Presentation on theme: "2014 WATER QUALITY-(B&C) Marine & Estuary"— Presentation transcript:
12014 WATER QUALITY-(B&C) Marine & Estuary KAREN LANCOURNational Bio Rules Committee ChairmanC. Robyn FischerNational Event Supervisor
2Event Rules – 2014 DISCLAIMER This presentation was prepared using draft rules. There may be some changes in the final copy of the rules. The rules which will be in your Coaches Manual and Student Manuals will be the official rules.
3Event Rules – 2014BE SURE TO CHECK THE 2014 EVENT RULES FOR EVENT PARAMETERS AND TOPICS FOR EACH COMPETITION LEVEL
4TRAINING MATERIALS Training Power Point – content overview Training Handout – content informationSample Tournament – sample problems with keyEvent Supervisor Guide – prep tips, setup needs, and scoring tipsInternet Resources & Training Materials – on the Science Olympiad website at under Event InformationA Biology-Earth Science CD and a Water Quality CD (updated to include marine 2014) are available from SO store at
5Aquatic EcosystemsFreshwater Lotic ecosystems – flowing water Streams Rivers Lentic ecosystems – still water Ponds Lakes Wetlands Estuary ecosystems – 2014 Marine ecosystems – 2014 Coral Reef Ecology – 2014
6EVENT COMPONENTS Ecology Content – 2014 Part 1 – Estuary and Marine EcologyPart 2 – Coral Reef EcologyPart 3 – Water Monitoring and AnalysisProcess skills in data, graph and diagram analysisEvent parameters – check the event parameters in the rules for resources allowed.
7Part 1: Estuary and Marine Ecology Areas such as:Aquatic Ecology in Marine/Estuary EnvironmentsAquatic Food Chains and WebsPopulation DynamicsCommunity InteractionsNutrient RecyclingWater CycleThreats to Marine & Estuary Water Quality
8General Principles of Aquatic Ecology ECOLOGY – how organisms interact with one another and with their environmentENVIRONMENT – living and non-living componentsABIOTIC – non-living component or physical factors as soil, rainfall, sunlight, temperaturesBIOTIC – living component are other organisms.
9Marine Ecology Abiotic Biotic Non-living part of the environment interdependence of all organisms living in the ocean, in shallow coastal waters, and on the seashore
10Marine Abiotic Factors watersalinitylightpressuretemperaturedissolved gasespHtidescurrentswavessubstratumnutrient supplyexposure to air
11Water Cycle97 % of the water on earth is salt water in the ocean. Of the 3% of water that is fresh water, 2% is frozen in ice caps and only 1% is usable by organisms as liquid water or water vapor found in lakes, rivers, streams, ponds , in the ground water, and as vapor in the atmosphere
12Unique Qualities of Pure Water The Unique Nature of Pure WaterWater is 775 times as dense as air at 0 o CWater is found on earth in three forms – liquid, solid and gasDensity – maximum density is at 4o C not at freeing point of 0 o C and expands as it freezes so ice floatsThe H20 molecule is polar and hydrogen bonding is presentWater is a polar molecule; one end is positively charged and the other is negatively chargedCohesion of water molecules at the surface of a body of water (surface tension) is very high
13Salt Water Features The oceans consist of (by mass): 96.5% water 3.0% sodium and chlorine ions (table salt, Na+ and Cl–)0.5% other salts
16Food Chain Producer 1st order Consumer or Herbivore 2nd order Consumer or 1st order Carnivore3rd order Consumer or 2nd order Carnivore4th order Consumer or 3rd order CarnivoreDecomposers – consume dead and decaying matter as bacteria
18Ecologic PyramidsEcological pyramid - a graph representing trophic level numbers within an ecosystem. The primary producer level is at the base of the pyramid with the consumer levels above.Numbers pyramid - compares the number of individuals in each trophic level. May be inverteddue to size of individualsBiomass pyramid - compares the total dry weight of the organisms in each trophic level.Energy pyramid - compares the total amount of energy available in each trophic level. This energy is usually measured in kilocalories.
