Presentation on theme: "NEW IMPERIALISM 1800s-1914. MOTIVES 1. 1. POLITICAL Gain Power Compete to expand territory Use and show-off military force Gain prestige."— Presentation transcript:
NEW IMPERIALISM 1800s-1914
MOTIVES POLITICAL Gain Power Compete to expand territory Use and show-off military force Gain prestige by winning colonies
NATIONALISM 19 TH Century Movement Pride in one’s country Unification Movements
NATIONALISM GERMAN UNIFICATION Led by Otto von Bismarck, Chancellor of Prussia
NATIONALISM 3 Major Wars Denmark War Austro-Prussian War Franco-Prussian War Loss of Alsace + Lorraine Completed
NATIONALISM ITALIAN UNIFICATION Led by Count Cavour, Giuseppe Garibaldi, King Victor Emmanuel II
NATIONALISM War, diplomacy, plebiscite Completed
******* ****The Result*** An upset to the European “balance of power” established by the Congress of Vienna in 1815
THIS IS A CAUSE OF WORLD WAR I
MOTIVES 2. 2.ECONOMIC FFueled by the Industrial Revolution ooCooCompete to expand and control foreign trade ooCooCreate new markets for products ooCooCheap labor
MOTIVES 2. 2.ECONOMIC Resources for Industrialization o o Raw materials o o Natural resources
MOTIVES 2. 2.ECONOMIC NNew Technologies made it possible QQuinine SSteam Engine TTelegraph BBessemer process – steel MMaxim gun
MOTIVES 3. EXPLORATORY Desire to explore the “unknown” or uncharted territory Conduct scientific research Determine causes and treatment of diseases Go on an adventure Investigate “unknown” cultures
European Explorers in Africa 19c Europeans Map the Interior of Africa
Dr. David Livingstone Sir Henry Morton Stanley Dr. David Livingstone
Stanley finds Livingstone, November 1871
“Dr. Livingstone, I Presume?”
MOTIVES 4. IDEOLOGICAL Based on cultural values. Belief that the white race was “superior” and other cultures were “primitive. It was the job of the Europeans to “civilize” peoples in other parts of the world.
MOTIVES 4. IDEOLOGICAL Great nations should have empires! Only the strongest nations will survive.
DARWINISM Charles Darwin On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) Naturally Selected The “selected” passed on their variations
Misconstrued into SOCIAL DARWINISM Late 19 th Century Belief Herbert Spencer “Survival of the Fittest”-1864 Progress comes from “the struggle for survival” As the “fit”—the strong—advanced while the weak decline
Explains the need for stronger countries to dominate weaker ones (Justification for European imperialism) Also extreme nationalism
“THE WHITE MAN’S BURDEN” Rudyard Kipling Urging “civilized” nations to extend their control over those who are not “civilized” Used in children’s books and advertisements of the time period. Humanitarianism
“THE WHTIE MAN’S BURDEN” Take up the White Man’s burden— Send forth the best ye breed— Go, bind your sons to exile To serve your captives’ need; To wait, in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild— Your new-caught sullen peoples, Half-devil and half-child. Take up the White Man's burden— In patience to abide, To veil the threat of terror And check the show of pride; By open speech and simple, An hundred times made plain, To seek another's profit And work another's gain.
MOTIVES 5. RELIGIOUS Desire to spread Christianity Superior to all other religions (Soc. Dar) Protect European missionaries in other lands Want to acquire territory in order to Christianize people Educate peoples of other cultures End the slave trade in Africa
THE SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA
African Trade [15c-17c]
Pre-19c European Trade with Africa
The Congo Free State or The Belgian Congo
King Leopold II: (r – 1909)
International African Association Private holding company—1876 Hired Henry Morton Stanley to establish a colony in the Congo
Henry Stanley is in charge of his African men: "If you drop that, I will shoot!".
ATROCITIES Punishing “Lazy” Workers
5-8 Million Victims! (50% of Pop.) It is blood-curdling to see them (the soldiers) returning with the hands of the slain, and to find the hands of young children amongst the bigger ones evidencing their bravery...The rubber from this district has cost hundreds of lives, and the scenes I have witnessed, while unable to help the oppressed, have been almost enough to make me wish I were dead... This rubber traffic is steeped in blood, and if the natives were to rise and sweep every white person on the Upper Congo into eternity, there would still be left a fearful balance to their credit. -- Belgian Official
Belgium’s Stranglehold on the Congo
Berlin Conference Established a set of agreed-upon rules regarding the competition among the great powers for colonies in Africa
Berlin Conference The area along the Congo River was to remain under the control of Leopold II. No nation could stake a claim on the continent without notifying other nations. Territory could not be claimed unless it was occupied.
European Colonization/Decolonization Patterns Berlin Conference of
Leopold Defends Himself in Paris, 1903 King Leopold (to Loubert) How about that! John Bull claims that I tortured, robbed an murdered more than he did... Loubert : No, your Majesty, that's Majesty, that's impossible. impossible.