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Marine Ecology Abiotic Abiotic – Non-living part of the environment Biotic Biotic – Living part of the environment – interdependence of all organisms living.

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Presentation on theme: "Marine Ecology Abiotic Abiotic – Non-living part of the environment Biotic Biotic – Living part of the environment – interdependence of all organisms living."— Presentation transcript:

1 Marine Ecology Abiotic Abiotic – Non-living part of the environment Biotic Biotic – Living part of the environment – interdependence of all organisms living in the ocean, in shallow coastal waters, and on the seashore

2 Marine Abiotic Factors water salinity light pressure temperature dissolved gases pH tides currents waves substratum nutrient supply exposure to air

3 Water Cycle 97 % of the water on earth is salt water in the ocean. Of the 3% of water that is fresh water, 2% is frozen in ice caps and only 1% is usable by organisms as liquid water or water vapor found in lakes, rivers, streams, ponds, in the ground water, and as vapor in the atmosphere

4 Unique Qualities of Pure Water The Unique Nature of Pure Water  Water is 775 times as dense as air at 0 o C  Water is found on earth in three forms – liquid, solid and gas  Density – maximum density is at 4 o C not at freeing point of 0 o C and expands as it freezes so ice floats  The H 2 0 molecule is polar and hydrogen bonding is present  Water is a polar molecule; one end is positively charged and the other is negatively charged  Cohesion of water molecules at the surface of a body of water (surface tension) is very high

5 Salt Water Features The oceans consist of (by mass): 96.5% water 3.0% sodium and chlorine ions (table salt, Na + and Cl – ) 0.5% other salts

6 Marine Environments

7 Marine Regions

8 Food Chain Producer Producer 1 st order Consumer or Herbivore 1 st order Consumer or Herbivore 2 nd order Consumer or 1 st order Carnivore 2 nd order Consumer or 1 st order Carnivore 3 rd order Consumer or 2 nd order Carnivore 3 rd order Consumer or 2 nd order Carnivore 4 th order Consumer or 3 rd order Carnivore 4 th order Consumer or 3 rd order Carnivore Decomposers – consume dead and decaying matter as bacteria Decomposers – consume dead and decaying matter as bacteria

9 Marine Food Web

10 Ecologic Pyramids Ecological pyramid - a graph representing trophic level numbers within an ecosystem. The primary producer level is at the base of the pyramid with the consumer levels above. Numbers pyramid - compares the number of individuals in each trophic level. May be inverted due to size of individuals Biomass pyramid - compares the total dry weight of the organisms in each trophic level. Energy pyramid - compares the total amount of energy available in each trophic level. This energy is usually measured in kilocalories.

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12 Trophic Pyramids-Marine The 10% rule for Energy Pyramids

13 Carbon, Nitrogen & Phosphorus Cycles

14 Threats to Marine Ecosystems Oil spills and their ecological disasters Marine dumping of wastes – plastic and other wastes Dredging Wastes Overfishing Ocean acidification reducing calcium carbonate Population displacement Mangrove Destruction Bycatch – marine wildlife unintentionally caught as sea turtles, porpoises, albatross, crabs, starfish & fish Whaling is still a problem though strides are being make

15 Threats to Ocean Health Marine Pollution Habitat Destruction Overfishing and Exploitation Climate Change Sea Temperature Rise Ocean Acidification Invasive Species Ocean Dead Zones


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