for organization of the CTF components..organizing along service lines.Note the optional components.CNAVFORNavyForcesCAFFORAirForcesCARFORArmyForcesCSOTFNationalForcesNationalForcesNationalForcesNationalForcesCMARFORMARINEForcesCPOTF(Psychological)CMOTF(Civil Military)
23 The CTF Staff Task Organized to the Specific Mission Capable of Rapid Information ProcessingOrganized for EfficiencyShortened Plan-Decide-Execute CycleIt must be a mission-oriented organization, task organized for the specific contingency.The MNF/CTF staff needs to be able to process an incredible amount of information efficiently and effectively.It must be organized for efficiency, which means appropriate use of functional cells, liaison officers, and a battle rhythm that facilitates the planning and decision making processes.And finally, the MNF/CTF staff must be able to get inside the enemy’s decision cycle and seize and maintain the initiative.
24 The Leap to the Operational Level Lead Nation NAT AUTHSupported StrategicCmdrMPAT& MNF SOPCTFTACTICAL LEVELCMARFORCNAVFORCARFORCAFFORCSOTFCPOTFA formidable challenge,building an operational stafffrom single service tactical HQs.A leap from the“Comfort Zone”This slide depicts perhaps the hardest task we face when forming the multinational force: ensuring the staff makes the leap from tactical level thinking to operational level thinking, and stays at the operational level.All of us began our professional military development in our respective service cultures. Each one of us has demonstrated proficiency at the tactical level of war. We are comfortable operating at this level, as we have completely mastered the subject material at this level. Now we must make a giant, mental leap. We are no longer, for example, infantrymen checking maps for fields of fire; pilots briefing wingmen on the flight formation into the target area; watch standers ensuring ships are maintaining correct formation. We have to expand our thinking and concentrate on joint command and control issues, logistics priorities, and operational level objectives. We must now focus on those things necessary to permit the components to plan and execute at the tactical level.MPAT and DJTFAC personnel trained in joint and coalition processes. In addition, a well-crafted MNF HQ SOP will aid in making this leap from the tactical to the operational level.
25 Crisis Action Planning CTF Staff ProcessCrisis Action PlanningMinimalTimePhilosophyStructureProceduresNot BusinessAs UsualPhase I: Situation DevelopmentPhase II: Crisis AssessmentPhase III: COA DevelopmentPhase IV: COA SelectionPhase V: Execution PlanningPhase VI: ExecutionOperationalLevel FocusCrisis action planning is different than deliberate planning. Shown on the left are the phases of crisis action planning. Crisis action planning requires a different planning philosophy and different procedures than deliberate planning and normal day-to-day operations, and because of this difference, a different headquarters structure might be desired to support planning and execution of a contingency operation. The Multinational Planning Augmentation Team, or MPAT, and the U.S. Deployable Joint Task Force Augmentation Cell, or DJTFAC, assist the MNF staff with crisis action planning expertise.As mentioned earlier, the MNF staff has to change its level of thinking. Generally, most members of the MNF staff will come from component level commands, and they do not necessarily focus on operational level issues. The tendency is to delve into the tactical arena, where most of us are comfortable. However, once a component headquarters is designated as the core of the MNF staff, this staff must concentrate on operational issues. It often requires effort by the commander, chief of staff, or senior planner, to focus the conversation and the analysis to the operational level. The subordinate components will focus on tactical matters.We also recommend the development and use of a cellular organization within the staff. Each cell is staffed with personnel from multiple disciplines. This structure contributes to better cross-communication and provides for more rapid staffing of issues. We will discuss cells more thoroughly later in this module.PlansPersLogIntelOpsCellularStaffStructureCommConducted by a “New” Staff
26 Single Service HQ Staff COMMANDERG1G2G3G4G5G6FUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFThe first tool is the exiting staff structure of the typical single service headquarters staff. This will be the basis for the MNF headquarters.In a single service headquarters, the staff is generally organized as shown on this slide. Each staff section is composed of a command group with a colonel or naval captain that provides senior leadership, and staff personnel who do the majority of the work in their functional areas; that is, the G or N -1,2,3,4,5, and 6.
