Presentation on theme: "Contents Page Learning targets"— Presentation transcript:
1 Contents PageLearning targetsAssign an IP address for the programming device / PCAccessible devices 1 …………Accessible devices 2 ..………Upload actual configuration into programming device (1): Add unspecific CPUUpload actual configuration into programming device (2): Detect accessible devicesUpload actual configuration into programming device (3): Read out actual configurationRequired configurationOpen device and network editor ...……Layout of the device and network editor ..……Hardware catalog ……Depot for unplugged modules …………PLC properties: PROFINET interface ………………PLC properties: Digital inputs ……………PLC properties: Digital outputs .....…………PLC properties: Analog inputs …………PLC properties: High-speed counters (HSC) ....…PLC properties: Startup mode ……PLC properties: Time ...……………PLC properties: Protection ...……PLC properties: System and clock memory ..………Insert/delete/change modules ..………………Signal board …Interconnect devices in the network viewConnect and disconnect ....……………Compile hardware configuration ……
2 Contents PageDownload hardware configuration into device (1)Download hardware configuration into device (2)Exercise 1-1: Delete old projects ……Exercise 1-2: Delete entries for non-existent projects …………Exercise 1-3: Reset CPU to factory settings ..………………Exercise 1-4: Assign an IP address to a CPUExercise 1-5: Create new project ……Exercise 1-6: Add new device ………Exercise 1-7: Read out actual configurationExercise 1-8: Parameterize CPU properties ..……Exercise 1-9: Parameterize analog module: Measurement type, voltage range, smoothingExercise 1-10: Parameterize analog module: I/O addresses ……Exercise 1-11: Set addresses of the DI/DO module …If you want to know more .……………PLC properties: Pulse generators (PTO/PWM) ………PWM …CTRL_PWM …Integrated functions, HSC .....……Integrated functions, HSC ……
3 Learning targets The participant should ... ... be able to create and parameterize a required configuration... be able to read out and parameterize an actual configuration... become familiar with addressing the input and output modules of an S7-1200... be able to adapt an existing hardware configuration to available hardware
4 Assign an IP address for the programming device / PC Local Area ConnectionNetwork ConnectionsIP address You can use the "Network Connections" tool to set up the properties for the Internet protocol (TCP/IP) and the IP address for your programming device / PC.Control Panel
5 Accessible devices in the portal view Portal view: This method offers quick access (e.g. for service purposes) even if there is noAccessible offline project data on the programming device for the target systems.devicesAll accessible, programmable modules (CPUs, FMs and CPs) are listed in the portal view, even if they are located in other subnets.Assign additional As soon as the button "Show in project tree" is clicked to access a module thatIP address is located in a different subnet to the PG, a prompt in the dialog box asksto the PG whether an additional IP address should be assigned to the PG. Following confirmation, an additional IP address is assigned which lies in the same subnet as the address of the CPU. All online functions can then be used.
6 Accessible devices in the project view Project view: If the PG and the target system (e.g. CPU) are in the same subnet, various onlineAccessible functions are available in the function "Accessible devices".devices Program blocks can be opened directly online or read out from the diagnostics buffer.
7 Upload actual configuration into programming device (1): Add unspecific CPU Actual The configuration for existing hardware and the parameter settings are read out ofconfiguration the CPU and saved in the project.1. Select an unspecified CPU from the catalog as a new device.2. Click the "Add" button.Select unspecific CPU
8 Detect accessible devices Select an accessible device Upload actual configuration into programming device (2): Detect accessible devicesThe device is unspecified-> Please use the hardware catalog to specify the CPU-> or detect the configuration for the connected deviceDetect accessible devicesAccessible devices in target subnet:Device Device type Type AddressPLC_1 CPU1214C DC/DC/DC TCP/IP HMI_1 SIMATIC-HMI TCP/IPLoadSelect an accessible deviceActual To read out an actual configuration, you must insert an unspecific CPU first.configuration An alarm is displayed:The device is not specified-> Please use the hardware catalog to specify the CPU or-> Detect the configuration of the accessible devices.Detect Click the word "detect" with the mouse to open a new window in which all accessible devices are displayed. Search for the device that you want to insert in your configuration and click the "Load" button. The configuration is detected and inserted in your project.Add
9 Upload actual configuration into programming device (3): Read out actual configuration Actual The actual configuration for the selected device is read out and inserted in theconfiguration project.Note This is not a complete upload, the parameter settings for the modules are lost.
