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Chapter 7 Enterprise-Wide Information Systems

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Enterprise-Wide Information Systems"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 7 Enterprise-Wide Information Systems

2 Chapter 7 Objectives Understand how information technology supports business activities Understand enterprise systems and how they evolved Understand software applications that are internally or externally focused Understand how to implement enterprise systems

3 Enterprise Systems Enterprise systems
Info. Sys. supports various business activities for internal operations (manufacturing, order processing, human resource management) as well as external interactions with customers, suppliers, and business partners. However, the problem is they were built on different platforms (mainframe/minicomputer). Enterprise systems are information systems that allow companies to integrate information across operations on a company-wide basis Also known as enterprise-wide information systems

4 Enterprise Systems Enterprise systems
Rather than storing information in separate places throughout the organization, enterprise systems provide a central repository common to all corporate users. It provides a common interface and allows personnel to share information seamlessly no matter where the data is located.

5 Enterprise Systems Enterprise systems
The emergence of Internet and the Web has resulted in the globalization of customer and supplier networks and opened up a new opportunities and methods to conduct business. New business needs/expectations: Higher levels of customer services, faster and efficient product development to compete in global market. Internally focused systems support functional areas, processes within the organization. These activities can be viewed as a series of links in a chain along which information flows within the organization. At each stage in the process, value is added in the form of the work performed by people associated that process.

6 Enterprise Systems Information flow for an order
Information begins to accumulate at the point of entry when a customer sends an order to the company and flows through the various links.

7 Enterprise Systems Information flow for an order
When a customer places an order, the order is entered into an order-entry application. The information containing the order is sent to the fulfillment department. Fulfillment department picks the items from inventory, packages them for distribution, and produces packing list. The package, along with the packing list, is forwarded to the shipping department. Shipping department coordinates the shipment, produces invoice, and sends the package and invoice to the customer.

8 Enterprise Systems Externally focused systems coordinate business activities with customers, suppliers, and business partners who operate outside the organizational boundary. Systems that communicate across organizational boundaries are called interorganizational systems (IOS).

9 Enterprise Systems Interorganizational systems (IOS)
The key purpose of an IOS is to streamline the flow of information from one company’s operations to another’s It provides electronic transmission of information to another company. Competitive advantage can be accomplished here by integrating multiple business processes to meet a wide range of unique customer needs. Sharing information between organizations helps companies to adapt more quickly to changing market conditions.

10 Information flow across organizational boundaries

11 Information flow across organizational boundaries
When a company places an order for components, the supplier performs the shipping activity. The supplier delivers a physical package and electronic invoice to the customer. The customer’s receiving department takes the delivery and verifies the invoice. Then the receiving department stocks the items in the inventory and updates the inventory level.

12 Value chain framework

13 Enterprise Systems Internally Focused Applications
Value chain – the set of business activities Functional areas can be broken down into primary and support activities. Primary activities are functional areas within an organization that process inputs and produce outputs. Support activities are those activities that enable primary activities to take place.

14 Enterprise Systems Internally Focused Applications
Primary activities include: Inbound logistics Operations and manufacturing Outbound logistics Marketing and sales Customer service

15 Enterprise Systems Internally Focused Applications
Support activities include: Infrastructure (hardware & software) Human resources (hiring, interview scheduling, payroll, benefits) Technology development (software selection, Internet, intranet, extranet) Procurement (purchasing of goods and services required as inputs primary services)

16 Enterprise Systems Externally Focused Applications
Integrate internal applications with those outside: suppliers, partners, customers Upstream information Information received from another organization Downstream information Information sent to another organization

17 Value system framework

18 Types of Enterprise Systems
Packaged applications Custom applications Stand-alone applications


20 Types of Enterprise Systems
Legacy Systems Older systems Tend to be infrastructure-specific Usually linked to a specific business need Not integrated

21 Types of Enterprise Systems
Enterprise Resource Planning Integrated applications ERP systems Baan Oracle PeopleSoft SAP J.D. Edwards

22 Types of Enterprise Systems
ERP Implementation Modules “Vanilla” version Customizations Best practices Business process reengineering (BPR)

23 Types of Enterprise Systems
Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Sales Force Automation (SFA) New opportunities for competitive advantage Examples: MGM American Airlines Marriott International

24 Types of Enterprise Systems
Supply Chain Management (SCM) Supply chain – the producers of supplies that a company uses Supply network What if supply chain does not collaborate? Two objectives of upstream information flow: Accelerate product development Reduce costs associated with suppliers

25 The Formula for Enterprise System Success
Secure executive sponsorship Get help from outside experts Thoroughly train users Take a multidisciplinary approach to implementation

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