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Marine Ecology Abiotic Biotic Non-living part of the environment

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Presentation on theme: "Marine Ecology Abiotic Biotic Non-living part of the environment"— Presentation transcript:

1 Marine Ecology Abiotic Biotic Non-living part of the environment
interdependence of all organisms living in the ocean, in shallow coastal waters, and on the seashore

2 Marine Abiotic Factors
water salinity light pressure temperature dissolved gases pH tides currents waves substratum nutrient supply exposure to air

3 Water Cycle 97 % of the water on earth is salt water in the ocean. Of the 3% of water that is fresh water, 2% is frozen in ice caps and only 1% is usable by organisms as liquid water or water vapor found in lakes, rivers, streams, ponds , in the ground water, and as vapor in the atmosphere

4 Unique Qualities of Pure Water
The Unique Nature of Pure Water Water is 775 times as dense as air at 0 o C Water is found on earth in three forms – liquid, solid and gas Density – maximum density is at 4o C not at freeing point of 0 o C and expands as it freezes so ice floats The H20 molecule is polar and hydrogen bonding is present Water is a polar molecule; one end is positively charged and the other is negatively charged Cohesion of water molecules at the surface of a body of water (surface tension) is very high

5 Salt Water Features The oceans consist of (by mass): 96.5% water
3.0% sodium and chlorine ions (table salt, Na+ and Cl–) 0.5% other salts

6 Marine Environments

7 Marine Regions

8 Food Chain Producer 1st order Consumer or Herbivore
2nd order Consumer or 1st order Carnivore 3rd order Consumer or 2nd order Carnivore 4th order Consumer or 3rd order Carnivore Decomposers – consume dead and decaying matter as bacteria

9 Marine Food Web

10 Ecologic Pyramids Ecological pyramid - a graph representing trophic level numbers within an ecosystem. The primary producer level is at the base of the pyramid with the consumer levels above. Numbers pyramid - compares the number of individuals in each trophic level. May be inverted due to size of individuals Biomass pyramid - compares the total dry weight of the organisms in each trophic level. Energy pyramid - compares the total amount of energy available in each trophic level. This energy is usually measured in kilocalories. Trophic Level – each of several hierarchical levels in an ecosystem, comprising organisms that share the same function in the food chain and the same nutritional relationship to the primary sources of energy


12 Trophic Pyramids-Marine
The rule means that only 10% of the energy is transferred from one trophic level to the next. By consuming Primary produces one will have the most energy. Primary production is the synthesis of organic compounds from atmospheric or aqueous carbon dioxide. It primary occurs through the process of photosynthesis witch uses light as its energy source. Almost all life on earth is directly or indirectly reliant on primary production. The organisms reasonable for primary production are known as Primary Producers or autotrophs and form the base of the food chain. Example: Phytoplankton The 10% rule for Energy Pyramids

13 Carbon, Nitrogen & Phosphorus Cycles

14 Threats to Marine Ecosystems
Oil spills and their ecological disasters Marine dumping of wastes – plastic and other wastes Dredging Wastes Overfishing Ocean acidification reducing calcium carbonate Population displacement Mangrove Destruction Bycatch – marine wildlife unintentionally caught as sea turtles, porpoises, albatross, crabs, starfish & fish Whaling is still a problem though strides are being make

15 Threats to Ocean Health
Marine Pollution Habitat Destruction Overfishing and Exploitation Climate Change Sea Temperature Rise Ocean Acidification Invasive Species Ocean Dead Zones

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