10 Required configuration Add device There are different ways to add a CPU to the hardware configuration:• Command "Add new device" in the project tree• Double-click device in hardware catalog• Drag-and-drop from the hardware catalog in network view• Command "Add > Device" from menu bar in network view• "Copy" and "Paste" in the short-cut menu for a device in the hardware catalogA suitable rack is created along with the new device. The device selected is plugged onto the first allowable slot in the rack.Regardless of the method selected, the added device is visible in the device view and the network view of the device and network editor.
11 Open device and network editor Device editor You open the device and network editor from the project tree.The device and network editor is the integrated development environment for configuring and assigning parameters to devices and modules. It offers maximum assistance in the realization of the automation project.
12 Layout of the device and network editor Components The hardware and network editor consists of the following components:• Device view or network view • Inspector window• Hardware catalogThe hardware and network editor consists of a device view and a network view. You can switch between these two components at any time depending on whether you want to produce and edit individual devices and modules or entire networks and device configurations.The inspector window contains information on the object currently marked. Here you can change the settings for the object marked. Drag the devices and modules you need for your automation system from the hardware catalog into the network or device view.Function The information and parameters in the inspector window are split intodifferent types of information:• Properties• Info• DiagnosticsTo display the corresponding information and parameters, click in the area you want. The "Properties" area is the most important one for configuring an automation system. This area is displayed by default. The left pane of the inspector window is used for navigating between areas. Information and parameters are arranged there in groups. If you click on the arrow symbol to the left of the group name, you can expand the group if sub-groups are available. If you select a group or sub-group, the corresponding information and parameters are displayed in the right pane of the inspector window and can be edited there too.
13 Enter the searched term Hardware catalogEnter the searched termFilter functionCatalog The "Catalog" pane contains the various hardware components in a tree structure. You can drag the devices or modules you want from the catalog into the graphic work area of the device view or network view.Search The "Catalog" pane with the search and filter functions allows you to easily search for particular hardware components.Filter There is a filter function in the hardware catalog. If the filter function is deactivated, all the objects available in the catalog are displayed for you in the hardware catalog. To only display the objects that you can use in the current context, activate the "Filter" check box. If you have activated the filter, only the following objects are displayed:• In the network view, only those objects that can be networked are displayed.• All modules that are part of the context of the current device are displayed in the device view.If you switch between network and device view, the view of the filter objects is adapted to the current context.Information The "Information" pane contains detailed information on the object selected from the catalog:• Schematic diagram• Name• Version number• Order No.• Short descriptionInformation
14 Depot for unplugged modules Open / close depotDepot The modules, which e.g. are to be assigned to a device using a copy action but for which the corresponding rack does not have a free compatible slot, are moved automatically into the depot for unplugged modules.Modules are placed in the depot for unplugged modules in the following situations:• When a module is copied or moved within the project tree.• When a module is dragged to a device in the network view, but a compatible slot is not free in the rack.• In the device view, when a module should be inserted in a rack from the clipboard, but a compatible slot is not free in the rack.• In the device view, when a module is directly moved into the depot from the rack or hardware catalog.Rules The following rules apply to modules in the depot:• The modules are located in the project tree under the relevant device in the "Local modules" folder.• The modules retain all settings and parameters previously provided.• The modules are not taken into account on downloading to the target system. A consistency check is therefore not performed for modules in the depot for unplugged modules.
