Presentation on theme: "The New Weight Management Rules in HS Wrestling"— Presentation transcript:
1The New Weight Management Rules in HS Wrestling Randall Wroble MD
2Historical OverviewIn late 1997, 3 college wrestlers died while attempting to rapidly lose excessive amounts of weight by intense exercise and dehydrationThat set in motion a series of events that culminated in the rules we discuss today
3Why Weight Loss? Wrestlers lose weight to make weight classes Leaner wrestlers are more effectiveWeight loss is good when fat is lost but is detrimental when carried to abusive levelsWe need to make sports safe for the competitors
4Goals Safe weight loss practices Eliminate rapid fluctuation in weight Focus the sport on competition not weight loss
5History First generation rule changes - 1998-99 – 2005-06 rules: Certify at lowest actual weight no later then 1/8Compete at certified weight on or before 1/8One-half of his weigh-ins at certified weightUse of sweat boxes, hot showers, whirlpools, rubber, vinyl and plastic type suits, diuretics, or other methods prohibitedWeigh-in a maximum of 1 hour before dual meet beginsRandom draw for starting weight class in each dual meet
6National Federation“Beginning in , each state association shall develop and utilize a weight-management program”Hydration testing that includes a urine specific gravity not to exceed 1.025Body fat assessment no lower than 7% males/12% femalesMonitored weekly weight loss plan not to exceed 1.5% a week.48 states sponsor HS wrestling29 states have or will have this type of program in place
7Objections to the Rule Effectiveness of current wrestling rules Complaints have dropped off precipitouslyAccuracy of body fat testing± 3-4%, a span of nearly 10 lbs crossing 2 weight classesRacial differencesValidity of urine specific gravity testingDoesn’t curb rapid episodic weight lossThe problem is the method of weight lossDehydration can be physiologically dangerousCaused virtually all the problems associated with weight loss in the past
8Objections to the Rule No significant problem with low body fat Inequity for kids especially football players who are losing substantial fatNo significant problem with low body fatSome wrestlers are naturally 7% body fat3%/week in NCAA heat publicationsCosts and administrative burden
9Objections to the RuleDifferences between high school and college wrestlers have been substantially ignoredLess intense set of ethics and standards about weight lossServes to take away an elite athlete's optionsMay affect performance or scholarship goals negativelyNew Mexico lawsuit
10OHSAA Wrestling Weight Certification Program - OVERVIEW Wrestlers frequently attempt to lose weight rapidly, often in an unhealthy and unsafe manner, to gain a perceived advantage
11OHSAA Wrestling Weight Certification Program - OVERVIEW Program developed in response to the need for guidance of wrestlers as they make decisions about diet, nutrition, and weight controlPromoting proper weight maintenance among high school wrestlers by developing a weight control program that encourages safe weight lossProgram designed to assist wrestlers and coaches in avoiding potentially harmful, rapid weight reduction practices
12OHSAA Wrestling Weight Certification Program - OVERVIEW Many states have instituted body composition testing programs in the past several yearsPurposes of body composition testing programDetermine the lowest safe and healthy weight for each wrestlerProvide a safe wrestling experience for all high school wrestlersThe wrestler’s lowest certifiable weight may not be his or her optimal competitive weight
13OHSAA Wrestling Weight Certification Program - OVERVIEW In addition to this weight certification program,Imperative that wrestling coaches monitor athletes throughout the entire season to ensure they are maintaining or losing weight in a healthy and safe manner
14Steps of Testing Procedure These measurements should ideally be taken prior to the first practice but must be performed prior to the first competitionIt is strongly suggested that at least 2 schools participate in each testing session. This will allow more personnel to help with the process, alleviate travel costs to regional sites, and mitigate concerns about the integrity of the process
15Getting Ready for the Test No vigorous activity on the evening before and the day of the testing.Avoid any caffeinated beverages on the day before and day of the testing.On the day of testing, drink 500ml (17 oz.) Of fluid. (A sports drink is an excellent choice).In preparation for the hydration test drink 2-4 cups of water in 1-2 hour period immediately preceding the test.
16Be awake three hours prior to testing. Do not eat two hours prior to testing.Avoid any vitamin or mineral supplements two days before and the day of testing.
