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Overview of Digital Relays

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1 Overview of Digital Relays
ISO Training John S. Levine, P.E. Levine Lectronics & Lectric

2 ISO Training July 22, 2008 Outline
Introduction Overview of Digital Relays Tools Enervista Launchpad PowerPoint presentations at GE Digital Relays Protection Basics SR489 GE Multilin G30 Training Post Glover NGR Training ANSI Symbols handout Conversion of Electro-Mechanical to Electronic sheet GE Multilin Training CD’s

3 Trends 75% of Installed Base of Relays are Electromechanical
90% of New Relays Purchased are Digital/Electronic Lingering Issue of “Putting All Eggs In One Basket” “No Backup” “Like to See Disk Move” Solve with Backup (such as DIAC as backup to SR760 or F60) Gain Excellent Accuracy and No Setting Drift Manufacturers have Created Relay Families, thus reducing maintenance, O&M costs and training.

4 Microprocessor-Relay Benefits
Multi-Function Protection Cost Effectiveness Configurable/Programmable Logic User Configurable Time Current Curves Self-Testing of Relay’s Algorithms with Alarm Contact Reduce Periodic Testing Every 1-2 years for Electromechanical Every 5-10 years for Digital (or More!) Improved System Data Fault Location & Reporting - Waveform Capturing Internal Operation Data - Metering Breaker Health Monitoring - Demand Interval Records Sequence of Event Reporting

5 Microprocessor-Relay Benefits
Flexible Settings Multiple Setting Levels Communication Capabilities Local via Keypad Remote via Computer and Modem Networks can be created Reduced Panel Space & Wiring Compact Packaging Tested at Factory Eliminate Component Panel Metering

6 Digital Relays - Areas Of Use
Distribution Feeder Protection Reclosing Down Conductor Detection Breaker Failure Protection Generator Protection Transmission Line Protection Transformer Protection Bus Protection Motor Protection


8 Programmability Digital Relays Have: Programmable Inputs
Programmable Outputs (ALARM & TRIP) Programmable Logic Boolean Logic - AND, OR, NOT Logic Programmable Time Current Curves

9 Waveform Capturing Including Bar Plotting of Unit Operation

10 Metering 0.25 - 5% Accuracy on I & V Typical Values
Can Be Accessed Locally or Remotely Some Relays Have Analog Outputs Proportional to Metering Values (i.e. 0-1mA) Current Voltage Watts, Vars, PF Frequency kWh, kVarh Phase Angles Min & Max Values with Date & Time Stamp Harmonic Values of I Symmetrical Components Operation Counters Breaker Position

11 Metering

12 Other Monitoring Breaker Health Monitoring Demand Interval Reporting
Cumulative I2T or IT Activate Alarm At Set Level Demand Interval Reporting 15, 30, 60 Minute Intervals over Several Days I, Watts, Vars, VA, PF Peak Values Recorded Date & Time Stamped Trip & Close Coil Monitor Fault Location & Fault Reporting

13 Sequence Of Events Recording
Events Stored with Date & Time: Alarms Contact Operations Logins & Logouts Waveform Captures Remote Operations Resets Setting Changes Last Events Stored

14 Settings Easier Than Electromechanical/Static Flexible settings
Relays Have Multiple Setting Groups Can be Switched with Input Contacts or Remotely Settings Are Stored in Files and Down Loaded to Relay with PC Easy to Copy Existing Setting Files and Modify Accurate Implementation of Settings No Overtravel No Large Drifts in Set Points Selection of Reset Times Fast (Digital) or Slow (Electromechanical)

15 Local Communications Thru Keypad, Up, Down Arrows, Enter/Select Keys or RS232 Port on Relay Local LED Display Reset Key/Button LED Targets Password Protection Phase TOC1 OP Phase A Phase B Alarm Phase C 87 UP DN ENTER

16 Communications You can tie to a PLC. We can tell you the modbus card for each manufacturer.

17 Remote Communications
Thru Rear RS232 or RS485 Port Using Standard Modem Software or Relay Manufacturer’s Communication Software Password Protection 10Mbps Ethernet Connections - Wire or Fiber Multiple Protocol Support (DNP3.0, Modbus RTU, Devicenet, Profibus, and IEC 61850) RELAY Modem DSL or Telephone

18 Substation Communications - LAN & WAN

19 Communications You can tie to a PLC. We can tell you the modbus card for each manufacturer.

20 Memory Map Example Group Address Description
Current Phase A Current Phase B Current Phase C Current 030D Phase A Differential 030E Phase B Differential 030F Phase C Differential Each setpoint and actual value has an address assigned to it that you can go look at.

