# World energy economy at a glance Uri Barenholz Weizmann institute of science December, 2011.

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World energy economy at a glance Uri Barenholz Weizmann institute of science December, 2011

What do we mean when we talk about Energy?

Energy Units Joule [J] o 1[Newton]*1[meter] o Example - lifting a chocolate bar to a height of 1[m] (Kilo) Calorie [Cal] o Heating 1 Liter of water by 1 degree Centigrade o equals 4,185 [J] o Human at rest consumes 1[Cal] per kg per hour

So, how many calories do you burn (resting) per day?

70[kg]*1[Cal/kgh]*24[h/d]~=1700[Cal/d]

Power - Energy flux Watt [W] = 1[J/Sec] Horse power [HP] ~= 740 [W] o Average car has ~ 100[HP] = 74[kW] kWh = the energy when providing 1[kW] for 1[Hour] o 3,600,000 [J]

So, what is your power consumption?

70[kg]*1[Cal/h]*4185[J/Cal]*1/3600[h/Sec]~=80[W]

Efficiency Muscle efficiency ~ 20% Internal combustion engine ~ 20% Turbines (Gas/steam) ~ 40%

How many calories you burn when climbing one floor?

70[kg]*10[N/kg]*3[m]*5*1/4185[Cal/J]~=2.5[Cal]

Content and Cost Fuel ~ 9000[Cal/L] -> 0.1\$ per kWh Canola oil ~ 8000[Cal/L] -> 0.1\$ per kWh Electricity - 0.15\$ per kWh

World energy consumption Consumed resources: o 474*10 18 [J] (As of 2008) o 15[TW] o 2200[W] (Per person)

Consumption by usage Agriculture and industrial use: 37% Transportation: 20% Residential: 11% Commercial: 5% Lost in generation and transmission: 27%

How much does an average car account for? Assuming 20,000 [km/year]

How much does your electricity bill account for? Assuming 600 ILS bill

Side note - use air conditioning for heating Air conditioning transfers heat energy from outside indoors. Has "efficiency" of more than 100%! o modern air conditioners have ~ 350% efficiency.

World energy sources Oil - 33% Coal - 27% Gas - 21% Nuclear - 6% Hydroelectric - 2.5% Other (mostly biomass for heating) ~ 10%

Fossil and non-renewable fuels Oil reservoirs - 200 Billion [m 3 ] o Assuming constant consumption will suffice till 2050 Coal - 900 Billion [m3] o Assuming constant consumption will suffice till 2150 Gas/Uranium - we have enough.

Energy consumers (2008) By country/region: US - 18% China - 17% EU - 14% India, Africa - 5% each Power per capita: US/Canada ~ 10[kW] EU/Israel ~ 4.5[kW] Germany/Japan ~ 6[kW] China ~ 1.5[kW] India ~ 0.7[kW] Bangladesh ~ 0.2[kW]

The promise of renewable energy

Hydroelectricity

World hydroelectricity Installed capacity: 770[GW] o 90% of renewable energy electricity production. o 20% of world electricity production.

Wind power

World wind power Installed capacity - 200[GW] o Actual production is ~ 20% due to intermittency. o 2.5% of world electricity production.

Solar energy

Geothermal installed capacity of 10GW for electricity. about 28GW used for heating. considered sustainable. US Philippines and Indonesia are largest.

Thank you

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