17Upon Arrival… Wrestlers should report in “weigh-in attire” only Males should be dressed in a t-shirt and shortsFemales should be dressed in shorts, a sports bra and tank topEach athlete is required to have a completed individual profile form and parental permission formComplete demographics section prior to arrivalFirst report to the station where weight is recorded
19Completion of a hydration test is required before any wrestler can undergo a body composition or weight assessmentPurposes:Dehydration will concentrate urine and thereby increase the urine’s specific gravity. Accurate determination of minimum wrestling weight from assessments requires the wrestler to be property hydratedDehydration or loss of water weight will directly affect minimal wrestling weight
20Hydration Requirement Hydration testing is done immediately prior to and at the same site where the body composition testing occursEach wrestler must pass a test to substantiate that they are at an acceptable level of hydration before they can proceed. Urine specific gravity must be or less
21Hydration Requirement Wrestlers who fail the hydration measurement will need to:Reschedule assessment no sooner than 48 hours following test failurePay another full assessment fee at their re-test
22What Is Specific Gravity? Indication of relative proportion of dissolved solid components to the total volume of the specimenAn indication of relative degree of concentration of the sampleElevated whenever with excessive loss of water through sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, or elevated body temperatureElevated glucose and protein do not tend to affect the testTypically higher in the first morning sample and will be different in random samples through the day
23Obtaining A Urine Sample To assure an appropriate urine sample has been collected for testing the following procedures are required:AreaA bathroom with toilet(s) or urinal(s) can be used by the wrestler to provide a urine sample. The determination of specific gravity can be completed in another area, but a means of appropriately disposing of the urine must be available as well
24Obtaining A Urine Sample SafetyUse gloves when measuring the urine and appropriately dispose of the urinePlace cup in hazard collection systemCollection containers: paper cups of sufficient size to provide a ml (1-2 oz) urine sample can be used by the wrestler to collect the sample
25Steps For Collecting The Urine Sample School personnel must ensure that the wrestler has provided a sample of their own urine. Reasonable supervision is the keyWater faucets must be shut off. Wrestlers should not have access to the sinks where water can be added to the samplesBlue, green or red dye may be added to the toilet so that wrestlers will not be tempted to dip their cup in the toilet water
26Steps For Collecting The Urine Sample School personnel must supervise the process of urine sample collection. Reasonable supervision does not mean witnessing the sample going from the body into the cupSchool personnel are to ensure that conditions do not exist that could compromise the integrity of the urine sample collection (bulky clothes, other containers, dipping the cup into the toilet water, horseplay, etc)
28Steps For Collecting The Urine Sample School personnel should be in all traffic areas between the collection area and the testing area. Any possible problem in the urine collection of an athlete necessitates voiding their sample and the provision of another sample with more scrutinyNormally one to three wrestlers can be supervised at one time by school personnel
29Steps For Collecting The Urine Sample The following procedures have been developed to minimize dishonest techniques to bypass the urine test and maximize the athletes’ right to privacyMark each urine collection cup to identify each wrestler. The athlete’s collection number should be marked on the container. This number corresponds to the number on the individual profile formInstruct each wrestler to enter the toilet or urinal one at a time with nothing but the urine collection cup
30Steps For Collecting The Urine Sample Instruct the wrestler to begin urinating; Allowing a small amount to fall into the toilet bowl (this clears the urethra contaminants)Then, in the urine collection cup, catch approximately 1 to 2 ounces of urine and remove the collection cup from the urine streamAllow reasonable time for the wrestler to provide a sample of urine
31Steps For Collecting The Urine Sample After collection of the urine by the wrestler, appropriate personnel should ensure that the urine is warm by feel on the outside of the collection cupIf the urine is cold or suspect, reject that sample and require the wrestler to provide another sample under closer supervision Once completed, the wrestler will give the sample to the proper authority and move along through the assessment process
32Testing The SampleOnly urine dipsticks will be used to measure hydration levels. The Bayer Multistix and Chemstrips or their equivalent are the required urine dipsticks to be usedThe cost of reagent strips averages about $50.00 for a package of 100
33Testing The SampleAssessor tests the sample using a urine dipstick according to the manufacturer’s directionsStrip is pulled from containerNote: trim the strip so the “specific gravity” is the bottom block (furthest from finger tips)Completely immerses strip in fresh urine sampleMake certain all reagent patches are moistened
34Testing The SampleStrip should be removed immediately running edge of strip along container to remove excess urine (caution not to “whip” or “snap” urine residue from free end of strip)Allow strip to air dry in horizontal positionHold strip next to color chart on bottle or supplied cardCompare specific gravity to color on card at 1 min
35Testing The SampleAssessor records the wrestler’s actual reading on the individual profile form and check pass or failMeasurements greater than will disqualify the athlete from continuing with the rest of the assessmentWrestlers who pass the hydration test will move on to the next step in the assessment process
37Step 2 – Assessment of Body Composition Those meeting the specific hydration requirement will proceed to skinfold assessment areaArea should be controlled so the assessor can concentrate on the accuracy and communication of scores to the recorderThe setting should allow privacy for the subject and confidentiality of the recorded information
38Skinfold AssessmentBased on the relationship between subcutaneous fat & total body fat and its inverse relationship to body densitySubject is measured at a selected number of sites to determine the thickness of the skin and the subcutaneous fat depositionSkinfold thicknesses are used in an equation to calculate body densityEquations have been derived for specific populations, which is a key to validity of the prediction.