27 Forming the CTF Staff (MNF Ops) Lead Nation CTF Headquarters LNOs fromSupportingCommandsAdd’l MPAT SMEs:PSYOP,Civil Affairs,Legal, Medical,Pol-Mil, etc.MPATAll of the challenges inherent in forming a joint task force staff for unilateral operations also exist when forming a multinational staff. In addition, these challenges are compounded by the differences in communications, national interests, cultural dynamics, and basic differences in staff infrastructure, techniques and procedures.The MNF headquarters staff is immediately challenged with integrating multiple service expertise, establishing flexible standing operating procedures (SOP) to accommodate dynamic MNF planning and execution, and changing normal staff focus from the tactical to the operational level of conflict. Additionally, augmentees, including liaison officers, DJTFAC, and MPAT personnel, arrive at the headquarters and immediately become a manpower management challenge which can easily overwhelm a staff that is not prepared with a good augmentee integration plan.One way to overcome these difficulties is the early infusion and integration of appropriate DJTFAC and MPAT personnel into the MNF HQs staff. DJTFAC and MPAT personnel can provide early in the CTF forming process trained/experienced personnel (augmentation) to the lead nation staff that forms the core of the CTF HQs staff. The MPAT and DJTFAC provide augmentation to the staff with personnel who are trained, experienced, and knowledgeable in multinational doctrine and operations, and who have trained together during workshops and exercises. These personnel, being familiar with multinational procedures and SOPs, can help accelerate the CTF forming and planning process.Liaison officers represent their parent command to facilitate two-way communications and collaborative planning between the commands. Multinational operations will require LNOs from participating nations, supporting and supported commands, and higher and lower commands and agencies as appropriate.Lead Nation CTF HeadquartersC1/PersonnelC2/ IntelC3/ OpsC4/ LogC5/ PlansC6/ CommsSOPsCulturalDynamicsCTFHQInfrastructureDifferencesCommunicationsOperationalLevel focusTTPs
28 CTF Staff Structure How Does It Work? Command Group Battle Staff CCTFCommand GroupBattle StaffIntegrated Staff CellsRoutine SupportLiaisonC1C2C3C4C5C6FUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFOnce we fold the DJTFAC and MPAT into the MNF, the DJTFAC and MPAT cease to exist as separate entities. They become full members of the new MNF staff, working for the MNF commander and staff.Liaison personnel are another important addition to the MNF headquarters. The MNF can expect to receive liaisons from virtually every organization with which it has routine contact. The subordinate components must have key liaison officers in place. The supported strategic command, other national commands, host nation governmental agencies and other entities-all will need to have liaison officers at MNF headquarters. Once all of the augmentees and liaison officers arrive, we have a “purple” organization, a Coalition/Combined Task Force. The number of personnel who will be working in the MNF HQ’s can be staggering.But how does this newly formed staff work? One of the things we’ve found in recent MNF experience is the evolution of the breakout of duties and responsibilities of the commander and staff. On the left portion of this slide is the Napoleonic staff we’re all familiar with: the commander, his staff, J1 through J6, and liaison officers. On the right the way we’ve seen the MNF HQ’s interact.The Napoleonic staff structure is vertical. If a planner in J3 needs logistical information, he submits a request for that information to the J3 who transmits it to the J4. The J4 assigns an action officer to work the issue, and the action officer solves the issue, obtains the J4 approval for his solution, and then the information is transmitted back down the J3 chain to the planner who originally requested the information. This system is characterized by centralized control (the J heads) and long timelines.We have already discussed how MNFs need to be agile, able to respond to fast moving crisis situations. The structure on the right is how recent MNF staffs have adjusted to these crisis situations. We will cover each of the points shown on the right.LIAISONHow Does It Work?