21 Available Control by Digital Relays via Communications & Protocols
Reset Data Min/Max, Demand, etc. Reset Targets Operate Output Contacts Trip & Close Trigger Waveform Capture Set Date & Time Force Input Contact Operation Block Relay Functions Perform Setting Changes

22 Maintenance Benefits Self-Test Capabilities Remote Communications
Easy Setting Changes One Model Could Be Used for Several Applications No Setting Drift of Digital Relay Reduced Wiring Flash Memory Upgradeable Firmware

23 Today’s Feeder and Transformer Digital Relays

24 DIAC,DIFC,DSFC Single Phase Overcurrent Protection
Digital Overcurrent Relay Platform w/ True RMS Overcurrent Measurement (50/51) Replace IAC, IFC and SFC relays. . . Self Powered (no DC Battery Required) Same case size, no metal modifications Simply add surge ground lead User Selection of 16 curve characteristics Exact Duplication of IAC51, IAC53 & IAC77 Characteristics Instantaneous Overcurrent Delay Setting Reset Characteristic Selection (Fast or E/M) Draw-out Case with Test Facilities Retrofit existing IAC, IFC and SFC Cases Very Low Burden (1.8VA) No Communications 2

25 SR760 - Feeder Protection 16 Samples/Cycle
3 Phase & Ground Overcurrent Protection Programmable Time Current Curves Over/Under Voltage Over/Under Frequency Synch Check 4 Shot Reclosing Fault Location 4 Setting Groups Analog Outputs/Input (8/1) Metering I, V, W, Var, VA, PF, Hz, Wh, Varh Waveform Capturing RS485 Communications DNP3.0 and Modbus RTU Protocols Flash Memory for Upgrades Drawout Construction Programmable Display Simulation Test Mode IRIG-B Time Sync 9

26 SR489 Generator Management Relay
Product Overview Ideal Protection for Induction and Synchronous Generators at 25, 50 and 60Hz Complete Generator Protection including: Generator Stator Differential 2 Zone Distance Backup 100% Stator Ground High speed sampling, 12 samples per cycle Drawout Case Installation Powerful Fault Recording: Waveform, Sequence of Events Ethernet and Serial Communications EnerVista Suite of Software supported Metering of all important parameters

27 SR489 Protection Functions
Protection Functions Include: Generator Stator Differential Backup Distance Protection 100% Stator Ground Generator Unbalance Loss of Excitation Accidental Energization Breaker Fail Phase Overcurrent – Voltage Restraint Neutral Inst. / Timed Overcurrent Neg. Sequence Overcurrent Under / Over Voltage Under / Over Frequency Generator Thermal Model RTD Temperature Overexcitation – Volts/Hertz

28 SR745 - Transformer Protection
64 Samples/Cycle 3 Phase Differential Protection 3 Phase & Ground Overcurrent per Winding Adaptive Time Overcurrent Programmable Time Current Curves Loss of Life Monitoring (Opt.) 4 Setting Groups Harmonic Analysis (up to 25st) Angle & Zero Sequence Compensation Analog Outputs/Input (Opt.) 2 & 3 Winding Models Configurable Logic Waveform Capturing & Playback Simulation Test Mode Flash Memory for Upgrades RS485 Communications Modbus RTU and DNP3.0 Protocols Programmable Display Dynamic CT Ratio Correction IRIG-B Time Sync Transformer Management Relay SR745 13

29 “The Engine for Substation / Plant Automation”
The UR Family - One Common Architecture TRANSMISSION L60 (Transmission Line: Phase Comparison) L90 (Transmission Line: Current Differential) D30, D60, abd D90 (Transmission Line: Distance) B30 and B90 (Busbar: 6 to 24 Feeder) DISTRIBUTION F35 (Feeder: Multiple Feeders - Basic Protection) F60 (Feeder: Comprehensive w Hi-Z) T60 (Transformer: Comprehensive) C30 (Control IED) C60 (Breaker Management IED) GENERATION / MOTOR G30 and G60 (Generator: Comprehensive) T60 and T35 (Transformer: Basic up to 6 Windings) B30 and B90 (Busbar: Comprehensive up to 24 Feeders) M60 (Motor) “The Engine for Substation / Plant Automation”

30 Modular Hardware Family

31 Status Inputs / Control Outputs
Physical Realization 19’’ Chassis (4RU high) or Vertical Unit High-Speed Data Bus Modules Main Processor CPU Power Supply COMMUNICATIONS DSP & Magnetics DSP processor + CT/VTs Status Inputs / Control Outputs DIGITAL I/O ANALOG I/O Analog Transducer I/O Modular HMI (Hinged & Removeable)

32 Modularity... CPU DSP + CT/VT Power Supply Two Ranges 19-60 VDC (L)
VDC / VAC (H) Battery for Memory Backup CPU Main Processor High-speed 32-Bit RISC CPU > 50 MIPS, up to 120 MIPS (MIPS - Million Instructions per Second) FLASH memory Easy firmware upgrades High-Speed Comms support 10Mbps Ethernet LAN Redundant Fiber (option) RS485 IRIG-B Input Capacitor Memory Backup DSP + CT/VT DSP & Magnetics DSP processor + CT/VTs Modular CT/VT configurations up to 8 CT/VTs High-speed digital sampling >16 Bit A/D converter > 64 samples / cycle High-speed 16-Bit DSP > 32 MIPS, up to 80 MIPS “Sources” Concept User Selects CT/VT Input for Protection Element