39As shown below, the goal is to measure a double fold of skin and subcutaneous tissue (with sides of skinfold approximately parallel). The thicker the fat layer, the wider the fold.
40Standardized Skinfold Assessment A key to the success of this program is the ability to standardize the assessment procedures and the calculationsDo not take measurements when the subject's skin is moist (ensure that the skin is dry, and has no lotion)Do not take measurements immediately after exerciseMay be a problem because some wrestlers may be attempt rapid weight reduction through exercise just prior to the assessment
41Measuring a SkinfoldThe subject should be standing in the anatomical position with the skin for potential skinfold sites exposedAll measurements are obtained on the right side of the bodyIdentify the sites to be measured. The triceps, abdomen and subscapular folds for males. The triceps and subscapular for females
42Measuring a SkinfoldPalpate the site to familiarize both you and the subject with the area to be measuredCarefully mark the sitesThe largest source of error in skinfold testing is inaccurate site selectionBecome familiar with the width of the thumb and index finger as well as the perpendicular approach to site assessment prior to the elevation of each specific skinfold
43Measuring a SkinfoldElevate the double fold of skin and subcutaneous fat with the thumb and index finger of the left hand 1 cm above or adjacent to the measurement site on the long axis of the measurementThe fold should be lifted in such a manner as to have two parallel sidesKeep the fold elevated as you measureDuring the measurement, ensure that the shape of the skinfold is maintained
44Measuring a SkinfoldMeasure with caliper in right hand. Hold the caliper perpendicular to the skinfold and with the skinfold dial facing up and easily readablePlace the caliper pads 1 cm below the fingers and half-way the depth of the fat foldRelease the caliper pads gentlyCaliper measurement surface should be in contact with the skinfold for 2 to 4 seconds
45Measuring a Skinfold Open the jaws prior to removing off the body Record to nearest 0.5 mmObtain (through rotation of sites) three measures (at least 15 seconds apart) with no more than a 0.5 mm difference between any two measurements (eg. 9.5, 10, 10.5). For wrestlers with very thick skinfolds, measuring within 1-2 mm is more realistic and is acceptable
46Measuring a SkinfoldRecord for each of three sites for males (sub scapular, abdominal and triceps)Record only sub scapular and abdominal measurements for femalesRecord in the boxes on the skinfold data worksheets
47InstrumentationLange skinfold calipers or equivalent are the only accepted instruments to determine body fat percentageThe calipers must have been checked for accuracy using a calibration block prior to the beginning of the current wrestling seasonThe average cost of calipers is around $150 to $200
48InstrumentationA tape measure for site location especially during training and practice for site identificationA felt pen (preferably washable ink) for site identificationA certified/calibrated scale for determination of total body weight at same time as skinfold assessment. The scale must have been certified within the previous year
50Site Selection and Identification The sites and regression equation selected for the program are those described specifically for use with young male wrestlers and the Boileau equation for females.
51Triceps SkinfoldVertical fold on posterior aspect of arm, midway between lateral projection of acromion process and inferior margin of olecranon process. Flex the elbow to 90 degrees to identify the landmarks.