15 PLC properties: PROFINET interface Select existing subnetSet up a new subnetCommunication The basis for any type of communication is always a previously configured network. The network configuration provides the prerequisites for communication, in other words:• All the devices in a network have a unique address;• The devices process communication with consistent transmission properties.Network configuration The following steps are necessary when configuring networks:• Connect devices to subnet• Specify properties/parameters for each subnet• Specify device properties for every networked module• Download configuration data to the devices to supply the interfaces with the settings resulting from the network configuration• Document network configurationIP address The IP address comprises a network address and a device address.Subnet mask The subnet mask determines which part of the IP address is used• As the network address and• As the device address
16 PLC properties: Digital inputs Process interrupt (event)Assignment of event to interruptProperties Once you have plugged hardware components into your rack, you can edit their default properties, e.g. parameters or addresses, in the network or device view.Input filters You can select an input filter for the S that defines a delay for the physical inputs (adjustable between 0.2 ms and 12.8 ms). The delay is used to filter out noise in the input wiring that can cause unwanted signal status changes at the inputs.Process interrupt With process interrupts, you can respond quickly to the rising or falling edges of specific input signals.Event You determine which OB should be called for the corresponding event. Process OBs have a higher priority than OB1.Pulse catch The S features the function "Pulse catch" for one or all integral digital inputs. You can use the pulse catch function to acquire pulses that are shorter than the cycle time. If the pulse catch function is activated for an input, a signal change at the input will be retained until updating takes place in the next cycle. This ensures that a pulse that is only available for a short time is acquired and retained until the S reads the input.Pulse catch: Pulses that are shorter than the cycle time can be detected
17 PLC properties: Digital outputs Reaction to CPU Stop In the table of digital outputs, you can specify that the digital outputs should be set to a safe state following a transition from RUN to STOP; or that the output states that prevailed before the transition to STOP mode should be saved.Keep Keep last value: Select this menu item when all digital outputs should be frozen in their previous state in response to a transition from RUN to STOP mode.Substitute value Use a substitute value: Select this menu item when all digital outputs should be set to a defined state in response to a transition from RUN to STOP mode. You can substitute a value of 1 or 0.Process image The CPU automatically undertakes the data exchange between the module and the process image area when updating the process images.If the program should access the module directly and not via the process image, you must supplement the I/O address with ":P".This is the case, for example, with a time-critical program in which the outputs must also be influenced in the same cycle.Start address The start address and end address specify where the useful data should be stored in the process image.
18 PLC properties: Analog inputs Conversion timeFixed measuring range 0 to 10 VEnable diagnostic interrupt (OB82)Smoothing A mean value is generated from the current analog value every 4, 16 or 32 cycles.Diagnostics If an error occurs, the module causes a diagnostic interrupt to be output on theinterrupt CPU. Appropriate error information is then entered in the diagnostics buffer and the CPU immediately executes the program in the diagnostics interrupt organization block OB 82. The user can then program the required reaction to the error that has occurred.The errors that can be detected by an analog module are dependent on the module type.Examples of errors:• Incorrect parameter data• Short-circuit (analog modules only)• Wire breakage• No supply voltageInput addresses You specify in the input addresses field whether the analog values should be stored cyclically in the process image.If the program must access the useful data directly and not via the process image, you must supplement the I/O address with ":P".
19 PLC properties: High-speed counters (HSC) Activate counterCounting modes:- Counting - FrequencyIntroduction High-speed counters (High Speed Counters) are typically used as actuators for counting mechanisms in which a shaft rotating at constant speed is equipped with an incremental shaft encoder. The incremental shaft encoder ensures that a specific number of count values are obtained per rotation as well as a reset pulse once per rotation. The clock generator(s) and the reset pulse of the incremental shaft encoder supply the inputs for the high-speed counter.Principle The counter is set up such that an interrupt occurs when the current value of theof operation counter is equal to the default value or when the counter is reset.The interrupts occur at a much lower rate than the high speed counter counts, so precision control of high-speed operations can be implemented with a relatively minimal effect on the overall cycle of the automation system. You can assign interrupts to specific interrupt programs, so each new default can be loaded into a separate interrupt program for easy activation of the state.Counter types All counters of the same counter type operate in the same manner, but every high speed counter does not support all counting modes. There are four basic counter types:• Single phase counter with internal Up/Down control• Single phase counter with external Up/Down control• Two phase counter with 2 clock inputs• A/B counterEach high-speed counter can be used with or without a reset input. If the reset input is activated, this resets the actual value. The actual value remains reset until the reset input is deactivated.Operating phase:- Single phase- Two phase- A/B Quadrature 1X- A/B Quadrature 4X
