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Chapter 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 1

2 Section 1: The Earliest Americans
I can understand how early civilizations developed in the Americas.

3 Page 6-9 Bullet Points Page 29 I can understand how early civilizations developed in the Americas. Most scientists believe that early people came to the Americas from Asia by way of a land bridge. As people learned to farm, they formed permanent settlements, The Mayas, Aztecs, and Incas built civilizations in Central America and South America. ________________________ _________________________ _______________________ ________________________ _________________________ _______________________

4 The First Americans Many ideas (theories) about how people came to the Americas

5 Land-Bridge Theory Glaciers(thick sheets of ice) cover world
Bridge of land connected Siberia to Alaska 20-30 thousand years ago hunters go over bridge called the Bering Strait to follow their prey



8 http://www. scientificamerican. com/article. cfm

9 Other Theories Coastal-route theory: people traveled by boat down the Pacific coast Native Americans dispute both theories Each tribe has their own theory


11 Learning to Farm Hunting was key to survival Animals disappear
Had to change the way they lived Became gatherers Nomadic- don’t live in one place

12 Don’t search for water Irrigation (method to water crops by channeling water from rivers or streams) Raise animals Produce surplus (extra) Cities develop

13 Three Civilizations Civilization (an advanced culture in which people have developed cities, science and industries) Mayas Aztecs Incas


15 Mayas Mexico and Central America Large cities
Developed the arts, a government and a written language Mayan Calendar Decline is a mystery





20 Aztecs Mexico City area Tenochtitlan-capital city Religion important
Practiced human sacrifice Their army takes over more than ½ of Mexico Harsh rulers



23 Incas Largest empire not in Europe or Asia South America
Cuzco-capital city Road system Builders, weavers and metalworkers


25 Section 2: Cultures of North America
I can understand how geography influenced the cultures in North America.

26 The mound builders were among the earliest cultures in North America
Page 10-15 I can understand how geography influenced the development of cultures in North America. Bullet Points Page 29 People of North America developed varied ways of life, depending upon the environment in which they lived The mound builders were among the earliest cultures in North America The league of the Iroquois created a pact between warring nations in the Eastern Woodlands ________________________ _________________________ _______________________ ________________________ _________________________ _______________________

27 First Cultures of North America
Culture (ways of life) Mississippians built first cities in North America; mound builders Anasazi built cliff dwellings Hohokam, highly skilled farmers



30 Ways of Life Culture areas (regions in which groups of people have a similar way of life)

31 Meeting Basic Needs Women=gatherers Men=hunters All were farmers
Farming areas had larger populations Trade among tribes was common Seashells and beads=money

32 Shared Beliefs Spirits in nature and a part of their everyday lives
Storytellers-passed on history to others

33 Native Americans of North America
Far North Harsh land Hunted from kayaks (small boats made from skins) Didn’t farm- too cold Northwest Permanent settlements Lots of food Didn’t farm Potlatch (ceremony at which the hosts showered their guests with gifts)

34 Different types of housing Southwest Dry weather(most of the year)
Far West Changing weather Lots of food Different types of housing Pit houses Cone shaped houses Southwest Dry weather(most of the year) Little farming Apartment houses made of adobe (sun-dried brick)

35 Great Plains Big farmers in some areas Lived in earth lodges, tepees Hunting parties to follow the bison Eastern Woodlands Forests Hunters, fishers, and gatherers Algonquin Iroquois Clans (groups of families that were related to one another) Sachem (tribal chief)

36 Southeast Weather=mild Farmers Cherokees Creeks

37 Section 3 Trade Networks of Asia and Africa
I can understand how trade linked Europe, Africa, and Asia

38 Page 16-19 I can understand how trade linked Europe, Africa, and Asia. Bullet Points Page 29 The Muslim world linked Asia to Africa and Europe through trade Various trading states emerged in both East Africa and West Africa China dominated East Asian trade along the Silk Road ________________________ _________________________ _______________________ ________________________ _________________________ _______________________

39 The Muslim Link to Trade
Started trade routes Linked Europe, Africa and Asia

40 Rise of Islam Trade helped religion grow and spread
Muhammad (prophet and founder of Islam) Taught one true God Quran- sacred book of Islam

41 Advances in Learning Contributions to math, medicine and astronomy
Developed algebra Developed technology

42 East African Trade Centers
Zimbabwe connected east coast trading with the center of Africa Taxed traders Kilwa (trading center) in East Africa

43 West African Trade Centers
Ghana (trading center) in West Africa Traded a lot of gold and salt $$$ Mali-new empire, becomes center of learning

44 The East Asian Link in Trade
China unified Linked by highways, canals and postal system Trade centers grew into cities in China

45 World Traders Chinese had higher level of technology
Invented printing with movable type Navigators- Navigation (the science of locating the position and plotting the course of ships) Invented the magnetic compass

46 Spice Trade and the Silk Road
Silk Road= great trade route of the ancient times Series of roads Brought trade in from the Middle East and Europe




50 Section 4 The European Heritage
I can understand the major influences that shaped European civilization.

51 Page 22-27 I can understand the major influences that shaped European civilization. Bullet Points Page 29 Judaism and Christianity formed the foundation for religious beliefs. Greece and Rome shaped ideas about democratic government After the Middle Ages, Europeans began to look beyond their boundaries ________________________ _________________________ _______________________ ________________________ _________________________ _______________________

52 Judaism Monotheistic (believes in only one God)
Started by the Israelites Everyone must obey God’s laws, no matter what or who you are

53 Christianity Jesus (Jewish teacher, seen as a savior chosen by God)
Christianity is the belief that Jesus was sent by God to save the world Beliefs: love, mercy, forgiveness, and salvation (everlasting life) Threat to the Romans at first

54 Athenian Democracy Athens= direct democracy (form of government in which an assembly of ordinary citizens makes decisions Adult males could participate Depended on well educated citizens

55 Roman Government and Law
Republic (form of government in which people choose representatives to govern them) Elected a senate and assembly to make laws Laws said that everyone was equal under the law Innocent until proven guilty

56 The Middle Ages Feudalism (system in which a ruler grants parts of his land to lords) Lords then give military service and $$ to ruler if needed Catholic Church popular and center of learning

57 The Crusades Holy wars Catholic pope wanted the Holy Land back

58 The Renaissance Rebirth of learning Science and invention grew
Gutenberg invented the printing press Trade routes switch to the Atlantic Ocean

59 The Reformation Martin Luther (German monk who wanted to reform the Catholic Church) Started a movement away from the Catholic Church Protestant churches emerge


61 An Age of Exploration Begins
Henry the Navigator (led the new era of exploration) Wanted to spread Christianity and Portuguese power Center of exploration at Sagres Vasco da Gama (Portuguese sailor) Made a trade route around the tip of Africa


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