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FUNDAMENTALS OF AIR QUALITY. DEPOSITION LAYERS Sahara Dust Storm NASA Astronaut Photo.

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Presentation on theme: "FUNDAMENTALS OF AIR QUALITY. DEPOSITION LAYERS Sahara Dust Storm NASA Astronaut Photo."— Presentation transcript:

1 FUNDAMENTALS OF AIR QUALITY

2 DEPOSITION LAYERS

3 Sahara Dust Storm NASA Astronaut Photo

4 Sahara Dust Cloud

5 Sahara Dust Transport to North America, July In July (1998) elevated levels of absorbing aerosol (Sahara Dust) reaches the Gulf of Mexico and evidently, enters the continent. High TOMS dust levels are seen along the US-Mexican borders, reaching New Mexico. Higher levels also cover the Caribbean Islands and S. Florida. Another patch of absorbing aerosol (local dust?) is seen over the Colorado Plateau, well separated from the Sahara dust. Sahara Dust Plume

6 SeaWiFS, TOMS, Bext May 16, 1998

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9 Easterly View of Grand Canyon from Desert View Watch Tower

10 Westerly View from Desert View Watch Tower

11 Clouds Evaporate Leaving Sulfate Haze

12 Clouds Evaporated Leaving Sulfate Haze

13 Next Day After Haze is Blown Out

14 “…conserve [natural and cultural resources]…as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations.” (NPS Organic Act) “Wilderness areas…shall be administered…in such a manner as will leave them unimpaired for future use and enjoyment as wilderness…” (Wilderness Act of 1964) “…preserve, protect and enhance the air quality in national parks, national wilderness areas, national monuments, national seashores…” (Clean Air Act as amended in 1977) “In cases of doubt the land manager should err on the side of protecting the air quality-related values for future generations.” (Senate Report No , 95th Congress, 1977) Preserve and Protect [Rocky Mountain NP should be managed for] “…preservation of the natural conditions and the scenic beauties thereof.” (1915 park enabling legislation)

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18 Nitrogen Ozone Water Carbon Dioxide Some Important Molecules

19 Ammonia Ammonium Sulfur Dioxide Sulfate Nitrogen Dioxide Nitrate PRIMARY SECONDARY

20 Sulfur Dioxide Sulfate Ammonia Ammonium Ammonium Sulfate Particle + Water

21 Dicarboxylic Acid (Adipic acid) PentaneMethane Organic Molecules

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23 DOESN’T TAKE MUCH TO MESS WITH THIS MOLECULE

24 AGENT ORANGE DDT Dieldrin

25 oxon · Paraoxon · TCPy Metabolites acetamiprid · amitraz · azadirachtin · chlorfenapyr · clothianidin · cyromazine · fenoxycarb · fenvalerate · fipronil · hydramethylnon · imidacloprid · limonene · lufenuron · nitenpyram · nithiazine · pyriproxyfen · sesamex · spinosad · tebufenpyrad · thiacloprid · thiamethoxam · veracevine · xanthone Other allethrin · bifenthrin · cyhalothrin · cypermethrin · cyfluthrin · deltamethrin · etofenprox · lambda-cyhalothrin · permethrin · phenothrin · prallethrin · pyrethrin · pyrethrum · resmethrin · tetramethrin · tralomethrin · transfluthrin Pyrethroids Acephate · azinphos-methyl · bensulide · chlorethoxyfos · chlorfenvinphos · chlorpyrifos · chlorpyrifos-methyl · coumaphos · demeton-S-methyl · diazinon · dicrotophos · diisopropyl fluorophosphate · dimethoate · dioxathion · disulfoton · ethion · ethoprop · fenamiphos · fenitrothion · fenthion · fosthiazate · isoxathion · malathion · methamidophos · methidathion · mevinphos · monocrotophos · naled · omethoate · oxydemeton-methyl · parathion · parathion-methyl · phorate · phosalone · phosmet · phostebupirim · phoxim · pirimiphos-methyl · temefos · terbufos · tetrachlorvinphos · tribufos · trichlorfon Organophosphorus aldrin · beta-HCH · carbon tetrachloride · chlordane · cyclodiene · 1,2-DCB · 1,4-DCB · 1,1-DCE · 1,2-DCE · DDD · DDE · DDT · dicofol · dieldrin · endosulfan · endrin · heptachlor · kepone · lindane · methoxychlor · mirex · tetradifon · toxaphene Organochlorides aluminium phosphide · boric acid · chromated copper arsenate · copper arsenate · copper cyanide · diatomaceous earth · lead hydrogen arsenate · Paris Green · Scheele's Green Inorganic compounds aldicarb · bendiocarb · carbaryl · carbofuran · ethienocarb · fenoxycarb · fenobucarb · propoxur Carbamates TOXICS

26 Sources

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28 CompoundAnthropogenicNaturally Occurring SO 2 Fossil-Fuel Combustion (primarily coal fired power plants) Smelting – Biomass burning Volcanoes (10%) NO x Fossil-Fuel Combustion (power plants- mobile sources-oil and gas) Fertilizer, Biomass burning Soil Release Lightning (21%) NH 3 Feedlots - FertilizerWild animals – ecosystem respiration VOCTransportation (mobile sources) Oil and Gas Vegetation Sources of Primary Gases Important to Secondary Particle Formation

29 Sources of Primary Particles Anthropogenic Wind Blown Dust Roads, Over Grazing, Farming practices, Mining Biomass Burning Land Clearing Practices Emissions from fossil fuel combustion Fly Ash Condensation of Hot Vapors Naturally Occurring Wind Blown Dust Deserts Volcanoes Fires Plant Particles (pollen) Sea Salt Spray (NaCl)

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32 END!

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