20 PLC properties: Startup mode Restart On a restart (warm restart), all non-retentive bit memories are erased and non-retentive DB contents are reset to the start values in the load memory. Retentive bit memories and DB contents are retained.Program execution starts with the first restart OB.Menu item In the following cases, you can perform a "Restart (warm restart)" via a menu item from the programming device:• The CPU is in STOP mode.• After a memory reset• After loading a consistent program and a consistent hardware configuration with the CPU in "STOP" mode.After POWER ON On "Power On", a "Restart (warm restart) is triggered if you have parameterized the start-up response as follows:• Start-up mode "Warm restart - RUN" (regardless of CPU operating mode before POWER OFF).• "Warm restart - Operating mode before POWER OFF" (dependent on the CPU operating mode before POWER OFF)Warm restart: Non-retentive memory areas are erased or reset to the start values
21 Changeover between standard and daylight saving time PLC properties: TimeTime zoneGeneral All S CPUs are equipped with an internal clock. A buffer ensures that the correct time is indicated during a power supply interruption of up to 10 days.Time format The clock always shows the time of day with a resolution of 1 millisecond and the date including the day of the week. The daylight saving time change is taken into account.Changeover between standard and daylight saving time
22 PLC properties: Protection Protection levels You can choose between the following protection levels:• No protection: corresponds to the default behavior. You cannot enter a password. Read and write access is always permitted.• Write protection: Read only access. You are unable to change any data in the CPU or load any blocks or configurations. PLC tags, that are identified as HMI-related, and diagnostics data are excluded from the write protection.• Read/write protection: No read or write access is possible. Only the CPU type and identification data can be displayed in the project tree under "Accessible devices". The It is not possible to display online information or blocks under "Accessible devices" without entering a password.The following objects are excluded from the write/read protection:• PLC tags that are identified as HMI-related• Properties of HMI objects that can be monitored• Diagnostics dataBefore an online function is executed, the necessary permission is checked and, if necessary, the user is prompted to enter a password of up to 30 characters.Caution: The password is stored on the CPU in encrypted form and cannot be deleted.
23 PLC properties: System and clock memory Clock memory A clock memory is a memory that periodically changes its binary state with the mark-to-space ratio of 1:1. You decide which memory byte of the CPU will become the clock memory byte when assigning the clock memory parameters.Cycle time The cycle time is the time that the operating system requires to execute the cyclic program and all the program sections that interrupt this cycle. The program execution can be interrupted by:• Diagnostics interrupt• Time-of-day interrupt• Process interrupt, etc.The cycle time is therefore not the same for every cycle.The operating system monitors the runtime of the cyclic program for overshooting a configurable upper limit, the maximum cycle time. You can restart this watchdog timer at any point in your program by calling the instruction RE_TRIGR.If the cyclic program exceeds the maximum cycle time, the operating system tries to activate the time error OB (e.g. OB 280). If it does not exist, the CPU changes to "STOP".Apart from monitoring the runtime against the maximum cycle time, it is also possible to guarantee a minimum cycle time. In this case, the operating system delays starting a new cycle until the minimum cycle time is reached. During this delay, new events and operating system utilities are processed.If the maximum cycle time is exceeded for a second time, e.g. during execution of the time error OB (2 x MaxCycleTime error), the CPU enters the STOP state.Note Clock memories runs asynchronously to the CPU cycle, i.e. the status of the clock memory can change several times during a long cycle. The selected memory byte cannot be used to store data temporarily.
24 Insert / delete / change modules Insert You can use drag-and-drop to also insert modules between modules that have already been plugged. To do this, click on the module and drag it above and between two modules that are already plugged. A cursor appears. When you release the mouse button, all modules plugged to the right of the cursor are moved one slot to the right. Any redundant modules are moved to the depot for unplugged modules. The new module is plugged at the point of the freed up slot.Delete You can delete hardware components in the device or network view. Deleted hardware components are removed from the system and assigned addresses made available again. Rules:• Modules plugged into the rack and in the depot for unplugged modules can be deleted.• CPUs and racks with plugged modules cannot be deleted individually, but only in the network view together with all plugged hardware components (deletion of the complete station).Procedure Proceed as follows to delete a hardware component:1. Select the hardware components you want to delete.• Device view: Select rack or modules in racks or in the depot for unplugged modules.• Network view: Select the stations or the relevant hardware component from the network view.2. Select "Delete" from the shortcut menu or press <Del>.When the menu item "Delete" is shown in gray, your selection contains at least one component that cannot be deleted.Change You can swap hardware components. In this way, you can replace unspecific CPUs with available CPUs from the hardware catalog. Rules: Only those hardware components can be swapped that are intended as replacements and that are compatible with each other.You can use drag-and-drop to also insert modules between modules that have already been plugged.