52Site Selection and Identification Triceps- measured vertically in the midline of the posterior aspect of the upper arm, over the triceps muscle, midway between the lateral acromion process of the scapula and the inferior margin of the olecranon process of the ulnaElbow is flexed to identify the landmarks but extended and relaxed to elevate the skinfold
53Diagonal fold just below the inferior angle of scapula Subscapular SkinfoldDiagonal fold just below the inferior angle of scapula
54Site Selection and Identification Subscapular - measured on a diagonal axis, (left shoulder to right hip) one centimeter below the inferior angle of the scapula. The site is angled infero-laterally about 45 degrees in the natural cleavage line of the skinMay be necessary to have the subject place their arm behind the back to make the anatomical features more prominentArm is returned to the relaxed anatomical position for the measurement
55Abdomen Skinfold SiteVertical fold, one inch to the right side of and ½ inch below the navelThe Jackson-Pollock procedure uses a vertical fold 2 cm to the right of the umbilicus
56Site Selection and Identification Abdomen - measured vertically, the site is located 3 centimeters lateral to the midpoint of the umbilicus and 1 cm inferior to the umbilicusSubject must stand erect with weight on both feet, relax the abdominal wall musculature and breathe normally during the assessment procedure
57Formula For Calculation Of Body Composition - OHSAA Just so you are aware of the equations used to determine body fat percentagesAll calculations are done online using the NWCA optimal performance calculatorAn additional 1% is built-in to the equation to account measurement error
58Values for Skinfold Assessment Process for Males 1. The Lohman equation is used to calculate body density of malesBody density (Bd)=[ (sum skinfold x )]+[(sum skinfold)2 x ]Sum of skinfold = triceps skinfold + sub scapular skinfold + abdominal skinfold2. The Brozek equation is used to calculate body fat percentage from body densityPercent body fat = (457/bd)-(414.2) 3. To calculate minimum weight at 7 % body fatFat weight (fw) = total body weight x (%bf/100)Lean body mass (lbm) = tbw – fwMinimum wrestling weight = (lbm) ÷ .93
59Values for Skinfold Assessment Process for Females 1. The Boileau equation is used to calculate the body fat percentage for femalesPercent body fat = [1.35 x (sum skinfold)] - [0.012 x (sum skinfold) 2] - 3.4Sum of skinfold = triceps skinfold+ sub scapular skinfold2. To calculate minimum wrestling weight at 12% body fatFat weight (fw) = total body weight x (%bf/100)Lean body mass (lbm) = tbw – fwMinimum wrestling weight = (lbm) ÷ .88
61Step 3 – Entering the Data Results of the hydration, height and body weight assessment will be entered into the NWCA weight certification internet calculator on the Initial Assessment page at the NWCA website (www.nwcaonline.com).It is recommended that all assessment data for each wrestler is initially recorded on paper so a “hard copy” backup system is available in case of data entry error.
62Data ProtocolOnly the assessor shall enter the information from the worksheets to the NWCA web site after all subjects have been evaluatedIt is the responsibility of the assessor to input the data of each wrestler on the NWCA within 72 hours of the assessmentCalculation and redistribution of results to schools will be done online. Results can be printed from the NWCA web site
63Data ProtocolEach OHSAA approved assessor will be provided an assessor ID and assessor password.These will be provided via to the assessors by the OHSAA after completion and registration of the OHSAA assessors’ training.
64Input of Data Go to www.nwcaonline.com Go to the horizontal menu and click on “WEIGHT CERTIFICATION”You will now be directed to the optimal performance calculator program. On the horizontal menu, click on “SCHOLASTIC EDITION”On the horizontal menu, go to “ASSESSORS” and, on the drop-down menu, click on “INITIAL ASSESSMENT”On the NWCA assessor log in page, enter the following:A) assessor IDB) assessor passwordC) school NWCA card # (receive from the wrestling coach)D) school password (receive from the wrestling coach)
70Input of DataEnter the following information from the individual profile form. (Wrestler’s gender automatically defaults to male; If wrestler is female, click on “click to add female wrestler”.)A) name of student-athlete: (last name, first name)B) wrestler’s grade (9-12)C) alpha date (enter date of assessment)
71Input of DataD) urine specific gravity (click on “pass”. If the specific gravity is or above, click do not proceed any further. E) alpha body weightF) skin-fold measurementsG) enter the raw data from the skinfold caliper measurementsThe minimum wrestling weight will automatically be calculated
75Wrestlers Below 7% & 12% Body Fat Any male wrestler whose body fat percentage is below 7% or any female wrestler whose body fat percentage is below 12%, will not be allowed to wrestle below their actual weight at the time of the assessment
76Wrestlers Below 7% & 12% Body Fat Clearance is for one season and expires the day after the completion of the state wrestling tournament.Any male athlete who is cleared to participate below 7% or female athlete who is cleared to participate below 12%, may not wrestle below their actual weight at the time of the assessment.
