Presentation on theme: "Overcoming Mindsets Jill approaches the edge of a field with an unopened package. As she nears the field, she realizes that she is about to die. She is."— Presentation transcript:
Overcoming Mindsets Jill approaches the edge of a field with an unopened package. As she nears the field, she realizes that she is about to die. She is in perfect health and no one is chasing her, but sure enough her dead body is found in the field later that day. Why?
Overcoming Mindsets Jamie died in the mountains and Craig died at sea. Everyone was happy with Craigs death but no one was pleased about Jamies. Why?
Overcoming Mindsets What is unique about this sequence?
Overcoming Mindsets A man heading home encounters two masked men. He turns around to run away, but it is too late! What happened?
Overcoming Mindsets What starts with the letter E, ends with the letter E, contains only one letter but it is not the letter E?
Overcoming Mindsets A woman had two daughters born on the same hour of the same day of the same year but they were not twins. How could this be so?
Overcoming Mindsets Jane hits a homerun over her backyard fence and it falls into the middle of a neighbors lake. Its her only ball so she runs to the lake to retrieve the ball. She does this and not only does she not get wet, the ball is not wet. The lake is very deep throughout. How does she avoid getting herself or the ball wet?
Overcoming Mindsets A man walks into a bar and asks for a glass of water. The bartender pulls out a shotgun and points it at him. The man says, thank you and leaves. Why?
Problems Definition: mismatch between the present state and a goal Problems include: –An initial state –A goal state –Strategies or actions to reach goal (problem space)
Small Problem Space Fss (return to initial) ss (F) | Fs | s F (s) | sF (ss) | Fss (return to initial) Fs (s) |Fs (s) | far bank near far Initial: Fss | Goal: | Fss
Mindsets are the biggest obstacles to Problem Solving Mental sets are forms of entrenchment –Often served by Confirmation Bias – ignore data that discredits ones ideas, highlight confirming evidence –Mindsets are forms of Fixation - inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective = field dependence Overgeneralization: one believes rules apply when actually they dont (e.g., name implies person; Waikato) –Functional Fixedness - tendency to think about familiar objects in familiar ways that may prevent using them in other, more creative ways (e.g., use shoe or book as doorstop) Undergeneralization: one believes that rules dont apply when actually they do (e.g., falling rates of a pound of feathers vs a pound of bricks)
4 straight lines, without lifting up pencil
Overgeneralization: Presume a rule, falsely constrained by edge of rows and columns
Undergeneralization – one presumes that points have no space, but obviously they do
Problem Types Well structured – clear problem space and path to solution (e.g., area of triangle) Ill structured – vague problem space and path to solution (e.g., SETI)
Problem Solving Techniques Algorithm – slow and plodding, 100% accurate –needs well-structured problem generally –total information needed Heuristic – quick, often correct but not 100% –total information is often not needed –(e.g., taller candidate wins presidency, longer name) –Insight vs Plodding Solutions Anagrams: EWT vs AABCEILNP –(too large, mostly insightful solution) HAL-9000 in 2001: A Space Odyssey was a Heuristic-ALgorithmic device
Structural Obstacles to Problem Solving Novelty Number of rules Complexity of rules Counterintuitive rules –Tower of Hanoi employs counterintuitive strategies Anagram answer: wet incapable
Psychological obstacles to Problem Solving Premature Cognitive commitment or inability to keep other hypotheses available- may focus on incorrect hypotheses when multiple hypotheses available Overconfidence- unrealistically confident in our predictions, esp. about our ability to accomplish Use of potentially Faulty Heuristics
Problems with heuristics Availability heuristic: occurs when people estimate probability of an outcome based on how easy that outcome imagined. –Which is more likely: Dying from a shark attack or dying from injuries sustained from falling airplane parts (x30)
Problems with heuristics Representativeness heuristic: we judge things as being similar based on how closely they resemble each other using prima facie (at first sight), often superficial qualities, rather than essential characteristics. prima facie –Lucy wears her hair in bun, lives alone, dresses very conservatively, and loves to read. Is she a librarian or a business woman? (x30)
Problems with heuristics Anchoring heuristic: Probability of an event is estimated by adjusting an earlier estimate rather than starting from scratch
Creativity = new + relevant (+ economic) Preparation – experience with problem Incubation – take time away from problem Illumination – solution appears suddenly (eureka moment) Verification – does solution work? Test it.
Criticism of this model of creativity Often continuous process, not single leap of insight Often new problem identified instead of old problem solved (representational change) Incubation may serve to: –new stimuli activate new perspectives or analogies –release from unimportant details or allow integration of remote seemingly unimportant cues –release from memory interference –minimize negative transfer (past solutions do not apply)
Positive Transfer A medieval lord attacks city with army of 500 knights. Only 100 knights can cross bridge into city without bridge collapsing. Men must cross all at once to surprise enemy else they will be defeated. There are 6 bridges that lead into the city. What is the solution?
Positive Transfer Tumor in brain can be eliminated with radiation but it requires 400 rads (roentgen) and surrounding brain tissue will be damaged if exposed to more than 30 rads. What is the solution?
Representations Analogic – iconic; resembles some aspect Symbolic – arbitrary –Our representation can fixate our ways of thinking about an object or event
NAME INK COLORS RED GREEN BLUE RED BROWN GREEN RED GREEN BLUE BROWN RED GREEN BLUE GREEN BROWN RED BLUE GREEN RED GREEN BROWN BLUE RED BLUE BROWN GREEN RED BLUE GREEN RED BROWN
Stroop with numbers
Stroop Task Reading overlearned, difficulty to stop –Its hard to inhibit an automatic processes Reading of color word competes with ink naming when incongruent.
