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The New Weight Management Rules in HS Wrestling Randall Wroble MD.

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1 The New Weight Management Rules in HS Wrestling Randall Wroble MD

2 Historical Overview In late 1997, 3 college wrestlers died while attempting to rapidly lose excessive amounts of weight by intense exercise and dehydration That set in motion a series of events that culminated in the rules we discuss today

3 Why Weight Loss? Wrestlers lose weight to make weight classes –Leaner wrestlers are more effective –Weight loss is good when fat is lost but is detrimental when carried to abusive levels We need to make sports safe for the competitors

4 Goals Safe weight loss practices –Eliminate rapid fluctuation in weight –Focus the sport on competition not weight loss

5 History First generation rule changes – rules: –Certify at lowest actual weight no later then 1/8 –Compete at certified weight on or before 1/8 –One-half of his weigh-ins at certified weight –Use of sweat boxes, hot showers, whirlpools, rubber, vinyl and plastic type suits, diuretics, or other methods prohibited –Weigh-in a maximum of 1 hour before dual meet begins –Random draw for starting weight class in each dual meet

6 National Federation “Beginning in , each state association shall develop and utilize a weight- management program” –Hydration testing that includes a urine specific gravity not to exceed –Body fat assessment no lower than 7% males/12% females –Monitored weekly weight loss plan not to exceed 1.5% a week. 48 states sponsor HS wrestling –29 states have or will have this type of program in place

7 Objections to the Rule Effectiveness of current wrestling rules –Complaints have dropped off precipitously Accuracy of body fat testing –± 3-4%, a span of nearly 10 lbs crossing 2 weight classes –Racial differences Validity of urine specific gravity testing Doesn’t curb rapid episodic weight loss –The problem is the method of weight loss Dehydration can be physiologically dangerous –Caused virtually all the problems associated with weight loss in the past

8 Objections to the Rule Inequity for kids especially football players who are losing substantial fat No significant problem with low body fat –Some wrestlers are naturally 7% body fat 3%/week in NCAA heat publications Costs and administrative burden

9 Objections to the Rule Differences between high school and college wrestlers have been substantially ignored –Less intense set of ethics and standards about weight loss Serves to take away an elite athlete's options –May affect performance or scholarship goals negatively New Mexico lawsuit

10 OHSAA Wrestling Weight Certification Program - OVERVIEW Wrestlers frequently attempt to lose weight rapidly, often in an unhealthy and unsafe manner, to gain a perceived advantage

11 OHSAA Wrestling Weight Certification Program - OVERVIEW Program developed in response to the need for guidance of wrestlers as they make decisions about diet, nutrition, and weight control –Promoting proper weight maintenance among high school wrestlers by developing a weight control program that encourages safe weight loss –Program designed to assist wrestlers and coaches in avoiding potentially harmful, rapid weight reduction practices

12 OHSAA Wrestling Weight Certification Program - OVERVIEW Many states have instituted body composition testing programs in the past several years Purposes of body composition testing program –Determine the lowest safe and healthy weight for each wrestler –Provide a safe wrestling experience for all high school wrestlers –The wrestler’s lowest certifiable weight may not be his or her optimal competitive weight

13 OHSAA Wrestling Weight Certification Program - OVERVIEW In addition to this weight certification program, –Imperative that wrestling coaches monitor athletes throughout the entire season to ensure they are maintaining or losing weight in a healthy and safe manner

14 Steps of Testing Procedure These measurements should ideally be taken prior to the first practice but must be performed prior to the first competition It is strongly suggested that at least 2 schools participate in each testing session. This will allow more personnel to help with the process, alleviate travel costs to regional sites, and mitigate concerns about the integrity of the process

15 Getting Ready for the Test No vigorous activity on the evening before and the day of the testing. Avoid any caffeinated beverages on the day before and day of the testing. On the day of testing, drink 500ml (17 oz.) Of fluid. (A sports drink is an excellent choice). In preparation for the hydration test drink 2-4 cups of water in 1-2 hour period immediately preceding the test.

16 Be awake three hours prior to testing. Do not eat two hours prior to testing. Avoid any vitamin or mineral supplements two days before and the day of testing.

