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Matter and Energy In Ecosystems. 3 Ecosystem Necessities Recycling of Matter (nutrient cycles). Flow of Energy (food chain). Gravity (keeps everything.

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Presentation on theme: "Matter and Energy In Ecosystems. 3 Ecosystem Necessities Recycling of Matter (nutrient cycles). Flow of Energy (food chain). Gravity (keeps everything."— Presentation transcript:

1 Matter and Energy In Ecosystems

2 3 Ecosystem Necessities Recycling of Matter (nutrient cycles). Flow of Energy (food chain). Gravity (keeps everything here).

3 Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space. Examples: solids (nutrients), liquids, gases.

4 Energy The ability to do work. Potential energy- stored energy. Ex. food, gasoline.

5 Kinetic energy- movement. Ex. exercise, a car rolling.

6 High quality energy Organized, concentrated. Ex. Petroleum, electricity, nuclear fission, food.

7 Low quality energy Disorganized, not concentrated. Ex. Low temperature heat, dispersed geothermal energy.

8 Laws of Thermodynamics 1 st law- conservation of energy. Energy input always equals energy output.

9 2 nd law- energy degrades as it is changed from one form to another.

10 Energy Chain fuel  heat  steam  kinetic energy  electricity falling water  kinetic energy  electricity  light  heat wind  kinetic energy  electricity  light  heat sunlight  plant tissue  kinetic energy  heat

11 Energy In Ecosystems

12 Energy in Ecosystems Food Chains- show the movement of energy from one feeding level (trophic level) to the next.

13 Food Web- interlocked food chains.

14 Trophic levels Producers- harness energy from the sun to produce their own food. Ex. plants, phytoplankton.

15 Primary consumers- eat producers harnessing their energy (biomass). Herbivores.

16 Secondary consumers- eat primary consumers. Primary carnivores.

17 Tertiary consumers- eat secondary consumers. Secondary carnivores.

18 Decomposers- break down dead matter and waste from the other levels. Bacteria and fungi.

19 Ecological Pyramids Pyramid of numbers- counting the number of organisms at each trophic level to yield information about the ecosystem.


21 Pyramid of biomass- measures the dried weight of all organisms at each trophic level.


23 Pyramid of energy flow- measures the amount of usable energy at each trophic level.


25 10% Rule Only 10% of the biomass at one level is available to the next level. 90% is used for energy, to build more biomass, or is lost as waste.

26 Ecosystem Productivity

27 Gross Primary Productivity Rate at which producers capture and store energy as biomass.

28 Net primary productivity Gross productivity minus the rate at which biomass energy is used during aerobic respiration. Income available to other trophic levels.

29 High production ecosystems Marshes Swamps Estuaries Trop. Rain Forest

30 Low productivity ecosystem Open ocean Tundra Deserts

31 Matter in Ecosystems

32 Biogeochemical Cycles Show the movement of nutrients through the biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem.

33 Gaseous Cycle Nutrient time predominates in the atmosphere Ex. Hydrological, carbon, nitrogen, etc.

34 Sedimentary cycle Nutrient time predominates in rock. Ex. Phosphorus, sulfur.

35 Law of the Conservation of Matter Matter cannot be destroyed, only rearranged.

36 High Quality Matter Concentrated and refined. Ex. Aluminum can, gasoline.

37 Low Quality Matter Disorganized, unconcentrated. Ex. Aluminum ore, crude oil.

38 Organic compounds Contain carbon and hydrogen and form living tissue. CHONPS- most common atoms in life (macronutrients).

39 Inorganic Compounds Do not contain C and H bonded. Make up non-living matter.

40 Carbon Cycle Process driven (photosynthesis and cellular respiration). Gaseous cycle.

41 Importance of Carbon Is a key component of organic molecules. Is an ingredient of photosynthesis. Is part of the greenhouse layer.

42 Human caused problems Burning fossil fuels releases stored carbon gases increasing the greenhouse effect.


44 Nitrogen Cycle Process driven (decomposition, nitrification, denitrif., ammonification). Gaseous cycle.

45 Importance of nitrogen Important molecular component (DNA and RNA). Important for plant growth.

46 Human caused problems Burning fossil fuels releases nitrogen gases which can become acid rain… also a green house gas.

47 Nitrogen fertilizer runoff can cause fish kills.


49 Phosphorus cycle Process driven (weathering, decomposition). Sedimentary Cycle.

50 Importance of Phosphorus Important cellular component (DNA and RNA). Plant growth and development.

51 Human caused problems Phosphate fertilizer runoff cause fish kills.


53 Sulfur Cycle Process driven (erosion, decomposition). Sedimentary cycle.

54 Importance of Sulfur Important ingredient in organic molecules.

55 Human caused problems Burning coal releases sulfur gases which cause acid rain.



58 Hydrological cycle Movement of water through an ecosystem. Heat (sunlight) driven.

59 Importance of water It is a great solvent. Diffuses nutrients and waste in living tissue. Ingredient of photosynthesis.

60 It is a great coolant. It is habitat for living organisms.


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