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Population and the Environment

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1 Population and the Environment
Chapter 21 Gene DeMaio

2 Demography – The Study of Population
Is studied extensively by scientists in many different types of fields Biologists study factors that effect fertility Medical scientist analyze causes of death Sociologists study factors that effect population trends Social Norms and values that effect mortality and fertility such as Fertility (level of reproduction) – laws, religious and moral values Mortality (level of death) – nutrition, health care, living conditions Demographers observe components of a population (size, density, distribution, stratification) to try to predict and understand reasons for change in a population

3 Studying the Population today
Main way of gathering info about the population is a Census, required by the U.S. every 10 years Census is a counting of a population Censuses are aided by vital statistics, records of births, deaths, marriages, & divorces Populations in developing nations Leading Cause of death among children in developing nations is Malnutrition 18% of children in these nations die before age five (11x the percentage in developed nations) Controlling the population of these nations may be linked to reducing hunger

4 Thomas Malthus Believed that the world population was growing faster than the food supply. The gap between the food supply and the population would continue to grow until thee was nowhere near enough food to feed the population. Supported controlling population growth, but denounced Birth control. Went against the church Instead he said to postpone the age people marry and limit the number of children that are born

5 Karl Marx Disagreed with Malthus
? Karl Marx Disagreed with Malthus In an ideal society an increase in population would lead to greater wealth due to an increased work force. Capitalism did not operate under these conditions, they used financial resources on building skyscrapers and roads rather than for housing and equal distribution of food He did believe that communism would operate under these conditions

6 Demographic Transition
A rapid decline in deathrates followed by a dramatic increase in population. A natural part in the development of nations. Occurs in three phases: Pre-Transition – High birthrates, High deathrates, Little population growth Transition – Deathrates decrease sharply, birthrates stay high, significant population growth Post-Transition – Birthrates decrease, Deathrates stay low, little population growth. Drop in deathrates can be caused by improvements in Healthcare and living conditions

7 Population Explosion A rapid increase in the world population
The world population has grown nearly 7x more in the past 200 years than it had in all of previous history of the earth Could lead to side effects predicted by Malthus Counties have supported birth control and family planning China enforces a strict one child per family law. This leads to a decrease in population

8 Population Pyramid, Momentum of Population Growth

9 Baby Boom After WWII, Birthrates began to dramatically increase.
Death rates decreased after the war Soldiers had been separated from there wives for very long, post war economy encouraged purchasing homes and having children. Fertility rate eventually declined Demographic Transition Lead to momentum for further growth

10 Zero Population Growth (ZPG)
After the Baby boom fertility rates drastically decreased Although birthrates are still greater than deathrates in the US, sociologists have predicted a possible state of ZPG The # of deaths = the # of births and the # of immigrants = the # of emigrants ?

11 Possible economic affects
Greater proportion of elderly (75+) Greater demand for Health care and Social Service Low fertility rates would lead to women spending fewer years raising children and could increase the proportion of married women in the workforce Leads to an increased work force and a more stable economy

12 Migration 2 types of Migration, Internal and International.
International – from country to country Could be caused by a poor economy in the home country as well as a strong one in the new one. Ex. Potato famine in Ireland Wars/Political problems in the homeland. Ex. End of Communism lead to a migration from former USSR to western Europe. Is limited by the government, Internal Migration – within a country Can be caused by greater job opportunities in a new state. Industrialization led to migration to cities Climate – since the 70’s a significant amount of the population has moved from the “Snow Belt” (New England, NY, Ohio, Chicago ect.) to the “Sun Belt” (NC, Florida, Arizona ect.) Is not at all controlled by gov’t

13 Human Ecology Interrelationships between people and their environment
Natural environment serves three basic functions for humans: Provides the resources essential for life Serves as a waste repository Houses our species

14 Conflict View of the Environment
Less developed nations are being forced by powerful industries to exploit their natural resources such as fisheries, mineral and fuel deposits and forests to meet debt obligations.

15 Environmental Justice
Belief that racial minorities and members of low income neighborhoods are subjected to disproportionate environmental hazards Harlem, NY is subjected more air pollution Factories dump wastes into the Mississippi. This affects the cities along the Mississippi such as New Orleans.

16 Environmental Problems
Air Pollution Caused by car emissions and smog in the air Can cause breathing problems such as asthma as well as vision problems an estimated 700,000 deaths per year could be prevented if air pollutants were cut down Water Pollution Caused by dumping wastes into bodies of water as well as oil spills Nearly 1.1 Billion people lack clean drinking water

17 Global warming Natural greenhouse gasses such as CO2 are turning the worlds atmosphere into a greenhouse. Results in polar ice caps, fiercer storms, deserts expanding, and devastating droughts. Governments continue to place addressing GW low on their agenda Kyoto Protocol 169 countries agreed to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gasses. US, produces ¼ of the earths CO2 did not. Is caused by industrial nations, Affects developing nations, they are more likely to have economies based on limited resources.

18 Globalization Polluting companies may relocate to countries with less stringent environmental standards Industrialization that often accompanies globalization has increased pollution Multinational Corporations have incentive to consider cost of natural resources Wasting resources would make little sense

19 How do you think ZPG would affect the US/ world?
????? How do you think ZPG would affect the US/ world?

20 ????? Do You think that an increasing the population would help or harm America/ The World?

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