17 Upon Arrival… Wrestlers should report in “weigh-in attire” only –Males should be dressed in a t-shirt and shorts –Females should be dressed in shorts, a sports bra and tank top Each athlete is required to have a completed individual profile form and parental permission form –Complete demographics section prior to arrival First report to the station where weight is recorded

18 Step 1 - Assessment of Hydration Status

19 Completion of a hydration test is required before any wrestler can undergo a body composition or weight assessment Purposes: –Dehydration will concentrate urine and thereby increase the urine’s specific gravity. Accurate determination of minimum wrestling weight from assessments requires the wrestler to be property hydrated Dehydration or loss of water weight will directly affect minimal wrestling weight

20 Hydration Requirement Hydration testing is done immediately prior to and at the same site where the body composition testing occurs Each wrestler must pass a test to substantiate that they are at an acceptable level of hydration before they can proceed. Urine specific gravity must be or less

21 Hydration Requirement Wrestlers who fail the hydration measurement will need to: –Reschedule assessment no sooner than 48 hours following test failure –Pay another full assessment fee at their re-test

22 What Is Specific Gravity? –Indication of relative proportion of dissolved solid components to the total volume of the specimen –An indication of relative degree of concentration of the sample –Elevated whenever with excessive loss of water through sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, or elevated body temperature –Elevated glucose and protein do not tend to affect the test –Typically higher in the first morning sample and will be different in random samples through the day

23 Obtaining A Urine Sample To assure an appropriate urine sample has been collected for testing the following procedures are required: Area –A bathroom with toilet(s) or urinal(s) can be used by the wrestler to provide a urine sample. The determination of specific gravity can be completed in another area, but a means of appropriately disposing of the urine must be available as well

24 Obtaining A Urine Sample Safety Use gloves when measuring the urine and appropriately dispose of the urine Place cup in hazard collection system Collection containers: paper cups of sufficient size to provide a ml (1-2 oz) urine sample can be used by the wrestler to collect the sample

25 Steps For Collecting The Urine Sample School personnel must ensure that the wrestler has provided a sample of their own urine. Reasonable supervision is the key –Water faucets must be shut off. Wrestlers should not have access to the sinks where water can be added to the samples –Blue, green or red dye may be added to the toilet so that wrestlers will not be tempted to dip their cup in the toilet water

26 Steps For Collecting The Urine Sample –School personnel must supervise the process of urine sample collection. Reasonable supervision does not mean witnessing the sample going from the body into the cup –School personnel are to ensure that conditions do not exist that could compromise the integrity of the urine sample collection (bulky clothes, other containers, dipping the cup into the toilet water, horseplay, etc)

27 Butt Wedge & the Whizzinator

28 Steps For Collecting The Urine Sample –School personnel should be in all traffic areas between the collection area and the testing area. Any possible problem in the urine collection of an athlete necessitates voiding their sample and the provision of another sample with more scrutiny –Normally one to three wrestlers can be supervised at one time by school personnel

29 Steps For Collecting The Urine Sample The following procedures have been developed to minimize dishonest techniques to bypass the urine test and maximize the athletes’ right to privacy –Mark each urine collection cup to identify each wrestler. The athlete’s collection number should be marked on the container. This number corresponds to the number on the individual profile form –Instruct each wrestler to enter the toilet or urinal one at a time with nothing but the urine collection cup

30 Steps For Collecting The Urine Sample –Instruct the wrestler to begin urinating; Allowing a small amount to fall into the toilet bowl (this clears the urethra contaminants) –Then, in the urine collection cup, catch approximately 1 to 2 ounces of urine and remove the collection cup from the urine stream –Allow reasonable time for the wrestler to provide a sample of urine

31 Steps For Collecting The Urine Sample –After collection of the urine by the wrestler, appropriate personnel should ensure that the urine is warm by feel on the outside of the collection cup –If the urine is cold or suspect, reject that sample and require the wrestler to provide another sample under closer supervision – Once completed, the wrestler will give the sample to the proper authority and move along through the assessment process

32 Testing The Sample Only urine dipsticks will be used to measure hydration levels. The Bayer Multistix and Chemstrips or their equivalent are the required urine dipsticks to be used The cost of reagent strips averages about $50.00 for a package of 100

33 Testing The Sample Assessor tests the sample using a urine dipstick according to the manufacturer’s directions Strip is pulled from container –Note: trim the strip so the “specific gravity” is the bottom block (furthest from finger tips) Completely immerses strip in fresh urine sample Make certain all reagent patches are moistened

34 Testing The Sample Strip should be removed immediately running edge of strip along container to remove excess urine (caution not to “whip” or “snap” urine residue from free end of strip) Allow strip to air dry in horizontal position Hold strip next to color chart on bottle or supplied card Compare specific gravity to color on card at 1 min