77Weight Loss Per WeekA weight loss limit of 1.5 percent of body weight at the time of the assessment per week has been setThe athlete’s minimum weight will be listed on the alpha master rosterThe weight loss plan will determine the earliest date a wrestler may compete at his minimum weight
78Appeal ProcessAny athlete may appeal his/her skinfold measurements or calculationsA wrestler may compete before or during an appeal at his or her lowest approved weight based on the initial assessmentAll steps of the appeal shall occur within 14 calendar days of the original alpha dateThe 1.5% weight loss limitation is in effect the day following the alpha dateThe date on which a wrestler may compete at a specific weight may not be appealed
79Step 1Reassessment: The athlete shall repeat the “Alpha Weigh-In” as describedThe master assessor shall be responsible for conducting the initial appeal using skinfold calipers.The reassessment shall occur with 14 calendar days of the original Alpha date unless a written extension is granted by the OHSAA before the expiration of the 14-day period.
80Step 1Reassessment includes hydration assessment, weight measurement plus three measurements of the skinfold sites. If the hydration assessment is failed, the wrestler may not be reassessed for a minimum of 48 hours.When the assessor enters the appeal data, they must indicate that this is an APPEAL by entering the information using the APPEAL link.Failure to adhere to these conditions or timelines will be cause for denial.Wrestler is responsible for any costs incurred during the appeal process.
81Step 2If dissatisfied with the initial results, the wrestler may choose to be hydrostatically weighed or undergo air displacement weighing to determine body fat percentage.
82Step 2Results obtained at this step are automatically accepted; The athlete, family, school, or coach may not appeal further.Hydrostatic weighing or air displacement weighing facilities must be approved by the OHSAA and the appeal proposal shall be filed with the OHSAA before any assessment occurs.
83Step 2All appeals and assessments must be completed by January 29, 2007.The 1.5% weight loss limitation shall be observed when conducting hydrostatic or air displacement weighing.
84Step 2Wrestler is responsible for any costs incurred during the appeal process.A student may not wrestle at the new, appealed weight until approval in writing has been received from the OHSAA.
85Step 2PENALTY: A wrestler who weighs in at a weight before the proper amount of time has passed to achieve the lowest minimum weight, will be considered an ineligible wrestler and subject to OHSAA regulations and sanctions.A wrestler may compete before or during an appeal only at his or her lowest allowable weight based on the initial assessment.
86Step 2 Step 1 may be passed and only step 2 performed. Results are final and may not be appealed or modified.
94Nutrition Education Program Not mandatoryHighly recommended that each school participate in the nutrition education aspect of the programNWCA nutritional program includes information for each individual athlete
95Educating the Athlete and Parent VideoIndividual program presentationsNWCA web based nutrition/weight management program
96Healthy TrainingEmphasis should be placed on training-not weight loss.Emphasis on lifelong healthy living.Consequences of dehydration.
98Advantages of Regional Site Standardizes the program (less variability with assessments because fewer assessors are involved)Minimizes equipment costs because individual schools don’t have to purchase equipmentEfficient way to train apprentice assessorsCoaches will perceive it as a level playing fieldAccommodates schools that do not have certified athletic trainers
99Disadvantages of Regional Site Cost of transporting team to regional site.Logistics of reassessing a wrestler who fails the hydration test.Coordinating wrestlers, coaches, and assessors schedule with facility availability.
