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Matter and Energy In Ecosystems
3 Ecosystem Necessities Recycling of Matter (nutrient cycles). Flow of Energy (food chain). Gravity (keeps everything here).
Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space. Examples: solids (nutrients), liquids, gases.
Energy The ability to do work. Potential energy- stored energy. Ex. food, gasoline.
Kinetic energy- movement. Ex. exercise, a car rolling.
High quality energy Organized, concentrated. Ex. Petroleum, electricity, nuclear fission, food.
Low quality energy Disorganized, not concentrated. Ex. Low temperature heat, dispersed geothermal energy.
Laws of Thermodynamics 1 st law- conservation of energy. Energy input always equals energy output.
2 nd law- energy degrades as it is changed from one form to another.
Energy Chain fuel heat steam kinetic energy electricity falling water kinetic energy electricity light heat wind kinetic energy electricity light heat sunlight plant tissue kinetic energy heat
Energy In Ecosystems
Energy in Ecosystems Food Chains- show the movement of energy from one feeding level (trophic level) to the next.
Food Web- interlocked food chains.
Trophic levels Producers- harness energy from the sun to produce their own food. Ex. plants, phytoplankton.
Primary consumers- eat producers harnessing their energy (biomass). Herbivores.
Secondary consumers- eat primary consumers. Primary carnivores.
Tertiary consumers- eat secondary consumers. Secondary carnivores.
Decomposers- break down dead matter and waste from the other levels. Bacteria and fungi.
Ecological Pyramids Pyramid of numbers- counting the number of organisms at each trophic level to yield information about the ecosystem.
Pyramid of biomass- measures the dried weight of all organisms at each trophic level.
Pyramid of energy flow- measures the amount of usable energy at each trophic level.
10% Rule Only 10% of the biomass at one level is available to the next level. 90% is used for energy, to build more biomass, or is lost as waste.
Gross Primary Productivity Rate at which producers capture and store energy as biomass.
Net primary productivity Gross productivity minus the rate at which biomass energy is used during aerobic respiration. Income available to other trophic levels.
High production ecosystems Marshes Swamps Estuaries Trop. Rain Forest
Low productivity ecosystem Open ocean Tundra Deserts
Matter in Ecosystems
Biogeochemical Cycles Show the movement of nutrients through the biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem.
Gaseous Cycle Nutrient time predominates in the atmosphere Ex. Hydrological, carbon, nitrogen, etc.
Sedimentary cycle Nutrient time predominates in rock. Ex. Phosphorus, sulfur.
Law of the Conservation of Matter Matter cannot be destroyed, only rearranged.
High Quality Matter Concentrated and refined. Ex. Aluminum can, gasoline.
Low Quality Matter Disorganized, unconcentrated. Ex. Aluminum ore, crude oil.
Organic compounds Contain carbon and hydrogen and form living tissue. CHONPS- most common atoms in life (macronutrients).
Inorganic Compounds Do not contain C and H bonded. Make up non-living matter.
Carbon Cycle Process driven (photosynthesis and cellular respiration). Gaseous cycle.
Importance of Carbon Is a key component of organic molecules. Is an ingredient of photosynthesis. Is part of the greenhouse layer.
Human caused problems Burning fossil fuels releases stored carbon gases increasing the greenhouse effect.
Nitrogen Cycle Process driven (decomposition, nitrification, denitrif., ammonification). Gaseous cycle.
Importance of nitrogen Important molecular component (DNA and RNA). Important for plant growth.
Human caused problems Burning fossil fuels releases nitrogen gases which can become acid rain… also a green house gas.
Nitrogen fertilizer runoff can cause fish kills.
Phosphorus cycle Process driven (weathering, decomposition). Sedimentary Cycle.
Importance of Phosphorus Important cellular component (DNA and RNA). Plant growth and development.
Human caused problems Phosphate fertilizer runoff cause fish kills.
Sulfur Cycle Process driven (erosion, decomposition). Sedimentary cycle.
Importance of Sulfur Important ingredient in organic molecules.
Human caused problems Burning coal releases sulfur gases which cause acid rain.
Hydrological cycle Movement of water through an ecosystem. Heat (sunlight) driven.
Importance of water It is a great solvent. Diffuses nutrients and waste in living tissue. Ingredient of photosynthesis.
It is a great coolant. It is habitat for living organisms.
Ecology Ecology- Science of the interactions between organisms and their environment.
Ecosystems biosphere ecosystem community population Studying organisms in their environment organism.
Ecosystems Essential Questions: What limits the production in ecosystems? How do nutrients move in the ecosystem? How does energy move through.
1 Ecosystems Chapter 54. What you need to know How energy flows through the ecosystem The difference between gross primary productivity and net primary.
Energy in an Ecosystem For your warm-up, answer these… Where is energy in an ecosystem? Where does it come from initially? Where does it go to / end up?
Producers and Consumers: the Living Components of Ecosystems BASIC ECOSYSTEM STRUCTURE Biotic vs. Abiotic Producers, autotrophs … TROPH = EATING/FEEDING.
LG 3 Energy Flow and Nutrient Cycling in Ecosystems Food Web Categories Grazing Food Web - Detrital Food Web - Sunlight and Ecosystem Productivity Gross.
Ecosystems Chapters 55 & 56.
MATTER, ENERGY, & LIFE Energy flow & Nutrient cycles.
Ecosystems Chapter 54. Ecosystem involves all abiotic and biotic factors in area. Trophic levels - groups in which organisms are placed according to eating.
AP Biology Ecosystems. AP Biology Essential questions What limits the production in ecosystems? How do nutrients move in the ecosystem? How does.
Ecosystems and their Components
Ecology review:. What is Ecology? (a brief review)
Intro to Ecosystems Chapter 55. Ecosystems All abiotic factors & species.
CH 55 & 56 – Energy flow in Ecosystems
CHAPTER 3 Ecosystems: What Are They and How Do They Work? To halt the decline of an ecosystem, it is necessary to think like an ecosystem. - Douglas Wheeler.
Ecosystems:How do They Work? Unit Earth’s Life-Support Systems 1.The atmosphere 2.The hydrosphere 3.The geosphere 4.The biosphere.
Biology Unit 4 Review Flashcards *Questions about Food Chains & Food Webs should come from your Review Packet!!
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