29 Command Group CCTF C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 LIAISON Decision Makers Intent GuidanceCCIRCCTFC1C2C3C4C5C6FUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFThe command group provides guidance and direction for the MNF. It is instrumental in building a cohesive MNF and translating the supported strategic commander’s intent into action.Some of the specific issues and items of consideration are discussed below. Normally the CCTF exercises OPCON over assigned and attached forces. The commander is ultimately responsible for developing plans and orders (as required by Joint Operations Planning Execution System (JOPES) or another crisis action planning response system that the lead nation uses.The commander shapes the operation through the commander’s intent and commander’s guidance.The commander also provides the staff with the Commanders Critical Information Requirements (CCIR) to shape the information management and decision-making process.The MNF deputy commander is not normally of the same service or from the same nation as the commander. He is usually of equal rank or senior in rank to component commanders and may be dual hatted as the chief of staff..The MNF commander may be one of the service component commanders. This is not recommended because it places the commander in an unwieldy position and creates potential conflicts of interest.LIAISON
30 Battle Staff Chief of Staff Direction CCTFChief of Staff DirectionStaff Cognizance over Integrated CellsRepresents all Key Battlefield Operating SystemsDeals with Processed DataC1C2C3C4C5C6FUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFThe battle staff is a major subset of the MNF headquarters and is responsible for the day-to-day management of the MNF operation.The most critical staff position is the Chief of Staff. He ensures staff coordination and direction. The Chief of Staff develops and enforces the daily schedule, or battle rhythm, for the staff. Daily events (briefings, meetings, shift changes) should support each other and follow a consistent pattern. The Chief of Staff also formulates and announces staff policies and procedures; for example, message release authority, request for information, and information processing, and security management. The Chief of Staff is also the lead coordinator for all Liaisons officers.The O-6 “Board of Directors” or “Council of Colonels” is probably the most critical layer of the MNF staff. This group consists of the coordinating staff chiefs and other senior officers of the headquarters. It is here we see the fusion of the functional areas and integrated staff cells. It is at this level that the pace of the operation is determined, tasking is prioritized and planning cell guidance is given.The coordinating and special staff chiefs are constantly in meetings, managing their respective functional areas as well as integrating issues affecting the entire MNF. Each staff chief normally has staff cognizance over several integrated cells as well as their own functional staff. They ensure that all battlefield operating systems are appropriately represented in the required cells. They deal with processed data, developing policy and direction for the MNF/CTF. Staff chiefs provide executive oversight and direction. It is critical that this level of the MNF staff not get mired in details of planning and operations that should be the responsibility of action officers within the staff.LIAISON
31 Integrated Staff Cells CCTFCross Functional RepresentationLNO RepresentationInformation ManagementBattle RhythmPlans HandoverC1C2C3C4C5C6FUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFCOALITION / COMBINED PLANNING GROUP (CPG)INFORMATION OPERATIONS CELLCOALITION / COMBINED OPERATIONS CENTER (COC)Integrated cells cross the functional lines of the staff to develop specific products which require input from all staff areas. Rather than staff all issues through the Napoleonic staff system, we create cells, boards, elements, centers, groups, or teams, using existing staff personnel who meet together, as required, to work on a specific requirement. Some of these cells, or entities, may be permanent, addressing recurring issues or tasks. Others may be formed to address an infrequent task. These entities are sometimes referred to as “tiger teams”. Critical to this process is the participation by personnel from all staff areas as well as liaisons. What we are trying to do is rapidly disseminate information, develop answers, and produce products.Successful MNF staffs have developed these cells by staffing each cell with one to four “core” personnel and developing a meeting schedule to bring in experts from other sections to provide input into the process. For example, to enhance the crisis action planning process, the MNF would form a Coalition/Combined Planning Group, or CPG. The core personnel of this planning group are personnel assigned to the C3 plans section. But this core group needs input from the other headquarters staff sections. This input, and initial staff coordination, is provided through CPG meetings.A solid meeting schedule, firmly embedded in the headquarters battle rhythm, is paramount. Some elements, such as component liaison officers, are required at virtually every cell meeting.While cells, boards, centers and other entities provide rapid dissemination of information and completion of tasks which require multi-staff expertise, this method of staff work is manpower intensive and you rapidly run out of personnel to attend meetings. Let me show you why.FORCES DEPLOYMENT / TPFDD WORKING GROUPLIAISON