19Trophic Pyramids-Marine The 10% rule for Energy Pyramids
21Threats to Marine Ecosystems Oil spills and their ecological disastersMarine dumping of wastes – plastic and other wastesDredging WastesOverfishingOcean acidification reducing calcium carbonatePopulation displacementMangrove DestructionBycatch – marine wildlife unintentionally caught as sea turtles, porpoises, albatross, crabs, starfish & fishWhaling is still a problem though strides are being make
22Threats to Ocean Health Marine PollutionHabitat DestructionOverfishing and ExploitationClimate ChangeSea Temperature RiseOcean AcidificationInvasive SpeciesOcean Dead Zones
23EstuariesThe areas of water and shoreline where a freshwater stream or river merges with the oceanEstuaries can be partially enclosed body of water (such as bays, lagoons, sounds or sloughs) where two different bodies of water meet and mixThey often bordered by salt marshes or intertidal mudflatsSalinity varies within the estuary from nearly fresh water to ocean water
24Importance of Estuaries Of the 32 largest cities in the world, 22 are located on estuariesMany animal species rely on estuaries for nesting and breedingMost of the fish and shellfish eaten in the United States, including salmon, herring, and oysters, complete at least part of their life cycles in estuariesEstuaries filter out sediments and pollutants from rivers and streams before they flow into the ocean, providing cleaner waters for humans and marine lifeHumans also rely on estuaries for recreation, jobs, and even our homesCoastal development, introduction of invasive species, over fishing, dams, and global climate change have led to a decline in the health of estuaries, making them one of the most threatened ecosystems on Earth
25Estuary Classification Estuaries can be classified according to their water circulation:The amount of circulation affects the salt distribution and salinity concentrationssalt-wedge fjord slightly stratifiedvertically mixed freshwater
27Adaptation of Organisms Physiological adaptationsHow organisms adapt to the environment by changes in metabolism, behavior and other characteristics.The genes of the organism remains unchangedThe adaptation is not passed onto its progenyEvolutionary adaptationsOver generations, species adapt to the environment through natural selection.Genetic differences of an individual organism that makes it better adapted to its environment are passed onto the organism’s progeny
28Adaptations of Estuary Organisms Salinity, temperature, water levels and light levels vary along the length of an estuaryshutting up shells, digging borrows and excretion of excess saltsfish maintain water balance by actively drinking salt waterincreasing their respiratory water flow and increase oxygen consumptionmechanisms to deal with high energy winds and wavesmost efficient tree is low, with numerous crowded branchesthe tree may include flattening of the trunk, root and branches in a plan parallel to the wind direction
31Treats to Estuaries EPA Too many nutrientsPathogensToxic chemicalsHabitat lossInvasive SpeciesChanges in water flow
32Point and Non-Point Pollution Sources Pollutants pose a large threat to estuarine organismsPollutants are introduced into estuaries from either point sources or non-point sources.Point sources are clearly defined, localized inputs such as pipes, industrial plants, sewer systems, oil spills from tankers, and aquaculture ventures.Non-point sources are indistinct inputs that do not have a clearly defined source, such as runoff of petroleum products from roadways or pesticides from farmland.A majority of pollutants find their way into estuaries from non-point sourcesNon-point sources are harder to detect and controlReduction of pollution requires substantial individual and collective effortsThe federal and state governments regulate them.
33Estuary PreservationEnsuring the health of our estuaries is vital to the survival of the plant and animal communitiesTo preserve our estuaries, the National Estuarine Research Reserve System was established to protect more than 1.3 million acres of estuarine habitat for long-term research, monitoring, education, and stewardship throughout the coastal United States.
