Presentation on theme: "Energy-Water Nexus Vincent Tidwell and Mike Hightower Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated."— Presentation transcript:
Energy-Water Nexus Vincent Tidwell and Mike Hightower Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Water for Energy Water production, processing, distribution, and end-use requires energy Energy for Water Thermoelectric Cooling Energy Minerals Extraction/Mining Fuel Processing (fossil fuels, H 2,biofuels) Emission Control Energy and power production requires water Pumping Conveyance Treatment Distribution Use Conditioning
Estimated Freshwater Withdrawals by Sector: 320 BGD Livestock 2% Thermoelectric 39% Irrigation 39% Public Supply 14% Industrial 6% Note: Hydropower and saline water uses are not included here! Source: USGS Circular 1268, March, % of total daily water withdrawals
Source: Solley et al., 1998 U.S. Freshwater Consumption: 100 BGD
Thermoelectric Water Consumption in the Continental United States: 2004 MGD
Total Water Consumption in the United States: 2004 MGD
Energy for Water Today 27% of non-agricultural water is consumed by the energy sector. 3% of energy consumption is to lift, move and treat water. At this level of demand energy-water nexus issues are realized.
Energy and Water Tomorrow 70 million more people by 2030 Projected Population GrowthProjected Growth in Electric Power Generation Source: EIA 2004 Projected Growth in non-Ag Water Consumption
Electric Power Generation Cooling Options Once-Through CoolingClosed-Loop (Evaporative) Cooling Dry-Cooled Power Plant
National Withdrawals/Consumption Current Mix Current mix has the highest water use, BGD in 2030 and lowest water consumption, 4.3 BGD. Recirculating cooling towers in all new construction and recommissioned plants has the lowest water use, BGD but highest consumption,5.0BGD.
Electric Power Water Demand Plant-type Cooling Process Water Use Intensity (gal/MWh e ) Steam Condensing a Other Uses b WithdrawalConsumption Fossil/ biomass steam turbine c Open-loop20,000–50,000~ ~30-90 d,i Closed-loop300–600300–480 Dry00 Nuclear steam turbine c Open-loop25,000–60,000~400 ~30 d Closed-loop500–1,100400–720 Dry00 Natural Gas Combined-Cycle c Open-loop7,500–20, e Closed-loop~230~180 Dry 00 Coal Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle c Closed-loop c,e Dry00150 c,e Geothermal Steam f Closed-loop NA Concentrating Solar g,h Closed-loop Dry10 Wind and Solar Photovoltaics j N/A001-2 Carbon sequestration for fossil energy generation Fossil or biomass k All~90% increase in water withdrawal and consumption
National Withdrawals/Consumption The GDP case (increase of 6% in electricity demand) yields the highest water consumption at 5.2 BGD. RPS case yields the least at 4.6 BGD. Shift toward a richer renewables mix is capable of reducing overall thermoelectric water consumption by 5% in 2030, or 23% in terms of total post 2004 water consumption.
Projected Increase in Thermoelectric Water Consumption MGD
Exploring the Nexus >10 Supply GW Pumping Ratio of Sustainable Recharge to Groundwater Pumping: 2004
Future Siting at Risk 77 MGD consumption at risk Future thermoelectric consumption in watersheds prone to groundwater stress MGD
Exploring the Nexus >10 Supply Consumption Ratio of Mean Stream Flow to Total Water Consumption:2004
Future Siting at Risk 180 MGD consumption at risk Future thermoelectric consumption in watersheds prone to surface water stress MGD
Exploring the Nexus >10 Supply Consumption Ratio of 5 th Percentile Stream Flow (Low Flow) to Total Water Consumption: 2004
Future Siting at Risk 1316 MGD consumption at risk Future thermoelectric consumption in watersheds prone to drought stress MGD
Impact of Carbon Capture and Sequestration on Water Consumption
Future Siting at Risk 2224 MGD consumption at risk Future thermoelectric consumption in watersheds prone to drought stress MGD
Environmental Controls < >1.25 Mean Flow Env. Flow Ratio of Mean Stream Flow to Environmental Flow Requirements: 2004
Institutional Controls Status of Adjudications Unadjudicated Adjudication in Progress Adjudicated Special Administration Normal Admin. Special Restrictions Compact Basins No Compact Interstate Compact Native American Nations No Nations 10 Nations
Projected Increase in Non-Thermoelectric Water Consumption MGD
Gas Shale Development Water is used in drilling, completion, and fracturing Up to 3 million gallons of water is needed per well Water recovery can be 20% to 70% Recovered water quality varies – from 10,000 ppm TDS to 100,000 ppm TDS Recovered water is commonly injected into deep wells
Water Demand for Transportation Fuels
Oil Shale Development Reserves are in areas of limited water resources Water needed for retorting, steam flushing, and cooling up to 3 gallons per gallon of fuel Concerns over in situ migration of retort by- products and impact on ground water quality
Biofuel Feedstock Impact on Cropland No land use change for residues equals 2006 corn ethanol acreage 37 M acres cropland as pasture and idle cropland 37 M acres non- grazed forest land 2030 land use
Biofuel Water Consumption 2030 Represents 5.6% of total United States consumption up from 3.7% in 2007
Biofuel Water Demand
Non-traditional Water Resource Availability Brackish AquifersOil and Gas Produced Water
Non-traditional Water Requires Energy Desal growing at 10% per year, waste water reuse at 15% per year Reuse not accounted for in USGS assessments Non-traditional water use is energy intensive (Modified from Water Reuse 2007, EPA 2004, Mickley 2003) Sea Water RO Today The Future Conventional Treatment Brackish RO Brackish NF Power Requirements For Treating (Einfeld 2007)
Interconnection Wide Planning Assist planners in the Western and Texas Interconnections to analyze the potential implications of water stress on transmission planning.
Project Partners Sandia National Laboratories –Vincent Tidwell –Len Malczynski –Peter Kobos –Elizabeth Richards Argonne National Laboratory –John Gasper –John Veil –Tom Veselka Electric Power Research Institute –Robert Goldstein National Renewable Energy Laboratory –Jordan Macknick –Robin Newmark –Daniel Inman –Kathleen Hallett Idaho National Laboratory –Gerald Sehlke –Randy Lee Pacific Northwest National Laboratory –Mark Wigmosta –Richard Skaggs –Ruby Leung University of Texas –Michael Webber –Carey King
Contact: Vincent Tidwell Sandia National Laboratories PO Box 5800; MS 0735 Albuquerque, NM (505) More Information at: energy-water.html