35 Testing The Sample Assessor records the wrestler’s actual reading on the individual profile form and check pass or fail Measurements greater than will disqualify the athlete from continuing with the rest of the assessment Wrestlers who pass the hydration test will move on to the next step in the assessment process

36 Instruments Urine Test Strips

37 Step 2 – Assessment of Body Composition Those meeting the specific hydration requirement will proceed to skinfold assessment area Area should be controlled so the assessor can concentrate on the accuracy and communication of scores to the recorder The setting should allow privacy for the subject and confidentiality of the recorded information

38 Skinfold Assessment Based on the relationship between subcutaneous fat & total body fat and its inverse relationship to body density Subject is measured at a selected number of sites to determine the thickness of the skin and the subcutaneous fat deposition Skinfold thicknesses are used in an equation to calculate body density –Equations have been derived for specific populations, which is a key to validity of the prediction.

39 As shown below, the goal is to measure a double fold of skin and subcutaneous tissue (with sides of skinfold approximately parallel). The thicker the fat layer, the wider the fold.

40 Standardized Skinfold Assessment A key to the success of this program is the ability to standardize the assessment procedures and the calculations Do not take measurements when the subject's skin is moist (ensure that the skin is dry, and has no lotion) –Do not take measurements immediately after exercise May be a problem because some wrestlers may be attempt rapid weight reduction through exercise just prior to the assessment

41 Measuring a Skinfold –The subject should be standing in the anatomical position with the skin for potential skinfold sites exposed –All measurements are obtained on the right side of the body –Identify the sites to be measured. The triceps, abdomen and subscapular folds for males. The triceps and subscapular for females

42 Measuring a Skinfold –Palpate the site to familiarize both you and the subject with the area to be measured Carefully mark the sites The largest source of error in skinfold testing is inaccurate site selection –Become familiar with the width of the thumb and index finger as well as the perpendicular approach to site assessment prior to the elevation of each specific skinfold

43 Measuring a Skinfold –Elevate the double fold of skin and subcutaneous fat with the thumb and index finger of the left hand 1 cm above or adjacent to the measurement site on the long axis of the measurement –The fold should be lifted in such a manner as to have two parallel sides –Keep the fold elevated as you measure During the measurement, ensure that the shape of the skinfold is maintained

44 Measuring a Skinfold –Measure with caliper in right hand. Hold the caliper perpendicular to the skinfold and with the skinfold dial facing up and easily readable Place the caliper pads 1 cm below the fingers and half-way the depth of the fat fold Release the caliper pads gently –Caliper measurement surface should be in contact with the skinfold for 2 to 4 seconds

45 Measuring a Skinfold Open the jaws prior to removing off the body –Record to nearest 0.5 mm –Obtain (through rotation of sites) three measures (at least 15 seconds apart) with no more than a 0.5 mm difference between any two measurements (eg. 9.5, 10, 10.5). For wrestlers with very thick skinfolds, measuring within 1-2 mm is more realistic and is acceptable

46 Measuring a Skinfold –Record for each of three sites for males (sub scapular, abdominal and triceps) –Record only sub scapular and abdominal measurements for females Record in the boxes on the skinfold data worksheets

47 Instrumentation Lange skinfold calipers or equivalent are the only accepted instruments to determine body fat percentage –The calipers must have been checked for accuracy using a calibration block prior to the beginning of the current wrestling season The average cost of calipers is around $150 to $200

48 Instrumentation A tape measure for site location especially during training and practice for site identification A felt pen (preferably washable ink) for site identification A certified/calibrated scale for determination of total body weight at same time as skinfold assessment. The scale must have been certified within the previous year

49 Lange Skinfold Calipers

50 Site Selection and Identification The sites and regression equation selected for the program are those described specifically for use with young male wrestlers and the Boileau equation for females.

51 Triceps Skinfold Vertical fold on posterior aspect of arm, midway between lateral projection of acromion process and inferior margin of olecranon process. Flex the elbow to 90 degrees to identify the landmarks.

