Presentation on theme: "2014 WATER QUALITY-(B&C) Marine & Estuary 2014 WATER QUALITY-(B&C) Marine & Estuary KAREN LANCOUR National Bio Rules Committee Chairman C. Robyn Fischer."— Presentation transcript:
2014 WATER QUALITY-(B&C) Marine & Estuary 2014 WATER QUALITY-(B&C) Marine & Estuary KAREN LANCOUR National Bio Rules Committee Chairman C. Robyn Fischer National Event Supervisor
Event Rules – 2014 DISCLAIMER This presentation was prepared using draft rules. There may be some changes in the final copy of the rules. The rules which will be in your Coaches Manual and Student Manuals will be the official rules.
Event Rules – 2014 BE SURE TO CHECK THE 2014 EVENT RULES FOR EVENT PARAMETERS AND TOPICS FOR EACH COMPETITION LEVEL BE SURE TO CHECK THE 2014 EVENT RULES FOR EVENT PARAMETERS AND TOPICS FOR EACH COMPETITION LEVEL
TRAINING MATERIALS Training Power Point – content overview Training Power Point – content overview Training Handout – content information Training Handout – content information Sample Tournament – sample problems with key Sample Tournament – sample problems with key Event Supervisor Guide – prep tips, setup needs, and scoring tips Event Supervisor Guide – prep tips, setup needs, and scoring tips Internet Resources & Training Materials – on the Science Olympiad website at www.soinc.org under Event Information Internet Resources & Training Materials – on the Science Olympiad website at www.soinc.org under Event Informationwww.soinc.org A Biology-Earth Science CD and a Water Quality CD (updated to include marine 2014) are available from SO store at www.soinc.org A Biology-Earth Science CD and a Water Quality CD (updated to include marine 2014) are available from SO store at www.soinc.orgwww.soinc.org
Aquatic Ecosystems Freshwater Lotic ecosystems – flowing water StreamsRivers Lentic ecosystems – still water PondsLakesWetlands Estuary ecosystems – 2014 Marine ecosystems – 2014 Coral Reef Ecology – 2014
EVENT COMPONENTS Ecology Content – 2014 Ecology Content – 2014 – Part 1 – Estuary and Marine Ecology – Part 2 – Coral Reef Ecology – Part 3 – Water Monitoring and Analysis Process skills in data, graph and diagram analysis Process skills in data, graph and diagram analysis Event parameters – check the event parameters in the rules for resources allowed. Event parameters – check the event parameters in the rules for resources allowed.
Part 1: Estuary and Marine Ecology Areas such as: – Aquatic Ecology in Marine/Estuary Environments – Aquatic Food Chains and Webs – Population Dynamics – Community Interactions – Nutrient Recycling – Water Cycle – Threats to Marine & Estuary Water Quality
General Principles of Aquatic Ecology ECOLOGY – how organisms interact with one another and with their environment ENVIRONMENT – living and non-living components ABIOTIC – non-living component or physical factors as soil, rainfall, sunlight, temperaturesABIOTIC – non-living component or physical factors as soil, rainfall, sunlight, temperatures BIOTIC – living component are other organisms.BIOTIC – living component are other organisms.
Marine Ecology Abiotic Abiotic – Non-living part of the environment Biotic Biotic – Living part of the environment – interdependence of all organisms living in the ocean, in shallow coastal waters, and on the seashore
Marine Abiotic Factors water salinity light pressure temperature dissolved gases pH tides currents waves substratum nutrient supply exposure to air
Water Cycle 97 % of the water on earth is salt water in the ocean. Of the 3% of water that is fresh water, 2% is frozen in ice caps and only 1% is usable by organisms as liquid water or water vapor found in lakes, rivers, streams, ponds, in the ground water, and as vapor in the atmosphere
Unique Qualities of Pure Water The Unique Nature of Pure Water Water is 775 times as dense as air at 0 o C Water is found on earth in three forms – liquid, solid and gas Density – maximum density is at 4 o C not at freeing point of 0 o C and expands as it freezes so ice floats The H 2 0 molecule is polar and hydrogen bonding is present Water is a polar molecule; one end is positively charged and the other is negatively charged Cohesion of water molecules at the surface of a body of water (surface tension) is very high
Salt Water Features The oceans consist of (by mass): 96.5% water 3.0% sodium and chlorine ions (table salt, Na + and Cl – ) 0.5% other salts
Food Chain Producer Producer 1 st order Consumer or Herbivore 1 st order Consumer or Herbivore 2 nd order Consumer or 1 st order Carnivore 2 nd order Consumer or 1 st order Carnivore 3 rd order Consumer or 2 nd order Carnivore 3 rd order Consumer or 2 nd order Carnivore 4 th order Consumer or 3 rd order Carnivore 4 th order Consumer or 3 rd order Carnivore Decomposers – consume dead and decaying matter as bacteria Decomposers – consume dead and decaying matter as bacteria
Ecologic Pyramids Ecological pyramid - a graph representing trophic level numbers within an ecosystem. The primary producer level is at the base of the pyramid with the consumer levels above. Numbers pyramid - compares the number of individuals in each trophic level. May be inverted due to size of individuals Biomass pyramid - compares the total dry weight of the organisms in each trophic level. Energy pyramid - compares the total amount of energy available in each trophic level. This energy is usually measured in kilocalories.
