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牙科放射線學 (1) 陳玉昆助理教授 : 高雄醫學大學 口腔病理科 07-3121101~2755 Communication skills in dentistry with emphasis on oral radiography 接受 X 光影像攝影的溝通技巧.

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Presentation on theme: "牙科放射線學 (1) 陳玉昆助理教授 : 高雄醫學大學 口腔病理科 07-3121101~2755 Communication skills in dentistry with emphasis on oral radiography 接受 X 光影像攝影的溝通技巧."— Presentation transcript:

1 牙科放射線學 (1) 陳玉昆助理教授 : 高雄醫學大學 口腔病理科 ~2755 Communication skills in dentistry with emphasis on oral radiography 接受 X 光影像攝影的溝通技巧

2 學 習 目 標學 習 目 標 - 認識牙科 X 光影像攝影 - 了解牙醫師與病患 ( 含 X 光影像攝影 ) 溝通技巧

3 根尖片  平行法  分角線法  難題解決  牙科放射線影像攝影臨床指引 根尖片 咬翼片 咬合片

4 全 口 X 光 片 左 邊左 邊 小 臼 齒 右 邊右 邊 大 臼 齒大 臼 齒 大 臼 齒大 臼 齒 咬 翼 片 上 顎上 顎 下 顎下 顎 門 齒 犬 齒 犬 齒 犬 齒 犬 齒 犬 齒 犬 齒 犬 齒 犬 齒 小 臼 齒 小 臼 齒 大 臼 齒 大 臼 齒 大 臼 齒大 臼 齒

5 後 牙 橫 放橫 放 橫 放橫 放 左上、右下 象限右上、左下 象限 前 牙 直 放直 放 upper 前 牙 直 放直 放 lower 平 行 法

6 Positioning 上 顎 門 齒上 顎 門 齒 Anterior Posterior Metal supporting indicator rod White locator ring Bite block Patient positioning 上 顎 門 齒上 顎 門 齒 平 行 法

7 上 顎 犬 齒上 顎 犬 齒 Positioning Anterior Posterior Metal supporting indicator rod White locator ring Bite block Patient positioning 上 顎 犬 齒上 顎 犬 齒 平 行 法

8 Positioning 上 顎 小 臼 齒上 顎 小 臼 齒 Anterior Posterior Metal supporting indicator rod White locator ring Bite block Patient positioning 上 顎 小 臼 齒上 顎 小 臼 齒 平 行 法

9 上 顎 大 臼 齒上 顎 大 臼 齒 Positioning Anterior Posterior Metal supporting indicator rod White locator ring Bite block Patient positioning 上 顎 大 臼 齒上 顎 大 臼 齒 平 行 法

10 Anterior Posterior Metal supporting indicator rod White locator ring Bite block 下 顎 門 齒下 顎 門 齒 Patient positioning 下 顎 門 齒下 顎 門 齒 平 行 法

11 下 顎 犬 齒下 顎 犬 齒 Positioning Anterior Posterior Metal supporting indicator rod White locator ring Bite block Patient positioning 下 顎 犬 齒下 顎 犬 齒 平 行 法

12 下 顎 小 臼 齒下 顎 小 臼 齒 Positioning Anterior Posterior Metal supporting indicator rod White locator ring Bite block Patient positioning 下 顎 小 臼 齒下 顎 小 臼 齒 平 行 法

13 Positioning 下 顎 大 臼 齒下 顎 大 臼 齒 Anterior Posterior Metal supporting indicator rod White locator ring Bite block Patient positioning 下 顎 大 臼 齒下 顎 大 臼 齒 平 行 法

14 正確 錯誤 平 行 法

15 分 角 線 法 Alveolar bone level is not accurate Vertical angulation too small 原 理

16 前 牙 2 - 3mm beyond the incisal edge Long axis of the film packet vertical Long axis of the film packet horizontal 後 牙 2 - 3mm beyond the occlusal edge 水 平 角 下 顎 上 顎上 顎 正 確 入 射 路 徑正 確 入 射 路 徑 正確 原 理 原 理 錯誤 分 角 線 法

17 後 牙後 牙 前 牙前 牙 Bite fork 鱷 魚 夾鱷 魚 夾 分 角 線 法

18 上 顎 犬 齒 Vertical angle 上 顎 門 齒 Vertical angle Patient positioning 分 角 線 法

19 Patient positioning 上 顎 小 臼 齒 上 顎 大 臼 齒 分 角 線 法

20 Patient positioning 下 顎 犬 齒 下 顎 門 齒

21 Patient positioning 分 角 線 法 下 顎 小 臼 齒 下 顎 大 臼 齒

22  下顎第三大臼齒  嘔 吐 感  根管治療  無牙區域  小孩子  殘障病患 難 題 解 決

23 1. The dentist–patient relationship is a crucial factor that has an influence on the viability of the average dental practice 2. Dental students should be educated about the importance of developing and mastering sound communication skills with patients. Importance of patients communication for dentists