100Master Assessor Logistics State assigns master assessors to each district/section.Each master assessor trains apprentice assessors each fall.Master assessor compiles a regional directory of certified assessors in his/her region.Coach contacts an assessor from the directory to schedule appointment for assessor to travel to the school.
101Advantages of Regional Assessor Coaches perception of level playing field if assessors can’t assess their own teamsIndividual schools do not have to purchase their own equipment (the assessors bring their own)Accommodates regions that have a shortage of certified athletic trainers
102Disadvantages of Regional Assessor Logistics of reassessing a wrestler that fails the hydration testLogistics of training and retraining a large pool of assessorsVariability of assessments may increase due to more assessors being involvedLogistics of maintaining an updated assessor directory
103“In House” Assessor Logistics State requires each school district to train two people to perform assessments.Assessors conduct assessments on wrestlers whenever convenient for the coach/wrestler.
104Advantages of “In House” Assessors Each school has the flexibility to conduct assessments when convenient (some wrestlers play fall sports, may be injured during initial assessment period, etc.)Much easier to reassess a wrestler that fails the hydration test
105Disadvantages of “In House” Assessors Is difficult to implement in regions that do not have ample number of certified athletic trainersEach school must purchase its own equipmentLogistics of training and assuring proficiencies in a large number of athletic trainers
106Responsibilities of Testing Site Provide the following (after discussion with assessor):Staff to assist with recording data, supervision of urine samples, and obtaining body weightsAn individual to perform the specific gravity urinalysisReagent strips to determine urine specific gravityCollection cups for urineDisposable nonsterile glovesIndividual profile forms – preferable that wrestlers bring forms completed to the assessmentParental permission formsCertified scaleThe assessor will provide:CalipersComputerAny other items necessary for testing if agreed upon with the school
107Professional Responsibilities Expectations for the OHSAA assessorHighest professional and ethical conductTreatment of wrestlers with the highest regard for “right to privacy” and confidentialityExpected to conduct yourself in a manner such that there will be no question about your positive contributionProfessional judgment will be involved to clarify and validate the assessment processThe greater the depth of understanding of body composition assessment, the better your ability in representing the OHSAA, serving our student-athletes and administering the programNo substitute for practice and experience. In-service participation, in-depth knowledge about all aspects of the body composition assessment, careful site identification, and practice will assist in the accuracy and value of this program
108Training the AssessorOnly an OHSAA assessor, who has successfully completed the OHSAA in-service education program, may conduct body composition assessmentsIt is considered a “conflict of interest” for an active wrestling coach, at any level, to become an OHSAA approved skinfold assessor. Coaches are only allowed to perform clerical and organizational duties
109AssessorMaster assessors are individuals who have at least 3 years of skinfold assessment experience. They are individuals who will teach other subsequent assessors. They will also be responsible for handling the first step of the appeal processAn assessor may also become a master assessor by taking a training course and having 2 years of testing experience
110AssessorPersons eligible to be trained as OHSAA approved assessors include licensed physicians, registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, licensed athletic trainers, licensed physical therapists, licensed physician assistants, registered nutritionists, and exercise physiologists
111AssessorThe assessor candidate will submit to a training session and an annual educational updateThe assessor may be subject to a random sample test to substantiate the quality and consistency of his/her measurements
112AssessorAssessor training will consist of a minimum of one hour of classroom training and one hour of practical training.
113AssessorA training fee will be charged to each assessor candidate to attend the training program.Upon completion of the assessor training, each individual will receive a certificate of completion from the OHSAA.The cost of the training program is $20.00 and payable to the master assessor.
114Assessor Recertification Assessors who have been certified for the previous wrestling season and wish to recertify must:Complete a closed book examination. This test may be accessed at the OHSAA website. The test must be submitted to OHSAA at least 30 days in advance of the alpha weigh-in date.Pay a recertification fee. This fee is $10.00 and is payable to OHSAA.Assessors are required to repeat the initial assessor training program when a lapse of one year or more occurs or significant performance decline is reported to OHSAA.
