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The Industrial & Agricultural North. Early Textile Manufacturing 1789 Samuel Slater arrived in America 1789 Samuel Slater arrived in America Slater built.

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Presentation on theme: "The Industrial & Agricultural North. Early Textile Manufacturing 1789 Samuel Slater arrived in America 1789 Samuel Slater arrived in America Slater built."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Industrial & Agricultural North

2 Early Textile Manufacturing 1789 Samuel Slater arrived in America 1789 Samuel Slater arrived in America Slater built 1 st textile mill in 1790 Slater built 1 st textile mill in Jeffersons embargo stimulated domestic production 1807 Jeffersons embargo stimulated domestic production War of 1812 restricted imports and encouraged growth of manufacturing War of 1812 restricted imports and encouraged growth of manufacturing By 1815, textile mills numbered in hundreds By 1815, textile mills numbered in hundreds

3 The Factory System New way of organizing labor - machines too large for worker's home New way of organizing labor - machines too large for worker's home Replaced the home - based system of early 1800s Replaced the home - based system of early 1800s Spread rapidly in the 1820s & again between Spread rapidly in the 1820s & again between

4 Production and location First impact- textile industry: New England First impact- textile industry: New England Moved to shoe industry: E. Mass Moved to shoe industry: E. Mass By 1830s By 1830s - moved to other industries - moved to other areas of NE NE = over ½ of industries, 2/3 of production and ¾ of workers NE = over ½ of industries, 2/3 of production and ¾ of workers

5 Technology By 1830s overtook Great Britain By 1830s overtook Great Britain - Euros traveled to US to study new techniques Development of machine tools Development of machine tools Interchangeable parts revolutionized machinery Interchangeable parts revolutionized machinery

6 The Family System Hiring an entire family Hiring an entire family - men for heavy labor (power loom) - women and children for lighter work Families lived in tenements or mill villagesFamilies lived in tenements or mill villages

7 The Lowell System Found in Waltham Mass. Found in Waltham Mass. Began 1813 Began 1813 Paternalistic textile factory system Paternalistic textile factory system Employed young women [15- 35] Employed young women [15- 35] - from NE farms Emphasis was placed on mechanization and standardization Emphasis was placed on mechanization and standardization - used as a model

8 Why Employ Women? Traditionally employed in home textile work Traditionally employed in home textile work Not expected to support families and so could be paid less Not expected to support families and so could be paid less Women not expected to be independent or equal citizens Women not expected to be independent or equal citizens A fathers debts…to be paid, an aged mother to be supported, a brothers ambition to be aided A fathers debts…to be paid, an aged mother to be supported, a brothers ambition to be aided

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10 Conditions Emphasized maintenance of a proper environment: 1. enforced curfews Emphasized maintenance of a proper environment: 1. enforced curfews 2. encouraged church 3. maintained cleanliness living conditions good & wages were fair living conditions good & wages were fair

11 Conditions Free of the filth, poverty and social disorderFree of the filth, poverty and social disorder Supervised on the job and at home Supervised on the job and at home

12 Lowell System Declined High standards difficult to sustain and keep production costs low High standards difficult to sustain and keep production costs low - wages declined - longer hours - longer hours - conditions deteriorated 1834 Factory Girls Association (FGA) Union 1834 Factory Girls Association (FGA) Union - strike 2x for better wages and lower rent: failed - formed Female Labor Reform Association > demanded help from legislation

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14 Immigrant Labor Force Major labor pop after 1840 Major labor pop after 1840 Accelerated deterioration of working conditions Accelerated deterioration of working conditions Unskilled labor Unskilled labor Low wages $1-$6 a week Low wages $1-$6 a week Terrible living conditions Terrible living conditions hr work day hr work day

15 Labor Responded Mass Commonwealth v. Hunt Mass Commonwealth v. Hunt - Unions were lawful - strikes were legal - strikes were legal Unions of 1840s and 1850s ineffective! Unions of 1840s and 1850s ineffective! - not large or strong enough & lacked unity - too many immigrants! Craft Unions (skilled) more successful Craft Unions (skilled) more successful

16 Northeast Agriculture No longer profitable - moved west - moved to cities Some stayed and supplied cities - veg & fruit - dairy farming

17 Old Northwest Industrial growth Industrial growth based on agriculture - flour milling - flour milling - meat packing - whiskey - whiskey Agriculture is Supreme! Agriculture is Supreme! - avg. person owned prosperous farm

18 Sectionalism NW sold products to NE and NE NW NW sold products to NE and NE NW Eastern industry sold to the west Eastern industry sold to the west STRONG ECONOMIC BOND!!! STRONG ECONOMIC BOND!!! South is becoming more isolated South is becoming more isolated

19 Farming Technology Steel plows John Deere factory Steel plows John Deere factory

20 Farming Technology McCormick Reaper McCormick Reaper allowed 6 men to do the work of 15 allowed 6 men to do the work of 15 quicker harvest quicker harvest

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22 Farming Technology Threshing Machine Threshing Machine Jerome I. Case factory Racine, Wisconsin Jerome I. Case factory Racine, Wisconsin No longer flailing grain by hand > saved time No longer flailing grain by hand > saved time - 25 bushels an hour

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24 Questions?


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