32 Routine Staff Support CCTF C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 LIAISON More Closely Aligned with Normal Staff OrganizationRepresentatives on Integrated CellMore meetings than Bodies: Battle RhythmLinkage to staffs higher and lowerC1C2C3C4C5C6FUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFUsually, the MNF staff chiefs and senior planners and action officers; that is, the colonels, lieutenant colonels, majors, and naval equivalents, constantly attend meetings. In between meetings, they return to their functional areas for functional update briefings, and pass additional requirements and guidance to the remainder of the staff.With all these functional and integrated cell meetings, there is a tremendous appetite for information. Someone has to develop information, do routine staff work and provide staff connectivity to both higher and lower staffs.A balance must be achieved between the work that must be done in functional areas and the participation in the integrated cells. This is where augmentation becomes critical. A robust MNF HQs engaged in a complex, high intensity operations, can easily exceed 600 positions on the staff.LIAISON
33 Liaison“They are crucial to success, and you have to pick your best people. They have to have the moxie to stand up in front of a two or four star general, and brief him on what their commander is thinking, their unit’s capabilities, and make their recommendations.”LTG Stiner, USACdr, JTF South, Operation Just CauseCCTFLiaison supporting, higher and lower staffsLiaisons to CTF staff become key members of Integrated CellsMore meetings than Bodies: Battle RhythmRank/Experience critical: Must be able to speak for the commanderC1C2C3C4C5C6FUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFFUNCTIONALSTAFFLiaison officers, or LNOs or LOs, are extremely important to successful functioning of the MNF headquarters.The liaison’s function is to monitor, coordinate, advise, and assist the command to which attached.The MNF commander must identify the requirement for liaison personnel and request them.With competent liaison officers, the MNF staff and components can more easily conduct collaborative planning. When ideas and plans begin to form in the MNF headquarters, the LNO must communicate them to his parent organization. It is important that the LNO also convey the MNF commander’s intent, sense of urgency, and other factors that affect the MNF headquarters planning efforts. Then both headquarters can be working on the same issues at the same time.The MNF staff’s goal is produce the best plan in the shortest amount of time. LNOs ensure that subordinate headquarters, higher headquarters, and any other relevant organization provide appropriate and timely input. This will help eliminate staffing problems later in the planning process. The LNOs should have uncovered any significant problems and assisted the MNF staff in resolving the issues.You can find a good LNO checklist in US Joint Pup , page II-36.LIAISON
34 Standardized CTF HQs C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 DCCTF Red Area “ Shared Top Level Classification Info AreaCommanderCoalition / CombinedTask Force(CCTF)SpecialAccessOps(SOF)Classification:Secret – MNF RELClassification:Case by CaseDCCTFCoalitionCoordinationCenter(CCC)Civil-MilitaryOperationsCenter(CMOC)Personal StaffCOSC1PERSC2INTELC3OPNSC4LOGC5PLANSC6COMMSC7CIV-MILCTF PLANNING PROCESS (PLANS, FOPS, AND COPS)The MPAT nations have identified the following CTF HQs organization as the ‘start point’ for organization.At first glance, it may seem cumbersome, but upon review it can be seen each element has clear and focused responsibilities that left unaddressed will cause functional problems in “planning and coordination” within the HQs.Briefier: Outline each organization in the diagram above. Start at the top and work down. Stress that in coalition operations that classified information sharing will “always be a problem”. If it can be fully addressed and solved, a Coalition Coordination Center will not be required. However, the CMOC and CLCC will be required.In COMBINED operations, the staff may be fully integrated and a CCC will not be required.HOWEVER, NORMALLY a CCC WILL BE REQUIRED and is a very valuable tool for “coalition coordination and integration” into the CTF planning and execution processes.Coalition / Combined Logistics Coordination Center(CLCC) Secret – MNF RELMultinational and CTF Media Support Staffs(Coalition / Combined Media Pools)MNF REL = MULTINATIONAL FORCE RELEASABLELIAISON & COORD =