Trophic Pyramids-Marine The 10% rule for Energy Pyramids
Threats to Marine Ecosystems Oil spills and their ecological disasters Marine dumping of wastes – plastic and other wastes Dredging Wastes Overfishing Ocean acidification reducing calcium carbonate Population displacement Mangrove Destruction Bycatch – marine wildlife unintentionally caught as sea turtles, porpoises, albatross, crabs, starfish & fish Whaling is still a problem though strides are being make
Threats to Ocean Health Marine Pollution Habitat Destruction Overfishing and Exploitation Climate Change Sea Temperature Rise Ocean Acidification Invasive Species Ocean Dead Zones
Estuaries The areas of water and shoreline where a freshwater stream or river merges with the ocean Estuaries can be partially enclosed body of water (such as bays, lagoons, sounds or sloughs) where two different bodies of water meet and mix They often bordered by salt marshes or intertidal mudflats Salinity varies within the estuary from nearly fresh water to ocean water
Importance of Estuaries Of the 32 largest cities in the world, 22 are located on estuaries Many animal species rely on estuaries for nesting and breeding Most of the fish and shellfish eaten in the United States, including salmon, herring, and oysters, complete at least part of their life cycles in estuaries Estuaries filter out sediments and pollutants from rivers and streams before they flow into the ocean, providing cleaner waters for humans and marine life Humans also rely on estuaries for recreation, jobs, and even our homes Coastal development, introduction of invasive species, over fishing, dams, and global climate change have led to a decline in the health of estuaries, making them one of the most threatened ecosystems on Earth
Estuary Classification Estuaries can be classified according to their water circulation: The amount of circulation affects the salt distribution and salinity concentrations salt-wedge fjord slightly stratified vertically mixed freshwater vertically mixed freshwater
Common Estuary Habitats oyster reefs kelp forests rocky and soft shorelines submerged aquatic vegetation coastal marshes mangroves forests deepwater swamps and riverine forests mud flats tidal streams barrier beaches salt marshes
Adaptation of Organisms – Physiological adaptations How organisms adapt to the environment by changes in metabolism, behavior and other characteristics. – The genes of the organism remains unchanged – The adaptation is not passed onto its progeny – Evolutionary adaptations Over generations, species adapt to the environment through natural selection. – Genetic differences of an individual organism that makes it better adapted to its environment are passed onto the organisms progeny
Adaptations of Estuary Organisms Salinity, temperature, water levels and light levels vary along the length of an estuary shutting up shells, digging borrows and excretion of excess salts fish maintain water balance by actively drinking salt water increasing their respiratory water flow and increase oxygen consumption mechanisms to deal with high energy winds and waves most efficient tree is low, with numerous crowded branches the tree may include flattening of the trunk, root and branches in a plan parallel to the wind direction
Treats to Estuaries EPA Too many nutrients Pathogens Toxic chemicals Habitat loss Invasive Species Changes in water flow
Point and Non-Point Pollution Sources Pollutants pose a large threat to estuarine organisms Pollutants are introduced into estuaries from either point sources or non-point sources. Point sources are clearly defined, localized inputs such as pipes, industrial plants, sewer systems, oil spills from tankers, and aquaculture ventures. Non-point sources are indistinct inputs that do not have a clearly defined source, such as runoff of petroleum products from roadways or pesticides from farmland. A majority of pollutants find their way into estuaries from non-point sources Non-point sources are harder to detect and control Reduction of pollution requires substantial individual and collective efforts The federal and state governments regulate them.