33 Status Inputs / Control Outputs
Modularity... ! Control outputs Solid State Electromechanical - multiple types Fast activation speeds (< 4ms) Status inputs Dry and Wet contacts VDC Fast detection speeds (< 4ms) Status Inputs / Control Outputs DIGITAL I/O Digital I/O Transducer type inputs dcmA RTD Support multiple I/O configurations Analog I/O Analog Transducer I/O ANALOG I/O Communications COMMUNICATIONS (Protection) High-Speed Serial Communications L90 Relay RS422 at 64kbps G.703 at 64kbps Fiber Optical (Single/Multi mode) 820nm Multi-mode 1300nm Single-mode 1300nm Multi-mode G.703 RS422 L60 Relay 5V/20mA Channel Interface

34 ‘Upgradeability’/Serviceability
‘Plug n Play’ Easy Module Draw-out CPU Automatically Recognizes New Hardware upon Initialization CT Shorting ‘Clips’ Field Wiring Undisturbed Module Keying

35 Example: Busbar with 5 Feeders
79 79 79 79 79

36 Example: Inputs in to UR Relay

37 Example: UR Relay using Sources
79 79 79 79 79 Universal Relay 50-Inst, 51-Time, 81-Freq, 79- Reclose

38 F60 Feeder Protection Single Feeder Protection with Bus Voltage
Phase, Neutral & Ground Time Overcurrent (51P, 51N, 51G) Phase, Neutral & Ground Inst.Overcurrent (50P, 50N, 50G) Negative Sequence Time Overcurrent (51_2) Negative Sequence Inst.Overcurrent (50_2) Fast or EM Reset Characteristic for TOC Elements Phase, Neutral and Negative Sequence Directional Control Phase Undervoltage & Overvoltage Negative Sequence Overvoltage Underfrequency (6 elements) Overfrequency 4 Shot Autoreclosing with Sequence Coordination VT Fuse Failure Programmable Fast & Slow Operations Breaker Failure (50BF) Synchrocheck (25) Cold Load Pickup Breaker Arcing Current (I2t) Data Logger & Fault Location Transducer I/O FlexLogic with gates and timers Programmable LED Panels Metering Harmonic Metering (up to 25th) Oscillography Event Recorder & Fault Records Demand Recording DNP, Modbus RTU & UCA Protocols 8 Setting Groups Down Conductor Detection (Optional)

39 F35 Multiple Feeder Protection
5 Feeder Protection with Bus Voltage 6 Feeder Protection w/o Bus Voltage Programmable LED Panels (6) Phase TOC elements (12) Phase IOC elements (6) Neutral TOC elements (12) Neutral IOC elements (6) Ground TOC elements (12) Ground IOC elements (1) Phase Undervoltage element (6) Underfrequency elements (6) Autoreclosing elements FlexLogic with gates and timers Transducer I/O Data Logger Metering Oscillography Event Recorder Demand Recording DNP, Modbus RTU & UCA Protocols 8 Setting Groups

40 LED Programmability

41 T60 Transformer Protection
Up to 4 Restraint Inputs 2 & 3 Restraint with Three Phase Voltage Inputs 4 Restraint without Voltage Inputs Dual Slope Percent Differential Protection (87T) Harmonic Inhibit Feature Overexitation Inhibit Feature Instantaneous Differential Element (50/87) Overcurrent Protection Per Winding (50/51) Phase, Neutral & Ground Time Overcurrent Phase, Neutral & Ground Inst.Overcurrent Fast or EM Reset Characteristic for TOC Elements Phase Undervoltage Phase Overvoltage Phase & Neutral Directional OC Volts/Hz Restricted Ground Fault RTD and dcmA Inputs Available Underfrequency (6 elements) Data Logger FlexLogic with gates and timers Programmable LED Panels Metering per Winding (I, V, W, Var, VA, PF) Harmonic Metering (up to 25th) Differential and Restraint Currents Oscillography & Event Recorder Demand Recording DNP, Modbus RTU & UCA Protocols 8 Setting Groups

42 UR Applications Option 1 T60 - Transformer Protection
F60 - Main Feeder Protection F35 - Backup Feeder Protection

43 UR Applications Option 2 T60 - Transformer Protection
F35 - Main Feeder Protection F35 - Backup Feeder Protection

44 Tools

45 Free PC Software and Firmware
Windows based Access all: Actual Values Setpoints Status Event records Oscillography Graphical trending Setpoint programming Setpoint files Download updated firmware to Flash memory Three things to mention. Oscillography - Shows wave forms Graphical Trending – replaces a paper chart recorder (PC attached required) Event recorder - All trips and alarms can be date stamped and shown. Explain Firmware to Flash memory.



48 Enervista Launchpad: http://www. geindustrial



51 Demo Relays at L-3

52 ANSI Symbols

53 Conversion of Electro-Mechanical to Electronic sheet

54 PowerPoint presentations at:

55 GE Multilin Training CD’s

56 Thank You Questions?

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