35 CAP Phase VI Execution Plans and Operations Synchronization Command GroupPrioritize/Task CTF Planning Efforts & Provide Direction/GuidanceCTF Battle StaffCTF: 168 Hrs /Next PhaseTransition,or TerminationCollaborationToolsCTF: HrsCTF: 0-96 HrsC3 CurrentOperations(COPS)Planning Concept Overview: The above diagram outlines the CTF planning process and also shows the plans hand off process between the CTF planning cells (Plans, FOPS, and COPS). The CTF command group (CCTF, DCCTF, and COS) prioritizes the planning efforts and provides direction and guidance as required. The CTF battlestaff provides their respective staff functional input to the planning process to support plans development and provides subject matter expertise to the planning cells as required. The CTF lead for planning is normally the C5, especially during initial OPLAN development. Once a CTF plan moves to OPORD execution, the C3 become the lead for the plans process; however the above planning process remains unchanged. The lead position may vary depending on the nature of the crisis and phase of plan development or execution. This integrated process allows for the timely and efficient movement of plans from the planning stage to the execution stage from cell to cell while maintaining operational planning flexibility (by focusing on the current operational situation and continually preparing for future plans or operations and potential contingencies) . The process also ensure that products are developed to support timely decisions by the CTF decision makers while giving plans visibility and input as appropriateThe “CAP products” and “Collaboration Tools” reference in the slide is the distributive collaborative planning software aids and information systems that give decision makers situation awareness and decision support for timely and efficient decision process.The Command Group generally meets each day in the battle rhythm to provide senior level direction and guidance to these crisis action organization cells. They keep the planning process synchronized and on track.C3 FutureOperations(FOPS)C5 FuturePlans(PLANS)“Hand-Off”of Plan“Hand-Off”of PlanInitial & Campaign PlanFollow-onPhase - PlansWhat’s Next?Refines, Adjusts &ModifiesOPORDs-OPLANs(Based upon CurrentSituation)Issues Orders, Drafts Pertinent MessagesMonitor, Assess,Direct & ControlExecution.Maintain SA.CAP ProductsCAP ProductsOPORD-OPLANS / Campaign PlanSequel plans for future phasesConcept of operationsDraft Cmdr’s IntentInitial Cmdr’s guidanceWargaming resultsPol-Mil IssuesBranch plans with triggersDraft Commander’s IntentCommanders EstimateOrders (WARNO, FRAGO, Etc.)Recommend CCIR, ROECCIR & ROESituational Awareness (SA / COP)Monitor Plan ExecutionBriefingsSITREP/ near-term FRAGOsMessage ReleaseTrack Actions / Suspenses12
36 Coalition/Combined Planning Group (CPG) StaffC-3StaffC-4StaffC-1StaffC-2 RepsC-3 RepsC-1 RepsC-4 RepsDeployment CellCPGC-5StaffJTFCompIO CellC-5 RepsLNOsIM Cell- This slide depicts a typical planning cell. IAW Joint Pub the planning “element has been referred to by various commands as an operations planning group, operations planning team, crisis action team, or JPG. For simplicity, the term JPG will be used throughout this publication when referring to this planning element.” Generally the larger primary planning team is referred to as CPG and the small “core” of planners in the various planning cells/groups are referred to as OPTs. - As with all cells and boards, CPGs should have broad cross-functional representation/skill sets. Planning is a dynamic, interactive process, requiring constant coordination and communication between all participants. This is especially true for concurrent planning at the CTF headquarters and CTF component levels.- Either the C5 or the C3 can serve as the CTF’s director for the CPG/planning process and is supported by the remainder of the staff. The CPGs provide cross-functional staff environment that promotes and is conducive to developing concepts and sharing information ensuring an integrated CTF planning effort. CPGs provide a forum for interaction, and maintain the flow of information among group members. Members act as a conduit to provide information back to their respective staffs and components on the current planning effort as well as requirements for additional support or information. In addition, CPGs should institute a practice of periodic informal briefs to the commander and principle staff members, including LNO’s, on the status of the planning process.Orders CellMed RepsC-6 RepsMedicalStaffSJA RepsPA RepsC-6StaffSJAStaffPAStaff
37 Summary: Lessons Learned - Forming Lesson Learned:Clearly define command relationships between components(especially “supported” and supporting relationships)Lesson Learned:Augmentation “cells” (i.e. MPAT) clearly provide a “jump start” to the processes of forming and planning during a crisis.This slide depicts what the MNF organization with various boards, cells, etc. may look like. Each time a MNF/CTF HQ is formed the organization must be tailored to the situation.Lesson Learned:Keep the number of cells/boards/agencies/centers to a minimum, but if the function is required, forming them is usually beneficial.
