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Rediscovering Native Americans of Texas

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1 Rediscovering Native Americans of Texas
Whispers in the Wind: Rediscovering Native Americans of Texas Created By Carmen Phillips Krimmel Intermediate

2 West Texas Plains Along Gulf Coast from Galveston to Corpus Christi
Comanches Piney Woods of East Texas Caddo Jumanos Karankawas Mountains and Basins Region Coahuilticans South Texas Plains

3 Comanches (most feared tribe)

4 Use of Land & Water Dirt storms and tornadoes “Comancheria”
Battled intruders

5 Clothing Breechcloth made of tanned buffalo hide Leggings
Buffalo robes Boots & snowshoes Painted faces RED Braided Hair Feathered Headdresses

6 Foods Buffalo – every part of it used, boiled, broiled, eaten raw or as jerky Nuts and berries Drank warm animal blood

7 Homes Buffalo hide Tepees

8 Customs Life centered around 2 activities: Hunting & War
Horse = most important possession (buried with them) Expert Horsemen

9 Caddo First Spaniards to arrive turned the Caddo word techas, which means friend into “Tejas” and called this group the Tejas people.

10 Use of Land & Water Fertile land for farming Trotlines
Hunted Deer (most important animal)

11 Clothing Deerskin and fur capes Shells Tattoos Men: Mohawks
Women: Long parted in middle

12 Do you see any similarities with today’s styles?
Marek Adney of Austin, TX

13 Foods CORN, ate beans, sunflowers, melons, pumpkins, tobacco and squash Deer, buffalo and javelina Used traps and trotlines

14 Homes Beehive shaped grass huts
feet diameter. Up to 40 people in one hut

15 Customs Huge burial mounds Weepers Confederacy with 2 leaders:
1 war & peace leader 1 religious leader Made Pottery & wove mats from bamboo Both women & men held govt. positions

16 Karankawas Karankawas

17 Use of Land & Water Gulf of Mexico for food Dugout canoes
LONG cedar bows 3 foot arrows made of sugar cane Weapons & tools from seashells or wood

18 Clothing Nude or breechcloths and grass skirts
Sugar cane body piercings Very tall and powerfully built Coated bodies with alligator/shark grease to ward off mosquitoes (VERY Stinky!!!) Tattooed faces with blue lines and figures Chokers of shell, glass, pistachio nuts or metal About 6 ft tall and said to be UGLY! Males often braided their hair in three strands into which they inserted bright objects. Females wore their hair long and straight.

19 Foods Oysters & Clams Scallops & Fish Turtles Locusts
Prairie hens and quail

20 Homes Winter months spent along coast: Small huts of willow poles with draped animal skins and grass Summer months spent inland: several sticks with woven mats over it

21 Customs Flattened babies heads with cradleboards
Like other tribes they ate the flesh of their enemies believing they would gain their enemy’s courage Karankawa = dog lovers Wrestlers Mitotes Karankawas meant dog lovers or dog raisers because they kept coyote like dogs Mitotes – religious ceremony that lasted 3 day after successful fishing or hunting expeditions. Drank huge quantities of an intoxicating tea made from yaupon. Women not included at all. "“Caw Wacham: Flathead Woman with Child”." Online Photograph. Britannica Student Encyclopædia. 2  Sept.  2008  <>.

22 Coahuilticans Coahuilticans
Poorest of all Indians thus most susceptible to the promise of missions. Coahuilticans

23 Use of Land & Water Very primitive
Spent most of their time in search of food Nomadic

24 Clothing Men: little or no clothing (breechcloths)
Women: short skirts of buckskin Small people Black stripes painted over bodies & faces Earrings of shell & decorative feathers

25 Food Ate almost anything they could find and digest
Pecans, acorns, nuts, sunflower seeds Mesquite beans & Prickly Pear Cactus Rabbits, turtles, snakes, lizards, deer, dogs, horses, pemmican (jerky made with meat/berries) Spiders, ants, worms, rotten wood, deer dung Fish and maggots! Dirt! Prickly Pear Cactus Mesquite Beans Instead of eating the fish they would set the fish on a rock in the sun for several days. When the fish was rotten and full of maggots they would eat the fish and the maggots and any other insects that might be in or on the fish.

26 Homes Brush Wickiups Circular shape made of willow bent into dome shape Covered with grass, brush or hides

27 Customs Shamans very important Mitotes
Strong people known for endurance Legend has said that the Coahuiltecan Indians were well adapted to their environment in south Texas. They hunted deer on foot and could run as fast as many animals without any rest.

28 Jumanos Jumanos

29 Use of Land & Water Settled along Concho river and farmed
Hunted and gathered Little Rainfall Irrigation

30 Clothing Striped Tattoos on faces COTTON tunics Capes or cloaks
Color feathers Yucca Sandals Women had brief skirts or aprons and short sleeveless tunics, and both men and women used capes or cloaks for protection against the weather. Men cut their hair short, decorated it with paint, and left one long lock to which the feathers of various birds might be tied. Women may have worn their hair long or in braids. The Jumanos were characterized as a rayado (striped) people because of a distinctive pattern of facial marking in horizontal lines or bars.

31 Food Pinon nuts, mesquite beans & squash Pottery and gourds to cook
Buffalo Pinon Nuts Gourds Mequite Beans Squash

32 Homes Pueblos made of stone or adobe (sun-dried mud)
Square flat roofs partially underground

33 Customs Striped facial tattoos = peaceful trader (Middlemen)
Special house for visitors Heads bowed = “welcome” Arrows were so well-made Eastern tribes were eager to trade

34 Kiowa Comanche Wichita Tonkawa Caddo Mescalero Apache Jumano Lipan Apache Atakapan Karankawas Concho Coahuiltecans


36 Interactive Websites How many ways to use a buffalo: Buffalo Matching Game: World of the Caddo: Talking Hands Imagine It:

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