52 Site Selection and Identification Triceps- measured vertically in the midline of the posterior aspect of the upper arm, over the triceps muscle, midway between the lateral acromion process of the scapula and the inferior margin of the olecranon process of the ulna –Elbow is flexed to identify the landmarks but extended and relaxed to elevate the skinfold

53 Subscapular Skinfold Diagonal fold just below the inferior angle of scapula

54 Site Selection and Identification Subscapular - measured on a diagonal axis, (left shoulder to right hip) one centimeter below the inferior angle of the scapula. The site is angled infero-laterally about 45 degrees in the natural cleavage line of the skin –May be necessary to have the subject place their arm behind the back to make the anatomical features more prominent –Arm is returned to the relaxed anatomical position for the measurement

55 Abdomen Skinfold Site Vertical fold, one inch to the right side of and ½ inch below the navel The Jackson-Pollock procedure uses a vertical fold 2 cm to the right of the umbilicus

56 Site Selection and Identification Abdomen - measured vertically, the site is located 3 centimeters lateral to the midpoint of the umbilicus and 1 cm inferior to the umbilicus –Subject must stand erect with weight on both feet, relax the abdominal wall musculature and breathe normally during the assessment procedure

57 Formula For Calculation Of Body Composition - OHSAA Just so you are aware of the equations used to determine body fat percentages All calculations are done online using the NWCA optimal performance calculator An additional 1% is built-in to the equation to account measurement error

58 Values for Skinfold Assessment Process for Males 1. The Lohman equation is used to calculate body density of males –Body density (Bd)=[ (sum skinfold x )]+[(sum skinfold)2 x ] –Sum of skinfold = triceps skinfold + sub scapular skinfold + abdominal skinfold 2. The Brozek equation is used to calculate body fat percentage from body density –Percent body fat = (457/bd)-(414.2) 3. To calculate minimum weight at 7 % body fat –Fat weight (fw) = total body weight x (%bf/100) –Lean body mass (lbm) = tbw – fw –Minimum wrestling weight = (lbm) ÷.93

59 Values for Skinfold Assessment Process for Females 1. The Boileau equation is used to calculate the body fat percentage for females –Percent body fat = [1.35 x (sum skinfold)] - [0.012 x (sum skinfold) 2] Sum of skinfold = triceps skinfold+ sub scapular skinfold 2. To calculate minimum wrestling weight at 12% body fat –Fat weight (fw) = total body weight x (%bf/100) –Lean body mass (lbm) = tbw – fw –Minimum wrestling weight = (lbm) ÷.88

60 Step 3 Entering the Data

61 Step 3 – Entering the Data Results of the hydration, height and body weight assessment will be entered into the NWCA weight certification internet calculator on the Initial Assessment page at the NWCA website (www.nwcaonline.com).www.nwcaonline.com  It is recommended that all assessment data for each wrestler is initially recorded on paper so a “hard copy” backup system is available in case of data entry error.

62 Data Protocol Only the assessor shall enter the information from the worksheets to the NWCA web site after all subjects have been evaluated –It is the responsibility of the assessor to input the data of each wrestler on the NWCA within 72 hours of the assessment Calculation and redistribution of results to schools will be done online. Results can be printed from the NWCA web site

63 Data Protocol Each OHSAA approved assessor will be provided an assessor ID and assessor password. –These will be provided via to the assessors by the OHSAA after completion and registration of the OHSAA assessors ’ training.

64 Input of Data 1.Go to 2.Go to the horizontal menu and click on “WEIGHT CERTIFICATION” 3.You will now be directed to the optimal performance calculator program. On the horizontal menu, click on “SCHOLASTIC EDITION” 4.On the horizontal menu, go to “ASSESSORS” and, on the drop-down menu, click on “INITIAL ASSESSMENT” 5.On the NWCA assessor log in page, enter the following: A) assessor ID B) assessor password C) school NWCA card # (receive from the wrestling coach) D) school password (receive from the wrestling coach)

65

66 Click on Scholastic Link

67 Scholastic OPC Home Page

68 Login Page Assessor Code

69 Login Page

70 Input of Data Enter the following information from the individual profile form. (Wrestler’s gender automatically defaults to male; If wrestler is female, click on “click to add female wrestler”.) A) name of student-athlete: (last name, first name) B) wrestler’s grade (9-12) C) alpha date (enter date of assessment)

71 Input of Data D) urine specific gravity (click on “pass”. If the specific gravity is or above, click do not proceed any further. E) alpha body weight F) skin-fold measurements G) enter the raw data from the skinfold caliper measurements The minimum wrestling weight will automatically be calculated

72 Initial Assessment Hydration Results Body weight

73 Skinfold Data Then Entered Into the Initial Assessment Form for the Calculation of Minimal Wrestling Weight. Skinfold data

74 Alpha Master Report

75 Wrestlers Below 7% & 12% Body Fat Any male wrestler whose body fat percentage is below 7% or any female wrestler whose body fat percentage is below 12%, will not be allowed to wrestle below their actual weight at the time of the assessment

76 Wrestlers Below 7% & 12% Body Fat Clearance is for one season and expires the day after the completion of the state wrestling tournament. Any male athlete who is cleared to participate below 7% or female athlete who is cleared to participate below 12%, may not wrestle below their actual weight at the time of the assessment.

