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Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 81 Introduction to Information Systems, 1 st Edition Authors: Rainer, Turban and Potter Publisher: John.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 81 Introduction to Information Systems, 1 st Edition Authors: Rainer, Turban and Potter Publisher: John."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 81 Introduction to Information Systems, 1 st Edition Authors: Rainer, Turban and Potter Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Slides by: Hellene Bankowski, Professor, Philadelphia University

2 Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 82 Organizational Information Systems

3 Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 83 Chapter Outline 8.1 Transaction Processing Systems 8.2 Functional Area Management Information Systems 8.3 Enterprise Resource Planning Systems 8.4 Customer Relationship Management Systems 8.5 Supply Chain Management Systems 8.6 Electronic Data Interchange, Extranets, and Web Services

4 Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 84 Learning Objectives Describe transaction processing system. Describe management information systems and the support they provide for each functional area of the organization. Describe enterprise resource planning systems.

5 Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 85 Learning Objectives (Continued) Describe customer relationship management systems. Describe supply chain management systems. Discuss electronic data interchange, extranets, and Web services.

6 Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter Transaction Processing Systems Transaction Processing System (TPS) monitors, collects, stores and processes data generated from all business transations. Source data automation is the process of automating the TPS data entry as much as possible because of the large volume involved.

7 Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 87 TPSs (Continued) Batch Processing is when the firm collects data from transactions as they occur, placing them in group or batches, then prepares and processes the batches periodically (say, every night). Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) is when business transactions are processed online as soon as they occur.

8 Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter Functional Information Systems Functional Information Systems also called Management Information Systems (MISs) or Functional Area IS provide information to managers (usually middle-level managers) in the functional areas. MISs support planning, organizing, and controlling operations.

9 Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 89 MIS Reports Routine reports - scheduled Ad-hoc reports – on demand Drill-down reports Key-indicator reports Comparative reports Exception reports – outside the norm

10 Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 810 Information Systems for Specific Functional Areas Information Systems that are designed to support a functional area by increasing its internal effectiveness and efficiency in the following areas: accounting, finance, marketing, operations (POM), and human resources management functional areas.

11 Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter Enterprise Resource Planning Systems Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems integrate the planning, management and use of all resources of the organization. ERPs major objective is to tightly integrate the functional areas of the organization and to enable seamless information flows across the functional areas.

12 Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 812 ERP Systems (Continued) Business process is a set of related steps or procedures designed to produce a specific outcome. Business processes supported by ERP modules include Financial and Accounting Processes, Sales and Marketing Processes, Manufacturing and Production Processes and Human Resources Processes.

13 Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 813 ERP Systems (Continued) Best practices are the most successful solutions or problem-solving methods for achieving a business objective. Drawbacks to ERP systems are that they can be extremely complex, expensive and time- consuming to implement. Leading ERP software vendors include SAP (SAP R/3), Oracle and PeopleSoft.

14 Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter Customer Relationship Management Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is an enterprisewide effort to acquire and retain customers. Includes a one-to-one relationship between a customer and a seller. One simple idea Treat different customers differently. Helps keep profitable customers and maximizes lifetime revenue from them.

15 Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 815 CRM Applications Customer touch point is a method of interaction with a customer, such as telephone, , a customer service or help desk, conventional mail, Web site and store. CRM systems provide applications in 3 major areas: Sales - sales force automation (SFA). Marketing – support marketing campaigns & provide opportunities for cross-selling, up-selling and bundling. Customer service – can take many Web-based forms.

16 Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 816 SFA & Marketing Sales force automation (SFA) functions provide such data as sales prospect and contact information, product information, product configurations and sales quotes. Marketing Cross-selling refers to the marketing of complementary products to customers. Up-selling is the marketing of higher-value products or services to new or existing customers. Bundling is a type of cross-selling in which a combination of products is sold together at a lower price than the combined costs of the individual products.

17 Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 817 Customer Service Customer service functions provide information and tools to make call centers, help desks and customer support staff more efficient. Customer service can take many forms and includes: Technical and other information and services Customized products and services

18 Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 818 Customer Service (Continued) Tracking account or order status Personalized Web pages FAQs and automated response Call centers

19 Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter Supply Chain Management Systems Supply chain refers to the flow of materials, information, money and services from raw material suppliers, through factories and warehouses, to the end customers. Supply chain management (SCM) is the function of planning, organizing and optimizing the supply chains activities.

20 Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 820 SCM Systems (Continued) Interorganizational information system (IOS) involves information flows among two or more organizations. Global information systems are interorganizational information systems that connect companies located in two or more countries.

21 Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 821 Issues in Global IOS Design Cultural differences Localization Economic and Political Differences Legal issues Cross-border data transfer which refers to the flow of corporate data across nations borders.

22 Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 822 The Structure & Components of Supply Chains A supply chain involves three segments: Upstream, where sourcing or procurement from external suppliers occurs; Internal, where packaging, assembly or manufacturing takes place; Downstream, where distribution takes place, frequently by external distributors.

23 Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 823 The Structure & Components of Supply Chains (Continued) Tiers of suppliers, a supplier may have one or more subsuppliers, and the subsupplier may have its own subsupplier(s) and so on. Material flows are the physical products, raw materials, supplies and so forth that flow along the chain. Reverse flows – returned products, recycled products and disposal of materials or products.

24 Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 824 The Flows in the Supply Chain (Continued) Information flows are all data related to demand, shipments, orders, returns and schedules as well as changes in any of these data. Financial flows are all transfers of money, payments and credit-related data. A supply chain involves a product life cycle approach, from dirt to dust.

25 Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 825 Problems along the Supply Chain Poor customer service – not delivering products or services when and where the customers need them. Poor quality product High inventory costs Loss of revenues New technologies

26 Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 826 Problems along the Supply Chain (Continued) Problems stem mainly from two sources: Uncertainties due to demand forecast, delivery times, quality problems in materials and parts that can create production delays; The need to coordinate several activities, internal units and business partners. Bullwhip effect refers to erratic shifts in orders up and down the supply chain.

27 Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter Electronic Data Interchange and Extranets Electronic data interchange (EDI) is a communication standard that enables business partners to exchange routine documents, such as purchase orders, electronically. EDI translator converts data into a standard format before it is transmitted.

28 Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 828 EDI (Continued) Business transactions messages include repetitive business transactions such as purchase orders, invoices, credit approvals, shipping notices and confirmations. Data formatting standards are used. EDI serves as a catalyst and a stimulus to improve the standard of information that flows between and among organizations.

29 Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 829 EDI Benefits Minimize data entry errors Length of messages are shorter Messages are secured Reduces cycle time Increases productivity Enhances customer service Minimizes paper usage and storage

30 Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 830 EDI Limitations Significant initial investment to implement Ongoing operating costs are high due to the use of expensive, private VANs Traditional EDI system is inflexible Long startup period Multiple EDI standards exist

31 Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 831 Extranets Extranets link business partners to one another over the Internet by providing access to certain areas of each others corporate intranets. The main goal of extranets is to foster collaboration between business partners. An extranet is open to selected B2B suppliers, customers and other business partners.

32 Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 832 Types of Extranets A company and its dealers, customers or suppliers – centers around one company. An industrys extranet – major players in an industry team up to create an extranet. Joint ventures and other business partnerships – partners in a joint venture use extranet as a vehicle for communications and collaboration.

33 Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 833 Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without express permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for error, omissions, or damages caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information herein.


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