38 Lessons Learned - Planning Lesson Learned:“Master the mechanics & techniques; understand the art and profession;and be smart enough to know when todeviate from it.” GEN Zinni, CINCCENTLesson Learned:“Leaders should use the military decision-making processto expedite or facilitate planning, but should not let it hinder their efforts to understand the complex issues that lay beneath the operation’s surface.”LTC D. Scalard, Military Review, 1998The crisis action planning process, as taught in this series of modules, is the doctrinal basis planning contingency operations. Widespread familiarity of this planning process among the MPAT member nations will facilitate rapid and effective multinational planning for a contingency.Because of the rapidly changing situation facing an MNF, and the need for planners to be able to respond accordingly, planners must be flexible in their thinking and course of action development. Cross-functional cells and boards are important in this regard.
39 Lessons Learned - Deploying Lesson Learned:A CCTF should almost daily ask the following question: “What are we doing to ensure that CTF personnel & their equipment arrive at the PODs at approximately the same time?”Lesson Learned:CCTFs must balance combat vs. support forces in the deployment process. When inadequate support forces are deployed, backlogs of personnel & equipment at the PODs will occur (I.e., adequate JRSOI is on-hand).Forming the MNF and deploying to the area of operations is always going to be a major challenge in multinational operations. Here are some points of consideration that must be addressed in planning for this phase of the operation.
40 Lessons Learned - Employing Lesson Learned:A CCTF should always seek to gain & maintain the initiative -- this applies not only to conventional combat operations, but to the information domain as well.Lesson Learned:Keep your logisticians abreast of the operational situation -- only with full situational awareness can they anticipate future requirements as operations unfold.Deter…Fight to win...Lesson Learned:There is no replacement for the application of overwhelming force at the proper time & place. Seek or create enemy weakness and attack it quickly, decisively, and relentlessly.Lesson Learned:Always maintain a reserve ready for immediate employment to reinforce success, capitalize on unanticipated opportunities, or to address unforseen exigencies.Here are other lessons learned in planning and monitoring operations. This highlights the need to build a headquarters staff that can be proactive and anticipate issues.
41 Lessons Learned - Transition Lesson Learned:Transition may occur between the CTF with a UN command, with another military command with host nation forces, or to civilian control. Regardless, the command must prepare for and coordinate the transition to ensure an orderly change of authority and responsibility.We must plan for the transition of the military effort back to civilian control. In a humanitarian assistance or disaster relief operation, this may mean transitioning our assistance to the host government. In a peace keeping mission, we might transition to a UN force.
42 Lessons Learned - Redeploying Lesson Learned:Redeployment is essentially the reverse of deployment. Redeployment can begin at any point during CTF operations and planning for it should begin as soon as possible.Finally, the MNF headquarters must plan for the redeployment of its forces.
43 Multinational Force SOP “A Journey Starts with a first step” MNF SOP – “ A Step in the Right Direction”A “Guide” for Operational Start Points and CTF proceduresNot prescriptive, binding, or directiveFocus on Operational Level – CTF HQs and CommandPurpose:Speed of Initial ResponseInteroperabilityOverall Mission EffectivenessIs a Multinational Product28 Nations -- Multinational Planning Augmentation Team (MPAT)Our efforts to develop a MNF SOP, as shown on this chart, is an important first step in addressing Multinational Operational challenges. Clearly there are many challenges to effective mission accomplishment by a Multinational Force, but this SOP (which is a Guide … not a directive) is a step in the right direction . The focus of the SOP is on the CTF HQs and Component Commands. It is an SOP that is designed to be used by Military Forces involved in Multinational efforts which the clear purpose of enhancing the speed of the CTF’s initial response, the overall mission effectiveness of the force, and advance interoperability within the CTF command.The MNF SOP is a MULTINATIONAL PRODUCT that is a collaborative effort of 28 nations that clearly has the potential to improve over time.The MNF SOP effort is not a short term project; rather, it is a “process” in and of itself for continual advancement of MPAT participating nations’ capabilities to come together on short notice, form a CTF,and rapidly response to crisis action situations to advance our common interests within the Asia Pacific area.
44 Multinational Planning Augmentation Team Forming the Multinational Force (MNF)That completes our discussion of Forming the Multinational Force, do you have any questions.Questions?
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