Presentation on theme: "BEFORE THE FIRST GLOBAL AGE Chapter 2. The Olmecs The Olmecs were the earliest known civilization in the Americas. The Olmecs lived along the Gulf of."— Presentation transcript:
BEFORE THE FIRST GLOBAL AGE Chapter 2
The Olmecs The Olmecs were the earliest known civilization in the Americas. The Olmecs lived along the Gulf of Mexico about 3,500 years ago. The Olmecs supplied nearby cities with food. The Olmecs carved huge stone heads but left few written records.
The Mayans The Mayas were influenced by the Olmecs. Mayan priests held great power and performed harvest and military ceremonies on top of huge stone pyramids. Mayan priests made advancements in astronomy and created an accurate 365 day calendar. For unknown reasons, Mayans abandoned their cities around the year A.D. 900.
The Aztecs Early Aztecs were nomads who searched for food. Tenochtitlán, the capital, was built on an island in Lake Texcoco. The Aztecs thought the sun was a warrior and tried to appease it with human sacrifices. The Aztec empire stretched from the Gulf of Mexico to the Pacific Ocean by 1500.
The Incas The Incan empire stretched 2,500 miles and was on the west coast of South America. Cuzco was a holy city located high in the Andes Mountains. The empire was made up of about 10 million people. The Incas had a network of roads that covered over 10,000 miles. The Incas were skilled engineers who created terraces on the mountainsides.
North American Cultures Hohokams lived in present day southern Arizona about 2,000 years ago. The Anasazis built houses using stone and adobe. The Anasazis later built houses along steep cliffs to better protect themselves. Mound Builders lived in eastern North America beginning about 3,000 years ago. They used the mounds for burials and for religious ceremonies.
The Far North The Inuits Collected driftwood for tools and shelter Lived in pit houses Women made warm clothing out of fur and waterproof boots from sealskins
The Plateau Region The Utes and the Shoshones Ate pine nuts and roots and hunted mountain sheep and rabbits Had few possessions
The Northwest Region People had more resources, so they could stay in one place Built permanent villages and traded with other groups Families held potlatches to show wealth and status
The Southeast Region The Natchez Hunted, fished, and farmed along the Gulf of Mexico Used a 13 month calendar with months such as: Strawberry, Mulberry, Deer, and Bear Marriage laws ensured class changes
Iroquois Confederacy Lived in long houses Women held family and political power Included five nations Sachems met once a year to make decisions for the League.
Trade and Religion How was trade linked to the spread of Islam? As people traded goods, they traded ideas and spread the religion.
Trade and Religion What were the two major trade routes used by Muslim traders? Across land by the Silk Road Across the Indian Ocean
Trade and Life How did trade help city- states develop? The concentration of wealth made it necessary to develop some form of government.
Trade and Life Where did most people in Africa live? Most people lived in small villages.
Family What importance did extended families and kinship have in small African villages? Families in small villages were dependent upon one another for survival.
Chinese Trade Which statement best describes Chinese trade in the 1400s? a) Eventually a Chinese fleet crossed the Pacific and rounded the tip of South America. b) In the early 1400s, a large Chinese fleet traded in many foreign ports; then, after thirty years, it suddenly stopped. c) In the 1400s, the Chinese built a new fleet patterned after the many Chinese fleets before it. d) The Chinese established several trading cities on the west coast of Africa.
European Traditions Jewish Traditions Christian Traditions Greek Traditions Roman Traditions
Tradition and Change Jewish Traditions Jewish Traditions Followed the Ten Commandments No one was above God’s law Everyone had to obey religious laws
Tradition and Change Christian Traditions Christian Traditions All could achieve salvation-All were equal Persecuted Christians spread out and carried the ideas of equality with them
Tradition and Change Greek Traditions Greek Traditions Created direct democracy All citizens could attend assemblies and make laws All people were not citizens- only free men whose parents had been born in Athens were citizens
Tradition and Change Roman Traditions Roman Traditions Absorbed Greek traditions Created a Republic Everyone was equal under the law Republic fell apart
Tradition and Change Which of the following traditions did NOT influence the development of European society? A. Christianity B. The Roman republic C. Judaism D. Chinese trading fleets
Tradition and Change Early Greek thinkers said that A. it was a sacred duty to obey God’s laws. B. God had given Jesus the Ten Commandments C. all people, rich or poor, could achieve salvation D. all people were equal before the law
Tweeting the evolved during the Middle Ages with kings at the top, nobles next, and peasants last.
Tweeting the Middle Life in the Life in the MA- Roman Catholic Church was powerful, peasants grew more food, and warfare declined.
Tweeting the Middle Crusades-Wars for control of the Holy Land led to an increase in trade between Europe and the Muslim world.
Tweeting Knowledge-An increase in knowledge led to new tools and an increased desire for wealth through trade.
Tweeting Voyages of Voyages of Trade- Portugal built new ships and led the way searching for new trade routes to Asia.