25 Signal boardIntroduction Signal boards allow you to increase the number of CPU-specific inputs and outputs. You will find signal boards in the hardware catalog along with all the other hardware components. You don't plug signal boards into the rack like other modules, but directly into a CPU-specific slot.The following rules apply to the use of signal boards:• Each CPU can only accept one signal board.• A signal board can only be plugged in when the slot of the CPU is free. A signal board can be plugged into a CPU in the following different ways:• Double-click a signal board in the hardware catalog when a slot is free in the CPU• Drag-and-drop a module from the hardware catalog to a free slot in the CPU• "Copy" and "Paste" in the short-cut menu for a signal board in the hardware catalogRequirement• You are in the device view.• The hardware catalog is open.• The CPU has a free slot for the signal board.Signal boards can be used to increase the number of CPU-specific inputs and outputs.
26 Interconnect devices in the network view Select interfacePossibilities In the graphic network view, you have an overview of the subnets of the entire system in the project. The tabular network overview is also useful, especially for complex projects. Depending on the starting situation, there are various ways of undertaking configuration to network the interface for a component capable of communication.• There is no subnet present which is suitable for the interface type, yet.• The subnet, with which you want to link the component, is already present.Subnet To create a subnet and to connect it to an interface, follow these steps:1. Select the interface for a CPU.2. Select "Create subnet" in the context menu of the interfaceThe selected interface is linked with a new subnet of the appropriate subnet type. The address parameters for the interface are automatically set consistently.
27 Connect and disconnect Select interfaceConnect To link an interface with a subnet that has already been created, proceed as follows:1. Position the cursor over the interface to be connected or one the existing subnet.2. Click with the left mouse button and hold the button down.3. Move the mouse cursor. The mouse cursor assumes the form of the connection symbol to indicate "Networking" mode. At the same time, the cursor shows the lock symbol that will only disappear once the cursor is moved to a valid target.4. Now move the cursor to the existing subnet or to the interface to be networked.5. Now release the left mouse button.Event The interface and the selected subnet are now linked. The address parameters for the interface are automatically set consistently.Disconnect Proceed as follows to cancel the network connection for an interface:1. Select the networked interface.2. Select "Delete" in the context menu of the interface. The network connection is deleted, the interface addresses are however not changed. Configured connections are retained, but they are marked in red in the connection table, due to the lack of a connection. Specified connections remain specified.Lock symbolConnection symbol
28 Compile hardware configuration Select PLCWarnings and errors in info areaCompile The hardware project data only is compiled. This includes, for example, configuration data of the devices, networks and connections.
29 Download hardware configuration into device (1) Download To download the hardware configuration into the device, proceed as follows:1. In the short-cut menu for the device in the project tree, select the item "Download to device > hardware configuration".• If you had not previously established an online connection, the "Extended loading" dialog is opened.2. In the "Extended loading" dialog, select the interface of your programming device /PC from the drop down list "PG/PC interface for loading".3. Select your device from the table "Accessible devices in target subnet" and confirm by clicking "Load".Download to device Depending on the command selected, the following will be downloaded:• All: Hardware configuration and all software blocks• Hardware configuration: Only the hardware configuration• Software: Only the modified software blocks• Software (rebuild all): All software blocks are downloadedShort-cut menuof the stationAccessible nodes
30 Download hardware configuration into device (2) Before the downloadAfter the downloadBefore Before the download, the CPU is placed in the STOP state. The hardware configuration is downloaded and the "Results" dialog opens. This dialog shows you the status and the actions after the download.4. Close the "Load results" dialog with "Finish".Result The configured hardware configuration in the programming device / PC and on the device is identical. The messages under "Info > General" in the inspector window report whether the loading process was successful.