77 Weight Loss Per Week A weight loss limit of 1.5 percent of body weight at the time of the assessment per week has been set The athlete’s minimum weight will be listed on the alpha master roster The weight loss plan will determine the earliest date a wrestler may compete at his minimum weight

78 Appeal Process Any athlete may appeal his/her skinfold measurements or calculations A wrestler may compete before or during an appeal at his or her lowest approved weight based on the initial assessment All steps of the appeal shall occur within 14 calendar days of the original alpha date The 1.5% weight loss limitation is in effect the day following the alpha date The date on which a wrestler may compete at a specific weight may not be appealed

79 Step 1 Reassessment: The athlete shall repeat the “Alpha Weigh-In” as described The master assessor shall be responsible for conducting the initial appeal using skinfold calipers. The reassessment shall occur with 14 calendar days of the original Alpha date unless a written extension is granted by the OHSAA before the expiration of the 14-day period.

80 Step 1 Reassessment includes hydration assessment, weight measurement plus three measurements of the skinfold sites. If the hydration assessment is failed, the wrestler may not be reassessed for a minimum of 48 hours. When the assessor enters the appeal data, they must indicate that this is an APPEAL by entering the information using the APPEAL link. Failure to adhere to these conditions or timelines will be cause for denial. Wrestler is responsible for any costs incurred during the appeal process.

81 Step 2 If dissatisfied with the initial results, the wrestler may choose to be hydrostatically weighed or undergo air displacement weighing to determine body fat percentage.

82 Step 2 Results obtained at this step are automatically accepted; The athlete, family, school, or coach may not appeal further. Hydrostatic weighing or air displacement weighing facilities must be approved by the OHSAA and the appeal proposal shall be filed with the OHSAA before any assessment occurs.

83 Step 2 All appeals and assessments must be completed by January 29, The 1.5% weight loss limitation shall be observed when conducting hydrostatic or air displacement weighing.

84 Step 2 Wrestler is responsible for any costs incurred during the appeal process. A student may not wrestle at the new, appealed weight until approval in writing has been received from the OHSAA.

85 Step 2 PENALTY: A wrestler who weighs in at a weight before the proper amount of time has passed to achieve the lowest minimum weight, will be considered an ineligible wrestler and subject to OHSAA regulations and sanctions. A wrestler may compete before or during an appeal only at his or her lowest allowable weight based on the initial assessment.

86 Step 2 Step 1 may be passed and only step 2 performed. Results are final and may not be appealed or modified.

87 Hydrostatic Weighing for Appeal Process

88 Air displacement plethysmography (BOD POD) for appeal process.

89 Http// Other Forms Generated by the NWCA Optimal Performance Calculator Program

90 Student Athlete Log In

91 Wrestler Nutrition Plan

92 Individual Meal Plan

93 Sample Menus

94 Nutrition Education Program Not mandatory Highly recommended that each school participate in the nutrition education aspect of the program NWCA nutritional program includes information for each individual athlete

95 Educating the Athlete and Parent Video Individual program presentations NWCA web based nutrition/weight management program

96 Healthy Training Emphasis should be placed on training-not weight loss. Emphasis on lifelong healthy living. Consequences of dehydration.

97 Implementation Models Regional Testing Sites Master Assessor Directory “In House” Assessors

98 Advantages of Regional Site Standardizes the program (less variability with assessments because fewer assessors are involved) Minimizes equipment costs because individual schools don’t have to purchase equipment Efficient way to train apprentice assessors Coaches will perceive it as a level playing field Accommodates schools that do not have certified athletic trainers

99 Disadvantages of Regional Site Cost of transporting team to regional site. Logistics of reassessing a wrestler who fails the hydration test. Coordinating wrestlers, coaches, and assessors schedule with facility availability.