Artificial Intelligence Scientists in the field of A.I. are developing computer systems that imitate the products of human perception and thought (any day now, 1970s on) HAL from 2001
An A.I. success: Chess Gary Kasparov split two close decisions After losing the second, he suspected that a human may have intervened
Artificial Intelligence Alan M. Turing – Can machines think? Born June , London Mathematician Worked on breaking the German codes (Enigma encryption machine) during WWII using COLOSSUS, a forerunner to the digital computer, built to decipher the Enigma
Germanys Enigma Machine Automated Encryption
Colossus, 1943 Bombe, 1940 (Bletchley Park )
Turing Test (1950)– a test of imitation Can machines think? Can machines behave intelligently? Operational definition of intelligence is whether someone intelligent believes they are interacting with another intelligence Computer needs to possess: Natural language processing, Knowledge representation, Automated reasoning, and machine learning
The Loebner Prize A contest to see if a computer program can pass a Turing Test Group of experts questions the several computer entrants yearly
Towards Autonomous Vehicles
Future EEG Applications Firefox and other brain- computer interfaces (BCI)
Intelligence Intelligence Tests -how best to assess Nature of Intelligence -unitary or multiplicity Great Debate -nature or nurture
Assessment of Intelligence Alfred Binet (1904) developed first intelligence test to screen French school children for potential academic problems.
Intelligence Quotient (IQ) –Originally a ratio of mental age to chronological age Mental Age Chronological Age ( ) x 100 IQ= IQ tests supposed to be aptitude or tests of potential But they often test achievement, cultural knowledge
Use of IQ Tests Individual testing originally: Stanford-Binet, Wechsler, and others tested people one at a time. Group testing developed during World War I as U.S. Army administered tests for officer training selection. Group IQ tests screened immigrants in early 1900s. –Many Eastern and Central Europeans judged mentally defective (due to low English proficiency)
Monty Python example IN SKIT: Non- English speaking humans scored the same as penguins on English IQ tests Therefore penguins are as smart as humans and start to take over the world
Wechsler Scales Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and WISC (C=children) –Developed for adults originally –Widely used today –Separate Verbal and Performance scores –Standardized, based on % no longer mental age Estimated IQs above 200.
Sample Items from the WISC-III PICTURE COMPLETION What part is missing from this picture?
Sample Items from the WISC-III Block Design Put the blocks together to make this picture.
IQ tests revised and standardized Administered to 1000s of people similar to those test is intended. Calculate average & its distribution (IQ set to 100, std dev of 15)
Verification of independence for these components: differential aging
Are Intelligence Tests Accurate? Standardization – empirical norms (mean & standard deviation) Reliability - measures a variable consistently. (Reliability doesnt ensure validity). Validity - measures what it intends to measure (e.g., free of cultural bias, language proficiency)
Are Intelligence Tests Biased? Raven's Culture-Fair Test
Nature of Intelligence General Intelligence (g) g = broad intellectual-ability factor used to explain why performances on different intelligence-test items are often correlated Neurophysiological evidence of g = Neural Speed correlates with IQ
Nature of Intelligence Howard Gardners Multiple Intelligences (8) Linguistic –Verbal ability, skills in speaking, listening, reading, and writing Logical-mathematical –Abstract reasoning ability Musical –Ability to appreciate tonal qualities of sound, skills to compose and play instruments Spatial –Visual ability, orienting oneself in space and navigation Bodily-kinesthetic –Ability to control gross and fine body movements Intrapersonal –Ability to understand oneself, self-insight Interpersonal –Ability to understand others, social skills Naturalistic –Ability to classify world
Nature of Intelligence Sternberg's Triarchic Theory
Natures Influence on IQ Genetic similarity reflected in IQ scores MZ = monozygotic = identical twins = 100% genes, similar environment DZ = dizygotic = fraternal twins = ~50% genes similar environment
Nutures Influence on IQ Environment similarity reflected in IQ scores? Reared together = shared environment Reared apart = similar but unshared environment
Environments can magnify genetic influences Self-fulfilling cycles, prophecies Teacher with low expectations of a student may settle for lower performance from student.
Environments can magnify genetic influences Enrichment experiments Enriched Not Enriched
Effects of Schooling with 180-day year with 210-day year Project Head Start –Preschool intellectual- enrichment program for children born of poor families 100,000s families served yearly –Alumni score higher on IQ, more confident, less likely to repeat grades, and more likely to graduate from HS. – Environments influence on intellectual potential
Gender Differences Mental-Rotation Test of Spatial Ability Which view shows a different view of the same object as each standard?
Gender Differences Verbal, Mathematical, and Spatial Abilities Girls > boys on verbal abilities and reading. Boys > girls on spatial tasks Girls > boys on arithmetic in grade school, –but < boys surpass by Jr H.S.
Extremes of Intelligence Giftedness –Intelligence significantly above average –May be specific to a given domain Mental Retardation –A diagnostic category used for people with IQ scores below 70 who have difficulty adapting to the routine demands of life –Mild (IQ 50-70) –Moderate (IQ 35-49) –Severe (IQ 20-34) –Profound (IQ below 20)