31 Exercise 1-1: Delete old projects Task Delete the old S projects.Procedure 1. Start Windows Explorer.2. Delete all projects in the directory <Drive>:\S7-Courses\SNote Projects to be deleted must be closed.Right mouse button
32 Exercise 1-2: Assign an IP address for the programming device Local Area ConnectionNetwork ConnectionsTask Assign the IP address and subnet mask shown in the screenshot to the programming device.Control Panel
33 Exercise 1-3: Delete entries for non-existent projects Task Delete all entries from the list of "Recently used projects" that reference projects that no longer exist.Procedure 1. Start "STEP 7 Basic" using the button shown on the left.2. In the portal view, click "Open existing project".3. Select the projects in the list one at a time and try to open them.4. If a project does not exist, the dialog box appears that is shown in the screenshot. The references to non-existing entries can be deleted here.Result The list no longer contains any entries that reference non-existent projects.
35 Exercise 1-5: Assign an IP address to a CPU Right mouse button
36 Exercise 1-6: Create new project Task Create a new project named "My_Project".Procedure 1. In the portal view, select "Create new project".2. Enter the project name and the path shown in the screenshot and "Create" the project.
37 Exercise 1-7: Add new device Task Add an unspecific device as a "new device".Procedure 1. Change to the project view.2. Select the menu item: "Add new device".3. Select an unspecific CPU as the device and assign a name to it.
38 Exercise 1-8: Read out actual configuration Task Read out the actual configuration and parameter settings for the modules from the CPU and save it in your project in the "unspecific station".Procedure 1. Switch to the project view.2. Double-click "Device configuration" for the unspecific CPU. The message shown in the screenshot is displayed which offers you two possibilities for specifying the device:a) Using the hardware catalog to specify the CPU orb) Reading the configuration out of an accessible CPU.3. Select the option "detect the hardware configuration of the connected device".4. Select the CPU from the list "Accessible devices in target subnet" that appears and "Load" the configuration.Result The configuration that has been read out is displayed in the device view.
39 Exercise 1-9: CPU properties: Addressing the integrated inputs and outputs Task Specify the addresses shown in the screenshot for the integrated digital inputs and outputs.Procedure 1. Switch to the project view.2. Double-click "Device configuration" for the CPU.3. Select the CPU in the "Device view".4. Select the "Properties" tab in the inspector window and then select "DI14/DO10 -> IO addresses/HW identifier".5. Enter the addresses shown in the screenshot.
40 Exercise 1-10: CPU properties: Parameterize clock memory byte Task In the CPU properties, specify memory byte 10 as the clock memory byte.Procedure 1. Switch to the project view.2. Double-click "Device configuration" for the CPU.3. Select the CPU in the "Device view".4. Select the "Properties" tab in the inspector window and then select "System and clock memory".5. Enable use of the clock memory byte with address 10.
41 Exercise 1-11: Parameterize analog module: Measurement type, voltage range, smoothing Task Parameterize the measurement type, voltage range and smoothing for the analog module as shown in the screenshot.Procedure 1. Switch to the project view.2. Select the analog module in the device view (see screenshot).3. Select the "Properties" tab in the inspector window and then select "AI4/AO2" "Analog inputs".4. Set the parameters shown in the screenshot. No other parameters need to be changed.
42 Exercise 1-12: Analog module: Parameterize I/O addresses Task Parameterize the I/O addresses for the analog module as shown in the screenshot.Procedure 1.. Change to the project view.2. Select the analog module in the device view (see screenshot).3. Select the "Properties" tab in the inspector window and then select "AI4/AO2" "IO addresses...".4. Enter the addresses shown in the dialog box that appears.
43 Exercise 1-13: Mixed DI/DO module: Parameterize I/O addresses Task Parameterize the I/O addresses for the mixed DI/DO module as shown in the screenshot.Procedure 1. Change to the project view.2. Select the DI/DO module in the device view (see screenshot).3. Select the "Properties" tab in the inspector window and then select "DI8/DO8" "IO addresses...".4. Enter the addresses shown in the dialog box that appears.Note The conveyor model is wired to this DI/DO module. The addresses for all sensors and actuators of the conveyor model are therefore located in IB 8 / QB 8.
44 If you want to know more ...Note The following pages provide additional information for reference.