100 Master Assessor Logistics State assigns master assessors to each district/section. Each master assessor trains apprentice assessors each fall. Master assessor compiles a regional directory of certified assessors in his/her region. Coach contacts an assessor from the directory to schedule appointment for assessor to travel to the school.

101 Advantages of Regional Assessor Coaches perception of level playing field if assessors can’t assess their own teams Individual schools do not have to purchase their own equipment (the assessors bring their own) Accommodates regions that have a shortage of certified athletic trainers

102 Disadvantages of Regional Assessor Logistics of reassessing a wrestler that fails the hydration test Logistics of training and retraining a large pool of assessors Variability of assessments may increase due to more assessors being involved Logistics of maintaining an updated assessor directory

103 “In House” Assessor Logistics State requires each school district to train two people to perform assessments. Assessors conduct assessments on wrestlers whenever convenient for the coach/wrestler.

104 Advantages of “In House” Assessors Each school has the flexibility to conduct assessments when convenient (some wrestlers play fall sports, may be injured during initial assessment period, etc.) Much easier to reassess a wrestler that fails the hydration test

105 Disadvantages of “In House” Assessors Is difficult to implement in regions that do not have ample number of certified athletic trainers Each school must purchase its own equipment Logistics of training and assuring proficiencies in a large number of athletic trainers

106 Responsibilities of Testing Site Provide the following (after discussion with assessor): –Staff to assist with recording data, supervision of urine samples, and obtaining body weights –An individual to perform the specific gravity urinalysis –Reagent strips to determine urine specific gravity –Collection cups for urine –Disposable nonsterile gloves –Individual profile forms – preferable that wrestlers bring forms completed to the assessment –Parental permission forms –Certified scale The assessor will provide: –Calipers –Computer –Any other items necessary for testing if agreed upon with the school

107 Professional Responsibilities Expectations for the OHSAA assessor –Highest professional and ethical conduct –Treatment of wrestlers with the highest regard for “right to privacy” and confidentiality –Expected to conduct yourself in a manner such that there will be no question about your positive contribution –Professional judgment will be involved to clarify and validate the assessment process The greater the depth of understanding of body composition assessment, the better your ability in representing the OHSAA, serving our student-athletes and administering the program No substitute for practice and experience. In-service participation, in-depth knowledge about all aspects of the body composition assessment, careful site identification, and practice will assist in the accuracy and value of this program

108 Training the Assessor Only an OHSAA assessor, who has successfully completed the OHSAA in-service education program, may conduct body composition assessments It is considered a “conflict of interest” for an active wrestling coach, at any level, to become an OHSAA approved skinfold assessor. Coaches are only allowed to perform clerical and organizational duties

109 Assessor Master assessors are individuals who have at least 3 years of skinfold assessment experience. They are individuals who will teach other subsequent assessors. They will also be responsible for handling the first step of the appeal process An assessor may also become a master assessor by taking a training course and having 2 years of testing experience

110 Assessor Persons eligible to be trained as OHSAA approved assessors include licensed physicians, registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, licensed athletic trainers, licensed physical therapists, licensed physician assistants, registered nutritionists, and exercise physiologists

111 Assessor The assessor candidate will submit to a training session and an annual educational update The assessor may be subject to a random sample test to substantiate the quality and consistency of his/her measurements

112 Assessor Assessor training will consist of a minimum of one hour of classroom training and one hour of practical training.

113 Assessor A training fee will be charged to each assessor candidate to attend the training program. Upon completion of the assessor training, each individual will receive a certificate of completion from the OHSAA. The cost of the training program is $20.00 and payable to the master assessor.

114 Assessor Recertification –Assessors who have been certified for the previous wrestling season and wish to recertify must: Complete a closed book examination. This test may be accessed at the OHSAA website. The test must be submitted to OHSAA at least 30 days in advance of the alpha weigh-in date. Pay a recertification fee. This fee is $10.00 and is payable to OHSAA. –Assessors are required to repeat the initial assessor training program when a lapse of one year or more occurs or significant performance decline is reported to OHSAA.