24 3. Little emphasis was placed on the development of sound communication skills because dental students’ cognitive and clinical development have always been emphasized 4. It has been noted that the ability to communicate skillfully and with purpose rarely occurs as a gift, but is learned, the reality is that the term ‘communication skills’ is perceived as an intrinsic part of an individual’s personality, his/her cognitive functioning and social experience Importance of patients communication for dentists

25 A. Opening the interview (creates safe environment) : 1. Greets patient 2. Obtains patient’s name 3. Introduces self 4. Attends to patient’s physical comfort (here and throughout interview) 5. Identifies and confirms patient’s chief complaint Steps for patients communication for dentists

26 B. Gathering information: structuring the interview (explains interview process): 1. Negotiates an agenda for consultation 2. Attends to timing Steps for patients communication for dentists

27 C. Gathering information: exploration of problems (determines chief complaint) : 1. Encourages patient to give history of chief complaint 2. Uses open questioning technique(s) 3. Uses closed questioning technique(s) 4. Listens attentively (no interruptions; allow time for patient to think before answering) Steps for patients communication for dentists

28 5. Facilitates patient’s responses (use of encouragement, silence, repetition, paraphrasing, interpretation) 6. Clarifies patient’s statements which are vague and need amplification 7. Summarizes at end of a specific line of inquiry to verify own interpretation of what patient has said to ensure no important data was omitted Steps for patients communication for dentists

29 D. Understanding the patient’s perspective (determines expectations, psychosocial issues & emotions) : 1. Determines patient’s expectations regarding each problem 2. Picks up verbal cues (patient’s need to contribute information/ask questions; information overload; distress) 3. Encourages expressions of feelings 4. Encourages patient to contribute ideas/ suggestions/preferences/beliefs 5. Accepts legitimacy of patient’s views/beliefs (non- judgmental) Steps for patients communication for dentists

30 E. Sharing information (presents treatment plan) : 1. Discusses treatment options 2. Discusses consequences of not proceeding with treatment plan (in non-threatening manner) 3. Provides information about procedures, processes, benefits & advantages, value & purpose 4. Uses easily understood language (avoids or adequately explains technical terminology) 5. Shares own thoughts & ideas Steps for patients communication for dentists

31 F. Reaching an agreement on treatment plan(s) (treatment plan acceptance) : 1. Obtains patient’s view of need for action (perceived benefits) 2. Negotiates mutually acceptable treatment plan (encourages patient to make choices; address concerns) Steps for patients communication for dentists

32 3. Elicits patient’s understanding about treatment plan(s) 4. Takes patient’s lifestyle, beliefs, cultural background and abilities into consideration 5. Encourages patient to be involved in implement- ing treatment plan (to take responsibility and be self-reliant) 6. Asks about patient’s support network for decision-making Steps for patients communication for dentists

33 G. Closing the interview : 1. Summarizes session briefly 2. Contracts with patient regarding next step(s) for patient and dentist 3. Explains possible unexpected outcomes and safety-nets appropriately Steps for patients communication for dentists

34 H. Nurturing the relationship (employs relationship building blocks) : 1. Demonstrates interest 2. Demonstrates respect 3. Communicates warmth 4. Demonstrates appropriate non-verbal behavior (for example eye contact, posture & position, movement, facial expression, use of voice) 5. Reading, writing, use of computer do not interfere with dialogue/rapport 6. Shows empathy with patient 7. Deals sensitively with embarrassing & disturbing topics Steps for patients communication for dentists

35 當病患現有懷孕時: A. 在放射線照射前,應告知她的法律權益 B. 應警告她有流產的可能性 C. 應告知她絕不可拍攝牙科 X 光片 D. 視情況在適當的防護下可拍攝牙科 X 光片 ( 上列何者最正確 ) Steps for patients communication for dentists

36 1. The culture of dentistry places a high premium on technology. Dental schools should ensure a balanced approach in their training of dentists to ensure that the focus on technology is not at the expense of the dentist–patient relationship Summaries

37 2. Since dental care occurs in the context of relationships amongst patients and dentists, dental schools should complement students’ cognitive and clinical development by teaching the human dimensions of dental care by means of the development and implementation of courses in communication skills Summaries

38 3. Standardized patient (SP): a professional actress was trained as SP to portray the case study (clinical scenario) in a consistent, reproducible and measurable manner ) 4. To assist the SP in understanding the nature of the dental scenario and its presenting signs and symptoms, written case notes were prepared for the SP to review Summaries

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