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THE RAPID GROWTH OF INDUSTRY 1840-1860 Obj: To understand how technological improvements increased industrial productivity by looking at the factors that.

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Presentation on theme: "THE RAPID GROWTH OF INDUSTRY 1840-1860 Obj: To understand how technological improvements increased industrial productivity by looking at the factors that."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE RAPID GROWTH OF INDUSTRY Obj: To understand how technological improvements increased industrial productivity by looking at the factors that encouraged industrial growth.

2 THE INDUSTRIAL NORTH TECHNOLOGY: application of science to improving conveniences of life NORTHEAST RESPONSIBLE FOR ½ OF U.S. PRODUCTION ON EVE OF CIVIL WAR SHIFT IN ENERGY SOURCE LEADS TO CHANGE IN FACTORY SYSTEM H20 TO COAL COAL: TRANSPORTED CHEAPLY, HEAT FOR SMELTING & METALWORKING, STEAMPOWER – FACTORIES NOW CAN BE BUILT ANYWHERE FACTORIES OPERATE 24/7 EMBRACING TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE GREATEST TRIUMPH SANDUSKY WHEEL WORKS, OHIO

3 TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE RESOURCEFULNESS REQUIRED DUE TO DEMANDS OF SOCIETY IN FLUX MORE SOPHISTICATED & RELIABLE TOOLS SHORTAGE OF LABOR SO NEED LABOR SAVING DEVICES IMPROVE OLD MACHINES & DESIGN NEW ONES USE OF INTERCHANGEABLE PARTS – Whitney first for musket parts NEW DISCOVERIES OF NATURAL RESOURCES AS MIGRATE WEST

4 LABOR: SKILLED & UNSKILLED PRODUCTION EXPANDS & DIVISION OF LABOR MORE COMPLEX SOCIAL DIVISIONS MORE APPARENT SKILLED LABOR ALWAYS IN DEMAND BUT CREATIVITY A MUST DUE TO INCREASE IN TECHNOLOGY UNSKILLED LABOR ALWAYS HAS WORK BUT NEVER ENOUGH PAY NEW WAY OF PRODUCTION: EXPAND ON LOWELL & WALTHAM WAGE WORK BECOMES END IN ITSELF CONTINUOUS MANUFACTURING PROCESS BUT NOT YET MASS PRODUCTION

5 IMMIGRATION WESTERN EUROPE PUSH – POTATO FAMINE IN IRELAND & REVOLUTION IN GERMANY 1820 to 1860, 1,956,557 IRISH ARRIVED; 75% OF THESE AFTER THE GREAT FAMINE BETWEEN GERMANS LARGEST IMMIGRANT GROUP LANGUAGE HELD THEM TOGETHER & CREATED SELF SUFFICIENT GERMAN COMMUNITIES (LEVI STRAUSS, STEINWAY) 5 MILLION ; 4.2 MILL ; 3 MILL LOWELL & WALTHAM SYSTEMS AT LEAST 50% IRISH IMMIGRANTS BY 1850 CHEAP LABOR, WILLING TO WORK LONG HOURS, HARSH CONDITIONS & YOUNG WOMEN & THEIR FAMILIES NOT WILLING (MIDDLE CLASS) POOR WHITE WOMEN & THEIR CHILDREN WILL FIND PAID WORK TO HELP THEIR HOUSEHOLD INCOME LABOR DEMANDS INCREASE AS ESTABLISHED FOLKS MOVE WEST GERMANS MOVE BECAUSE MANY HAVE MONEY, IRISH STAY IN BOSTON, NY & PHILLY BECAUSE THEY HAVE NO MONEY OLD IMMIGRANTS AS OPPOSED TO NEW IMMIGRANTS OF EARLY 19 TH C.

6 *CITIES SEEN AS MOST DEMOCRATIC OF PLACES *AVERAGE ANNUAL SALARY $300 *BIRTHRATE FOR POOR INCREASES *ECONOMIC GAP WIDENS *SOCIETY MORE STRATIFIED *INDUSTRIALIZATION BROUGHT POVERTY *STILL BELIEVE IN IDEOLOGY OF DEMOCRATIC EGALITARIANISM

7 CITY LIVING & URBAN PROBLEMS HOUSES CHANGE: ROW BRICK HOUSES FOR M.C. & TENEMENTS FOR POOR FURNITURE MFG. INCREASES, PRICE DECLINES & M.C. TAKES ADVANTAGE OF THIS RURAL AREAS HOUSING DEPENDED ON SETTLEMENT DATE & SOCIAL CLASS: LOG CABINS, FRAME HOUSES EVERYDAY LIFE PRIMITIVE FOR MOST BUT IMPROVING DAILY TRANSPORTATION & INDUSTRY IMPROVE HEATING, COOKING, DIET, WATER WORKS SYSTEMS IN CITIES SALT FOR PRESERVATION OF FOOD, ONLY RICH COULD AFFORD SUGAR FOR FRUIT SANITATION, RUNNING H2O, HOGS & HORSES IN THE STREETS CREATED SEVER CHALLENGES: DISEASE & HEALTH ISSUES – YELLOW FEVER, CHOLERA NEW ORLEANS , ST. LOUIS 10% POPULATION DIES FROM CHOLERA 1849, LIFE EXPECTANCY IN PHILLY & NY 24 DURING THE 30S & 40S CITIES UNPREPARED FOR MASSIVE INFLUX OF IMMIGRANTS CITIES DIVERSE AND THEREFORE DEMOCRATIC F. L. OLMSTEAD & CENTRAL PARK, NY 1852 – REALLY FOR THE RICH, REMOVED SENECA VILLAGE – COMMUNITY OF FREE BLACKS

8 AGRICULTURAL IMPROVEMENTS WESTERN FARMING DEVELOPING FARMING BECOMES MECHANIZED WITH JOHN DEERE TRACTOR & MC- CORMICK REAPER TOWNS SETTLE ALONG EAST/WEST TRADE ROUTES K REAPERS MANUFACTURED DEERE ALLOWS FOR PLOWING & TILLING OF PRARIE SOIL (DUSTBOWL IN THE 30S) k A YEAR COTTON STILL MOST VALUABLE EXPORT & WITH MORE COTTON DEMAND FOR COTTON GOODS INCREASE

9 2 ND PHASE OF TRANSPORTATION REVOLUTION RAILROAD 1 ST MODERN BUSINESS ENTERPRISE SHIFT IN INTERNAL COMMERCE – NOW FRESHNESS VALUE IMPORTANT B&O 1830; K MILES ,500 4 COMPANIES CONTROL LINES FROM EAST TO INTERIOR SOUTHERN CITIES DEVELOP; ATLANTA CHATTANOOGA BUT CITIES SLOW TO DEVELOP, RISE OF INVESTMENT BANKER TO FINANCE RR BUT WITH 1837 PANIC FUNDS DRY UP; PANIC DOESNT HIT SOUTH AS HARD FINANCING PRIVATE INVESTORS, EURO- PEANS, GOVERNMENT BONDS MISSISSIPPI RIVER LOSES IMPORTANCE; SOUTH ISOLATED, SCATTERED POPULATION, LACK OF RR, SLAVERY


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