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Paul B. Ellis AP Comparative Government Period 3

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1 Paul B. Ellis AP Comparative Government Period 3
Political and Economic Change in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Paul B. Ellis AP Comparative Government Period 3

2 Themes of UK political and economic change
Consult subjects before imposing policy Ex: William the Conqueror’s tax agreement after Battle of Hastings Noblesse oblige—responsibility of wealthy to provide welfare to the poor Change happens through evolution, not revolution* Ex: Establishment of the houses of parliament 20th century change occurs mostly through change in leadership Cosmopolitan nationalism Ex: Unification of UK nations; incorporation of people from Empire into culture Balance between national pride and distinct cultural identities The bayeux tapestry *usually

3 Early events of political change
Magna Carta Barons forced King John to sign charter outlining their freedoms John ended up not honoring the charter and tried to suppress the barons The English Civil War Turmoil in the British Isles allowed new forms of Christianity Temporary republic instead of monarchy; established need for parliamentary consent for monarch to rule The Glorious Revolution Conflict over Christianity limited Catholics’ freedoms After monarchy’s reinstatement, James II deposed by William of Orange (Dutch) Bank of England established (1694) Signing of the Magna Carta

4 Legislation of the 1700s Takeaways: Whigs Taxes Wars Treaties
Acts of Union (1707) England + Scotland Jewish Naturalization Act (1753) Allowed Jews to be naturalized by application to Parliament Intolerable Acts (Stamp, Townshend, Tea) Source of revenue from American colonies Declaratory Act (1766) Maintained Parliament’s right to subject colonies to laws Constitutional Act (1791) Reformed Canada’s government First income tax (1798) Stamp to be affixed to goods Takeaways: Whigs Taxes Wars Treaties

5 Legislation of the early 1800s
Act of Union (1800) England + Ireland Slave Trade Act (1807) Abolished slave trade, but not slavery Return to the gold standard (1819) Followed silver, gold shortages of late 1700s Roman Catholic Relief Act (1829) Allowed Catholics to serve in Parliament—key in Catholic Emancipation Great Reform Act (1832) and Municipal Corporations Act (1835) Reformed UK electoral system by standardizing districts, increasing male suffrage Slavery Abolition Act (1833) Slavery illegal to practice within the British Empire Dublin, Ireland in 1908 with Union Jack flags flying as part of UK (GB + Ireland) Takeaways: Emancipation Electoral reform Partial male suffrage

6 Legislation of the Industrial Revolution
Corn Laws ( ) Taxed imported food to increase local profits, landowning power Mines and Collieries Act (1842) Prohibited women, young children from working in mines Railway Regulation Act (1844) Forced railroads to cheaply serve poor so they could find work Reform Act (1867) Enfranchised more working class males Trade Union Act (1871) Legalized trade unions in the UK Factory Acts (1800s-1900s) Series of legislation to cap working hours, improve conditions Takeaways: Working male suffrage Helping farmers (corn laws) Industry reforms Protecting workers

7 Gladstone and Disraeli
William Gladstone—Liberal ( , , 1886, ) Benjamin Disraeli—Conservative (1868, ) Appointed to a lower office Led opposition to Disraeli, tore apart his budget Once elected as anti-Anglican church in Ireland, reformed civil service, army, judiciary, and electoral systems More “ethical” in his foreign policy Passed over for appointment Attacked predecessor over corn laws Steps in to lead Conservatives, uses Liberal split over Reform Act to become PM More social reforms, foreign policy when reelected Better relationship with the queen

8 Modern UK Political Parties
Conservative PM David Cameron Liberal Dem Dep. PM Nick Clegg Tory and Whig parties of old lead to Conservative and Liberal parties Liberals split into Labour (unions) and Liberal Dems Coalitions rarely form Wars have forced cooperation Notable details: Unions are actually part of the Labour party unlike in the US While cabinet ministers are partisan, top civil service workers at each agency are not

9 Neville Chamberlain—Conservative
, Became PM when Stanley Baldwin retired Unemployment Act of 1934 Allowed people as young as 14 to be insured, established unemployment benefit agencies Factories Act (1937) Signed Munich Agreement in 1938 (appeased Hitler) “Peace for our time” Conceded Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia) to Germany Coal Act (1938) Nationalized coal resources Declared war on Germany (WWII)

10 Winston Churchill—Conservative
, 1945 Led Britain through WWII On the ground, charismatic wartime leader Series of meetings with FDR regarding international initiatives United Nations, NATO, Atlantic Charter, rebuilding Europe (esp. Germany) Remained politically active even after diselected Iron curtain speech Beveridge Report Expanded National Insurance, established National Health Service

11 Clement Attlee—Labour
Widespread nationalization of utilities and important industries Facilitated independence of colonies Included India, Ceylon, Burma British pull out of Palestine completely End of “mandate” there Supported Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan Backed U.S. in Soviet containment and European rebuilding Major policies include social and housing support programs

12 James Callaghan—Labour
Sought support for the pound Took out an IMF loan Started discussion of need for educational reform Laid foundation for “National Curriculum” years later Kept UK in the European Economic Community Limited pay raises to control inflation “Winter of Discontent” Sought to devolve powers to Scotland Referendum failed, leading to vote of no confidence Election brought Conservatives to power

13 Margaret Thatcher—Conservative
Extensive privatization of government industries Introduced “poll tax” to fund municipal governments Secured EU rebate to compensate for small British agriculture Attempted to impose immigration quotas Increased taxes in recession to reduce inflation, leading to high unemployment Cooperated with U.S. under Reagan on Cold War policy Eventually ousted as party leader due to extremely low poll ratings

14 John Major—Conservative
Continued the work of Thatcher She sought to be a “backseat driver” Conservative party embroiled in sex scandals Began Northern Ireland peace process with IRA His negotiations set the stage for the Good Friday Agreement Participated in the arms embargo of Bosnia to stifle conflict there An instance of contrast with the U.S. (Clinton administration) Unremarkable term and poor economic decisions led to Tony Blair’s New Labour winning the next election

15 Economic statistics High income—Member of the The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) GDP (in USD-2012): $2.435 trillion (8th highest) Total population (2012): 63.23 million (22nd highest) Life expectancy (2011): 81 years (27th highest) GNI per capita based on PPP (2012): $38,250 (21st highest) CO2 emissions (2009): 7.7 metric tons per capita (14th highest) Gini index (FY 2008/2009): 40 (60th highest disparity)

16 British Industries Industry Name Date Nationalized Date Privatized
Steel 1967 1951, 1988 Transportation 1939 (air), 1948 (rail, road, boat) 1983 (boat), 1987 (air), 1985 (rail), 1980s (road) Oil and gas 1943 (local gas), 1974 (50% government share) 1986 (gas) Coal 1938 1994

17 Comparison to the U.S. Change usually not as tumultuous
United kingdom United states Change usually not as tumultuous Change closely linked to colonization/expansion activities Politicians more willing to resign if public opinion turns against them or they botch the handling of a treaty Nationalization of industries done strategically (surrounding wars) Significant political changes are more tumultuous Expansions/unions largely static or nonexistent Politicians tend to hold on to power regardless of temporary opinion swings Nearly all industries are private (exceptions: rail, postal service)

18 Globalization Relationship with the U.S. Close allies on most issues
Tremendous trade (imports) Small size of UK means it needs goods from elsewhere British Empire  British Commonwealth Many nations now independent Queen still on various money Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher with U.S. President Ronald Reagan


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