2I. SYMBOLISM A symbol is something that stands for something else A person, place, thing, or event that represents something beyond its literal meaning to the story
3II. ARCHETYPESA recurring pattern found in the mythology, religion, and stories of all cultures and time periodsThese patterns can be found in characters, symbols, themes, and plotsWhy are they important?Archetypes help us realize that we have common traits that we share with others outside of our culture.Since archetypes are universal and timeless, they help us interpret situations and characters that might be quite different from ourselves.
4III. SOME COMMONLY USED ARCHETYPES The MotherSymbolizes growing, dependence, self-concern, nurturingThe keeper and protector of lifeThe FatherSymbolizes independence or a giving natureOften acts as a protector or guide
5C. WATER Most commonly represents birth and rebirth It also serves as a symbol for separation, union, life, and destruction
6D. THE COLOR BLACK E. THE COLOR RED Can represent evil, death, terror, chaos, and the unknownE. THE COLOR REDMost commonly used to represent love.Can also be a symbol for death, murder, and lust
7F. THE RISING SUN G. THE SETTING SUN Represents new life, beginnings, birth, hope, and peaceG. THE SETTING SUNOften represents death, endings, and no hopeCan also be used to represent the movement towards the unknown, ignorance, or despair
9IV. THE HERO ARCHETYPEUsually the hero is from a mysterious origin, born under unusual circumstances, or born in secretThey are often are physically set apart from others or emotionally feel like itHas an “I can do anything” attitudePerforms great deedsGoes on a quest
10V. WHY DO WE HAVE A NEED FOR HEROES? Role models – we want to strive to be like someone better than us.Want someone to pave the way for all of us – someone to “break the mold”Someone to make the world safe at an unsafe or uncertain time.
11VI. PLOT PATTERNS IN LITERATURE Throughout cultures and times, certain patterns of story-telling exist.These patterns contain a specific formula of events that drive the story, its central conflict, and theme.
12C. FREYTAG’S PYRAMIDGustav Freytag was a Nineteenth Century German novelist who saw common patterns in the plots of stories and novels.In 1863, he wrote Die Technik des Dramas in which he developed a diagram to analyze these stories and novels.He diagrammed the story's plot using a pyramid.
14D. THE HERO’S JOURNEYJoseph Campbell was a theorist in the 1920s who began to study myths and legends.He found a pattern that spanned all cultures and all ages, which he developed into his theory of “The Hero’s Journey.”It models human experience, describing the patterns of life, growth, and experience
15STAGE TWO: TRANSFORMATION STAGE ONE: SEPARATIONSTAGE THREE: RETURNCall to AdventureRewardThreshold GuardiansThe ReturnThe KnownThe Unknown or Shadow RealmCrossing the ThresholdHelpersRevelationTestsSTAGE TWO: TRANSFORMATIONTransformationAbyss or Supreme Test