115CostsAll costs incurred for the initial assessment and appeal process are the responsibility of the school or parentAn assessor may charge up to $5.00 per athlete for each assessment plus $30.00 per hour. This charge is assessed for any athlete who passes or fails the urine specific gravity test
116CostsAn athlete who appeals the initial test will be charged $5.00 for a body fat assessment using skinfold calipersAssessors are permitted to charge mileage at the IRS standard rate whenever travel is required to a locationAssessors are permitted to charge a service fee of up to $30.00 per hourCLIA lab certification will be obtained by the OHSAA and all assessors will work under that certificate
119The Real ProblemProblem is method of weight loss, ie dehydration – rapid short term lossesNot %BF – some wrestlers are already this leanOr even # of pounds lost – a very fat wrestler clearly can lose a lot of pounds
120Differences Between College and HS Proposed rules ignore difference in HS and college wrestlersIntensity lowerMulti–sport participationMay not take into account the issue of the wrestler coming off footballModeled after NCAA rules, but NCAA handbook states that for all other sports, concern is when weight loss is “ 5% or more in several days”
121Losing WeightThere are 2 ways of losing weight - slow "negative energy balance" and rapid "dehydration" both are OK if done correctly and not in excessRapid drastic dehydration is dangerousDehydration is kept at a tolerable level by reducing time between weigh-in and competition as is the case with high school rules
122Implementation Training the assessors Collection sites When and whereCollection sitesResponsibilitiesBody composition measurementsBody fat testingHydration testingUrine specific gravityInputting the data at NWCA
123Materials Site Data Forms (Labels) Collection Cups Certified Scale Reagent StripsCertified ScaleBody Composition ToolOn Line ComputerAdditional Staff
125Specific Gravity Assessment Procedure - Reagent Strips Method Bayer Multistix – product must have 8 sg or 10 sg identificationBayer Multistix is a registered name for one of the most common visually read urinalysis reagent strips available which provide urine chemistry information. One of the test strip areas is designed to assess specific gravity. Other test strip areas provide for assessment of glucose, bilirubin, ketone, blood, ph, protein, urobilinogen, nitrite, and leukocytes in the urine
126Body CompositionThe human body can be represented as composed of at least two components:Lean body mass (LBM) = the muscle and bone mass predicted to be in the bodyBody fat (BF) = essential and non-essential fat storage predicted to be in the body
127TerminologyLean body mass(LBM) = the weight of the lean tissue of the body such as muscle, bone, and blood. The weight of the body without the fat weight. LBM = TBW-FWFat weight(FW) = the weight of the fat tissue of the body. Includes both essential and stored fat tissue. FW = TBW x %BFMinimum wrestling weight (MWW) = the lowest weight at which a wrestler may compete, determined to be 7 % male , 12% female, body fat for the Michigan wrestling monitoring program
128TerminologyTotal body weight (TBW) = weight of the body on a certified, calibrated scaleBody density(BD) = the mass of the body per unit of volume. (The fat free component is assumed to have a density of gm/cm3. The mass of fat is considered to be about .90 gm/cm3.)Percent body fat(%bf) = the proportion of total body weight that is fat weight and expressed as a percentage. %BF = (TBW-LBM) / (TBW) x 100
130Input of DataYou are now on the Initial Assessment Page. Proceed by entering the following information from the wrestler’s Individual Profile Form (only use the “TAB” key to move from box to box). If you are entering multiple schools, you must logout before entering the new school
131Input of DataIn order for the program to calculate the numbers in steps 4-6, you must “tab” through each step after you enter the % body fat number in step 3. If the program did not automatically calculate steps 4-6, then return to step 3, enter the percent body fat and hit the “TAB” key three times.Click on “save” to save this student -athlete’s entry.The screen will automatically proceed to a blank screen, per step 1 and continue entering additional wrestlers. If this is your last entry, return to the main page and logoff.
132How To View The Alpha Master Report On the scholastic OPC homepage menu bar, click on the “Alpha Master Report” under the “Assessors” tab on the menu bar.The Alpha Master Report will appear with all of the team’s wrestlers and their assessment data (this includes the wrestler’s minimum weight class and the first date they may complete at that weight class)You may print out this form from the file options at the top of the menu page.
133How To Delete A Wrestler After performing an assessment on a wrestler you may go back and delete the wrestler if you have an error.Underneath the assessors tab on the main menu, click on “initial assessment.”A blank initial assessment form will appear. Click on the wrestler you would like to delete.Once the wrestlers assessment form appears, scroll to the bottom and click on delete wrestler.