Estuary Preservation Ensuring the health of our estuaries is vital to the survival of the plant and animal communities To preserve our estuaries, the National Estuarine Research Reserve System was established to protect more than 1.3 million acres of estuarine habitat for long-term research, monitoring, education, and stewardship throughout the coastal United States.
Part 2: Coral Reef Ecology Examine coral reefs and the effects of pollution on reef ecosystems Topics that may be included are coral reef biology growth and reproduction zooanthellae reef fish communities reef ecosystem health indicators the importance of coral reefs problems associated with pollution management of reef systems
Coral Polyp Stony corals are the major reef architects. These small marine animals, (individual organisms are called polyps), produce a hard skeleton made of calcium carbonate, which they extract from the seawater and combine with CO 2 for limestone Other reef building organisms include fire corals, blue & pipe corals, coralline algae, tropical reef worms
Coral Life Cycle First stage of the corals life cycle is planula larvae, which allows it to be free swimming. Second stage of its life is polyp which is when the coral is stuck to a rock. In the polyp stage, it is able to reproduce, either asexual - involves the splitting of a coral (called fission) or sprouting another coral from itself (called budding). sexually (with another polyp) involves a cycle of: SPAWNING >> FERTILIZING >> PLANULAE LARVAE SETTLEMENT >> CLONING
Symbiosis Coral & Zooxanthellae Coral Polyp provides a home for the zooxanthellae, it provides nitrates and phosphates, and it gives off CO 2 Zooxanthellae, a dinoflagellate carries out photosynthesis and make oxygen and food for the polyp through photosynthesis, gain nutrients from the corals nitrogen and phosphorus wastes, and provide for most of the colors for the coral in the reef making them look like underwater gardens
Requirements for Reef Formation Solid structure for the base with a hard substrate for attachment Warm water temperatures > 20°C (68°F) and oceanic salinities High Light Levels Clear waters with high water transparency Low nutrient waters - low in phosphate and nitrogen nutrients Good water circulation with moderate wave action to disperse wastes and bring oxygen and plankton to the reef
Zones of a Coral Biome Shore or inner reef zone - area is between the crest and the shoreline- full of life including fishes, sea cucumbers, starfish, and anemones. Crest reef zone - highest point of the reef and where the waves break over the reef. Fore or outer reef zone - As the reef wall falls off, the waters get calmer. Around 30 feet deep, will be the most populated part of the reef along with lots of different types of coral species.
Coral Reef Organisms Coral reefs are inhabited by thousands of species including: Algae Sponges Soft corals Sea slugs Urchins and star fish Worms Crabs and lobster Snails Clams, scallops, and barnacles Fish Sea turtles Sharks and rays
Coral Reef Management Fisheries regulation Marine protected areas Coastal zoning The problem of ecosystem phase-shifts (how if corals die and area is taken over by algae, it achieves a new steady state and is very difficult for corals to re- colonize)
Part 3: Water Monitoring Understand and interpret data related to testing procedures and purposes for water testing (No actual testing) Build and demonstrate a salinometer capable of testing saltwater (1-10%)
Chemical Analysis Salinity - only actual testing with salinometer Salinity - only actual testing with salinometer Temperature Temperature Aragonite Saturation - for marine esp. coral reefs Aragonite Saturation - for marine esp. coral reefs pH pH Turbidity – Light Saturation in marine environments Turbidity – Light Saturation in marine environments Dissolved oxygen Dissolved oxygen Biochemical oxygen demand Biochemical oxygen demand Phosphates Phosphates Nitrates Nitrates Total solids Total solids Fecal Coliform Fecal Coliform Their relationship to one another– note: the Water Quality Index used for freshwater does not apply to marine. Regions have their own marine water quality index Their relationship to one another – note: the Water Quality Index used for freshwater does not apply to marine. Regions have their own marine water quality index.
Salinomter – Hydrometer SalinometersHydrometers Salinometers / Hydrometers Hydrometer Hydrometer calibrated to read in % of salt concentration Materials Materials – soda straw modeling clay a fine-tipped permanent marker a tall clear container to hold the solution for calibrating your device salt for mixing one or more standard solutions water (tap water will work-distilled is better)
SALINOMETER TIPS The narrow the diameter of the salinometer, the higher the water will rise – this make calibration easier. Small plastic pipettes instead of the straw and clay work well. Hold the pipette upside down, cut the opening to make it wider and weight it putting sand into the bulb. Cover the opening with tape or clay so the sand wont get wet when you calibrate it. Measuring electronic conduction (the more salt the more electricity is conducted) is another possibility – just be sure that the device is made by the team