The British Houses of Parliament The Westminster system of government
Roles of the British Parliament Form the government Examine and check the government Debate and pass laws
The Upper House: The House of Lords The Lower House: The House of Commons
The House of Lords In the 19 th century the House of Lords represented the aristocracy and the Church It is the Upper House
The House of Commons Members of Parliament (MPs) are elected to represent a region or district The party with the majority of MPs forms government It is the Lower House
T he House of Commons was the _________house. How were the members of the lower house chosen? Who are the aristocracy? Which house was controlled by the aristocracy and the church? What are the roles of the British Parliament? T he House of Commons was the _________house. How were the members of the lower house chosen? Who are the aristocracy? Which house was controlled by the aristocracy and the church? What are the roles of the British Parliament?
What does the Monarch do? The1689 Bill of Rights restricted the role of the King The King or Queen can only advise or warn the government Head of State – he/she represents Britain on important occasions
Law-making The Houses of Parliament are a legislature A bill (proposed law) must be passed by a majority vote in both Houses to become law Once the monarch signs this law, it becomes an Act of Parliament
Before 1831 Only male land and property owners Only 3% could vote No MP represented boom cities Birmingham or Manchester The Reform Act (1832) extended the vote (franchise) to 14%
More reform Faster industrialization Many had their own businesses After the 1832 Reform Bill was passed they became the Liberal Party Their supporters – urban middle class and mill owners
The Whigs, continued More power for Parliament Less power for the King Lower taxes More free trade Most wanted to extend the vote to the middle class “laissez faire” economics
Celebrity Whigs/Liberals Richard Cobden, manufacturer and radical peace activist William Gladstone PM 1868-74 “The Grand Old Man”
Supported the monarchy Strong links with the Church of England Loved tradition and life in the countryside Many had titles and lived on country estates Feared rapid change would lead to revolution After 1832 was called the Conservative Party
The Tory view of the French Revolution If you give too much power to the masses there will be chaos and horror
Tories and the Industrial Revolution Distrusted “new money” – businessmen Worried that big cities led to crime and sin Wanted to preserve the old class system But – one group of Radical Tories believed the aristocracy should help the poor “noblesse oblige” Christian ethics: “from those to whom much has been given, much will be required”
Michael Sadler: radical Tory “The parents rouse them in the morning and receive them tired and exhausted after the day has closed; they see them droop and sicken, and, in many cases, become cripples and die, before they reach their prime; and they do all this, because they must otherwise starve. It is a mockery to contend that these parents have a choice. They choose the lesser evil, and reluctantly resign their offspring to the captivity and pollution of the mill.” Speech to House of Commons 1832
Earl of Shaftesbury Supported Michael Sadler’s campaign for factory reform Supported Michael Sadler’s campaign for factory reform Factory Act 1833 Campaigned against child labour
Shaftesbury’s 1842 report into child labour in the coal mines
Radical Tory Benjamin Disraeli PM 1874-78 “Two nations between whom there is no intercourse and no sympathy; who are as ignorant of each other's habits, thoughts, and feelings, as if they were dwellers in different zones, or inhabitants of different planets. The rich and the poor. “ Disraeli’s novel “Sybil”
Queen Victoria loved him… He made her Empress of India!
Celebrity Tories William Wilberforce helped ban slavery Margaret Thatcher PM 1979-90
Famous Conservative PM Winston Spencer Churchill World War II PM 1940-45
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.