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Unit Four: Student Achievement Louis Cabuhat, Dean of Education Bryman College.

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1 Unit Four: Student Achievement Louis Cabuhat, Dean of Education Bryman College

2 “If you don’t know where you are going, any road will get you there” Connecting Your Actions to the Target IMPROVED OUTCOMES (Sagor, 2011)

3 Performance Targets (INDIVIDUAL OUTCOMES)  Ask yourself, “What are students expected to gain from our ‘actions”? Improved motivation √ Improved engagement √ Realistic goal-setting √ Improved achievement √ Process Targets (TECHNIQUES or STRATEGIES) Development of an Early Warning System Training Targets (Sagor, 2011)

4 Unit One dealt with Motivation is driven by emotion According to Chickering (2006), “motivation is the key to persistence, moving through successfully, and learning that lasts” (p. 13). Unit two dealt with Learners who are Involved, Interested and Connected are more likely to persist. Recap

5 Unit three dealt with “Learners who are unable to form positive motivational “attitudes” towards goal fulfillment are at greater risk of dropping from program” Recap (Morrow & Ackermann, 2012)

6 Our Early Warning System is taking shape!

7 Drafting a Scale: Realistic Goal-Setting

8 Recreating Susan’s Future Discussion Board(s): “Knowing what you know (about her today), what kinds of goals could you suggest so that Susan is more likely to be successful?” Susan initiates discussions – A. Cervantes Susan partners with her classmates – M. Cuevas Susan makes eye contact and smiles – R. Nunez Susan attends [class] everyday – A. Magsaysay Susan is on-time – A. Esparcia Susan uses a time-management calendar – F. Boltodano

9 Unit Four – Student Achievement and Introduction to Student Development Theory Learners will be able to: Define the attributes of an adult learner (today) Recognize the importance in clarifying a definition of achievement Influence student development by outlining at least one strategy for considering Chickering’s vectors of development Relate their past student development to helping others develop

10 Post-secondary Enrollment (Who is attending) More females than males Community College: Higher numbers of Asians and White attendees Many college-goers are attending PRIVATE over PUBLIC For-profit Colleges: older; female, non-white, independent; first generation

11 Definition of an Adult Learner “The adult education participant is just as often a woman as a man, is typically under forty, has completed high school or more, enjoys an above-average income, works full-time and most often in a white-collar occupation, is married, has children, lives in an urbanized area but more likely in a suburb than large city, and is found in all parts of the country, but more frequently in the West than in other regions.” (Merriam, Caffarella & Baumgartner, 2007, p. 55)

12 Learning is not a spectator sport. Students do not learn much just by sitting in class listening to teachers, memorizing prepackaged assignments, and spitting out answers. They must talk about what they are learning, write about it, relate it to past experiences, apply it to their daily lives. They must make what they learn part of themselves.” Arthur W. Chickering & Zelda F. Gamson

13 Achievement: Where do you set the bar?

14 Achievement Gap: A Need for Concern Many students attending community colleges are required to enroll in remedial coursework because of ill-preparation during secondary school (Allen and Lester, 2012). “Many students begin their college career with only the vaguest notions of why they have done so (Tinto, 1987 p. 6). Routine approaches to achievement are proving unsuccessful (old ways aren’t always best) Dropping out was easier than persisting (Miller and Tanner, 2011)

15 Question: How do you measure achievement? Camp One: Cognitive Assessment Camp Two: Psychosocial Assessment

16 Cognitive = Thoughts  Lower level cognitive domain: cite, count, list, name, define  Higher level cognitive domain: select, compare, criticize, evaluate Where does Susan Fall? Cognitive Theory

17 Chickering’s Psycho-Social Theory Adult students will change over the course of their experiences at school. Student development theory attempts to make “development” an intentional process (Davis, 2012) “Adult development theory can form the basis for programs an support services for learners in higher education” (Merriam, Caffarella, & Baumgartner, 2009, p. 436).

18 Anchoring Achievement to Student Development developing competence managing emotions moving through autonomy toward independence developing mature interpersonal relationships establishing identity developing purpose developing integrity. Chickering’s Nonlinear Stages of Development

19 Student Development Theory Should Answer These Four Questions – According to Knefelkamp, Widick, & Parker What intrapersonal & interpersonal changes occur while the student is in college? What factors lead to this development? What aspects of the college environment encourage or (inhibit) growth? What development outcomes should we strive to achieve in college? As cited by Davis, 2011

20 Reread Susan’s Case Susan is a new student who is attending classes at Bryman College – A for-profit organization. As a new enrollment to the school, Susan repeatedly misses assignment deadlines and submits work late. While in class, her instructor notices that Susan frequently avoids eye contact with others and she excludes herself from group discussions. Now, in her third week of a four week module, it doesn’t look good. Susan has failed her mid-term exam. And now, the teacher is concerned that some of Susan’s behavior is an early indication of what’s about to come – another drop for the college; another failed attempt. So, in an effort to address the problem, the teacher presents what she knows of Susan to colleagues at the college. And, to her surprise, several of the other staff members are dealing with a ‘Susan’ of their own. What’s even more unsettling – the College attrition rate for newly enrolled students is extremely high.

21 Return to to continue addressing Susan’s case anchoring your ideas to Susan’s psychosocial development.

22 Reference List Allen, I. H., & Lester, S. M. (2012). The impact of a college survival skills course and a success coach on retention and academic performance. Journal of career and technical education, 27(1), 8- 14. Retrieved from Balduf, M. (2009). Underachievement among college students. Journal of advanced academics, 20(2), 274-294. Retrieved from Bobby, O. (2008). Applying Piaget's theory of cognitive development to mathematics instruction. Retrieved from -263d-4dad-82be-68fcaf1e1c4d@sessionmgr11&vid=6&hid=122 Chickering, A. W. (2006, May/June). Every student can learn - if... Retrieved from 9-a85f-48c3-9d53- 3d83ca6df5e0@sessionmgr112&vid=15&hid=122

23 Reference List Chickering, A. W., & Gamson, Z. F. (1987). Good practices using active learning techniques. Retrieved from students.html Davis, D. (2012). Introduction to student development Laskey, M. L., & Hetzel, C. J. (2010, August 30). Self- regulated learning, metacognition, and soft skills: the 21st century leaner. Retrieved from Merriam, S. B., Caffarella, R. S., & Baumgartner, L. M. (2007). Learning in adulthood: A comprehensive guide. (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

24 Reference List Sagor, R. (2011). The action research guidebook: a four- stage process for educators and school teams. (2 ed.). Thousand Oak, California: Corwin. Sandeen, A., & Barr, M. J. (2007). Critical issues for student affairs: challenges and opportunities. San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass. The condition of education 2013. (2013, May). Retrieved from Tinto, V. (1987, November). The principles of effective retention. Fall conference of the Maryland college personnel association. Retrieved from

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