115 Costs All costs incurred for the initial assessment and appeal process are the responsibility of the school or parent An assessor may charge up to $5.00 per athlete for each assessment plus $30.00 per hour. This charge is assessed for any athlete who passes or fails the urine specific gravity test

116 Costs An athlete who appeals the initial test will be charged $5.00 for a body fat assessment using skinfold calipers Assessors are permitted to charge mileage at the IRS standard rate whenever travel is required to a location Assessors are permitted to charge a service fee of up to $30.00 per hour CLIA lab certification will be obtained by the OHSAA and all assessors will work under that certificate

117 Thank You!

118 Extra Slides

119 The Real Problem Problem is method of weight loss, ie dehydration – rapid short term losses – Not %BF – some wrestlers are already this lean –Or even # of pounds lost – a very fat wrestler clearly can lose a lot of pounds

120 Differences Between College and HS Proposed rules ignore difference in HS and college wrestlers –Intensity lower –Multi–sport participation May not take into account the issue of the wrestler coming off football –Modeled after NCAA rules, but NCAA handbook states that for all other sports, concern is when weight loss is “ 5% or more in several days”

121 Losing Weight There are 2 ways of losing weight - slow "negative energy balance" and rapid "dehydration" both are OK if done correctly and not in excess Rapid drastic dehydration is dangerous Dehydration is kept at a tolerable level by reducing time between weigh-in and competition as is the case with high school rules

122 Implementation Training the assessors –When and where Collection sites –Responsibilities Body composition measurements –Body fat testing Hydration testing –Urine specific gravity Inputting the data at NWCA

123 Materials SiteData Forms (Labels) Collection Cups Reagent Strips Certified Scale Body Composition Tool On Line Computer Additional Staff

124 Establishing Minimum Weights

125 Specific Gravity Assessment Procedure - Reagent Strips Method Bayer Multistix – product must have 8 sg or 10 sg identification Bayer Multistix is a registered name for one of the most common visually read urinalysis reagent strips available which provide urine chemistry information. One of the test strip areas is designed to assess specific gravity. Other test strip areas provide for assessment of glucose, bilirubin, ketone, blood, ph, protein, urobilinogen, nitrite, and leukocytes in the urine

126 Body Composition The human body can be represented as composed of at least two components: Lean body mass (LBM) = the muscle and bone mass predicted to be in the body Body fat (BF) = essential and non-essential fat storage predicted to be in the body

127 Terminology Lean body mass(LBM) = the weight of the lean tissue of the body such as muscle, bone, and blood. The weight of the body without the fat weight. LBM = TBW-FW Fat weight(FW) = the weight of the fat tissue of the body. Includes both essential and stored fat tissue. FW = TBW x %BF Minimum wrestling weight (MWW) = the lowest weight at which a wrestler may compete, determined to be 7 % male, 12% female, body fat for the Michigan wrestling monitoring program

128 Terminology Total body weight (TBW) = weight of the body on a certified, calibrated scale Body density(BD) = the mass of the body per unit of volume. (The fat free component is assumed to have a density of gm/cm3. The mass of fat is considered to be about.90 gm/cm3.) Percent body fat(%bf) = the proportion of total body weight that is fat weight and expressed as a percentage. %BF = (TBW-LBM) / (TBW) x 100

129 Entering the Data Name, class, etc.

130 Input of Data You are now on the Initial Assessment Page. Proceed by entering the following information from the wrestler’s Individual Profile Form (only use the “TAB” key to move from box to box). If you are entering multiple schools, you must logout before entering the new school

131 Input of Data 1.In order for the program to calculate the numbers in steps 4-6, you must “tab” through each step after you enter the % body fat number in step 3. If the program did not automatically calculate steps 4-6, then return to step 3, enter the percent body fat and hit the “TAB” key three times. 2.Click on “save” to save this student -athlete’s entry. 3.The screen will automatically proceed to a blank screen, per step 1 and continue entering additional wrestlers. If this is your last entry, return to the main page and logoff.

132 How To View The Alpha Master Report On the scholastic OPC homepage menu bar, click on the “Alpha Master Report” under the “Assessors” tab on the menu bar. The Alpha Master Report will appear with all of the team’s wrestlers and their assessment data (this includes the wrestler’s minimum weight class and the first date they may complete at that weight class) You may print out this form from the file options at the top of the menu page.

133 How To Delete A Wrestler After performing an assessment on a wrestler you may go back and delete the wrestler if you have an error. Underneath the assessors tab on the main menu, click on “initial assessment.” A blank initial assessment form will appear. Click on the wrestler you would like to delete. Once the wrestlers assessment form appears, scroll to the bottom and click on delete wrestler.

134 Prototypical Testing Set-up 1.Forms, money, cups 2.Bathroom 3.Hydration test 4.Scale 5.Body fat test Dots = staff


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