34Part 2: Coral Reef Ecology Examine coral reefs and the effects of pollution on reef ecosystemsTopics that may be included arecoral reef biologygrowth and reproductionzooanthellaereef fish communitiesreef ecosystemhealth indicatorsthe importance of coral reefsproblems associated with pollutionmanagement of reef systems
35Coral PolypStony corals are the major reef architects. These small marine animals, (individual organisms are called polyps), produce a hard skeleton made of calcium carbonate, which they extract from the seawater and combine with CO2 for limestoneOther reef building organisms include fire corals, blue & pipe corals, coralline algae, tropical reef worms
36Coral Life CycleFirst stage of the coral’s life cycle is planula larvae, which allows it to be free swimming.Second stage of its life is polyp which is when the coral is stuck to a rock.In the polyp stage, it is able to reproduce,either asexual - involves the splitting of a coral (called fission) or sprouting another coral from itself (called budding).sexually (with another polyp)involves a cycle of:SPAWNING >> FERTILIZING >> PLANULAE LARVAE SETTLEMENT >> CLONING
37Symbiosis Coral & Zooxanthellae Coral Polyp provides a home for the zooxanthellae, it provides nitrates and phosphates, and it gives off CO2Zooxanthellae, a dinoflagellate carries out photosynthesis and make oxygen and food for the polyp through photosynthesis, gain nutrients from the corals nitrogen and phosphorus wastes, and provide for most of the colors for the coral in the reef making them look like underwater gardens
39Requirements for Reef Formation Solid structure for the base with a hard substrate for attachmentWarm water temperatures > 20°C (68°F) and oceanic salinitiesHigh Light LevelsClear waters with high water transparencyLow nutrient waters - low in phosphate and nitrogen nutrientsGood water circulation with moderate wave action to disperse wastes and bring oxygen and plankton to the reef
41Zones of a Coral BiomeShore or inner reef zone - area is between the crest and the shoreline-full of life including fishes, sea cucumbers, starfish, and anemones.Crest reef zone - highest point of the reef and where the waves break over the reef.Fore or outer reef zone - As the reef wall falls off, the waters get calmer. Around 30 feet deep, will be the most populated part of the reef along with lots of different types of coral species.
42Coral Reef OrganismsCoral reefs are inhabited by thousands of species including:AlgaeSpongesSoft coralsSea slugsUrchins and star fishWormsCrabs and lobsterSnailsClams, scallops,and barnaclesFishSea turtlesSharks and rays
52Coral Reef Management Fisheries regulation Marine protected areas Coastal zoningThe problem of ecosystem phase-shifts (how if corals die and area is taken over by algae, it achieves a new steady state and is very difficult for corals to re-colonize)
53Part 3: Water Monitoring Understand and interpret data related to testing procedures and purposes for water testing (No actual testing)Build and demonstrate a salinometer capable of testing saltwater (1-10%)
54Chemical Analysis Salinity - only actual testing with salinometer TemperatureAragonite Saturation - for marine esp. coral reefspHTurbidity – Light Saturation in marine environmentsDissolved oxygenBiochemical oxygen demandPhosphatesNitratesTotal solidsFecal ColiformTheir relationship to one another – note: the Water Quality Index used for freshwater does not apply to marine. Regions have their own marine water quality index.
55Salinomter – Hydrometer Salinometers / HydrometersHydrometer calibrated to read in % of salt concentrationMaterials –soda strawmodeling claya fine-tipped permanent markera tall clear container to holdthe solution for calibrating yourdevicesalt for mixing one or more standard solutionswater (tap water will work-distilled is better)
56SALINOMETER TIPSThe narrow the diameter of the salinometer, the higher the water will rise – this make calibration easier.Small plastic pipettes instead of the straw and clay work well. Hold the pipette upside down, cut the opening to make it wider and weight it putting sand into the bulb. Cover the opening with tape or clay so the sand won’t get wet when you calibrate it.Measuring electronic conduction (the more salt the more electricity is conducted) is another possibility – just be sure that the device is made by the team