Presentation on theme: "Collaboration In Emergency Management"— Presentation transcript:
1Collaboration In Emergency Management A Principle of Emergency Management
2Session Learning Objectives Explain the meaning of “collaboration” in the EM context.Explain the unique importance of collaboration as a principle of EM.Describe the “hallmarks” of a truly collaborative approach to EM.Analyze and evaluate collaboration as shown in case studies.
3Collaboration: A bit about Definitions Difference between collaboration and coordinationCoordination: a process designed to ensure that functions, roles and responsibilities are identified and tasks accomplishedCollaboration: an attitude/organizational culture that defines the degree of unity and cooperation that existsI.e., collaboration ensures effective coordination
4“Sticky note exercise: Step 1: on a “sticky” note, write a two-word definition or synonym for “collaboration”.Step 2: post your note along with those of your classmates in front of the class.Step 3: as a class, group like responses together.Step 4: work together as a class to agree upon a single definition.
5Collaboration: Definition “ A recursive process where two or more people or organizations work together toward an intersection of common goals that is creative in nature – by sharing knowledge, learning and building consensus. “
6Nature of Collaboration Philosophy of planning and decision making based on:Strong emphasis on attitudes and personal interactionInformal, consensus building processIt’s more than just “working together”
7Nature of Collaboration (cont.) Does not require leadershipAchieves results through decentralization and egalitarianismEncourages introspection of behavior and communicationAims to increase success of teams in solving problems
8Nature of Collaboration (cont.) Philosophical departure from “top-down” command and control structureValues personal relationships, trust and team buildingBeing fostered by the “internet” culture of social networking and wide distribution of knowledge and opinions aided by technology
9Discussion QuestionsHow were our initial (sticky note) definition(s) similar to or different from the concepts just discussed? Why?How do you feel about the use of the term “decentralization” in the definition? Why might this be important in writing a disaster plan or dealing with an actual disaster?
10Discussion Questions (cont.) What do you think is meant by the term “egalitarian” and the statement that collaboration does not require “leadership”?How do you think these concepts might improve or detract from the planning and decision-informing process?
11The Importance of Collaboration Represents the most “human” aspect of successful EMImportance is magnified by the general lack of formal “authority” inherent in EMEM results are achieved through interpersonal and facilitation skills
12“EMs are normally frustrated because they are typically “type A” personalities with no authority!”
13“The job of the EM is to tell people things they don’t want to hear, spend money they don’t have, preparing for something they don’t believe will ever happen!”
14The Importance of Collaboration Plans must be based on consensus and “buy-in”Collaboration is built during the planning and preparedness phase of EMCan be seen in the difference between having a “plan” and engaging in “planning”
15“In preparing for battle, I have always found that plans are useless, but planning is indispensable” Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower
16Importance of Collaboration Enhances understanding and commitment to the plan rather than mere acceptanceCollaboration more important as size & complexity of the event increasesCollaboration is how conflicts and ambiguities are avoidedCollaboration is necessary in all phases of EM, not just preparedness and response
17“If we shake hands before a disaster, we won’t have to point fingers afterwards” “You don’t want to meet someone for the first time while you’re standing around in the rubble”
18Collaborating with Others Collaboration is essential when authority is shared and when resources and expertise are dispersed. Often no one agency has complete authority and, even if one did, attempting to exercise that authority without buy-in by the other stakeholders might result in minimal compliance or even noncompliance. Other stakeholders may well have resources and expertise that cannot be found in government agencies.
19Collaborating with Others The list of stakeholders can be extensive and those with critical resources can range from WalMart and Home Depot, large international companies, to small “mom and pop” stores. They can include civic organizations, like the Veterans of Foreign Wars (VFW), and faith-based organizations.
20Collaborating with Others Hundreds nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) may be created to address needs during a major disaster and there are already thousands of NGOs that have missions ranging from emergency sheltering and mass feeding to rescuing animals and protecting children
21Collaborating with Others There are also hundreds of stakeholders with missions related to disaster recovery and post-disaster redevelopment. For example, the American Red Cross provided case workers to assist evacuees before, during, and after Hurricane Katrina made landfall in Volunteer psychologists and psychiatrists provided counseling services to New York City residents suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related problems following 9/11.
22Collaborating with Others The private and nongovernmental stakeholders represent the nation’s surge capacity. They can provide expertise and resources that the government cannot provide and they are critical resources during catastrophic events.
23Discussion QuestionsWhy was collaboration described above as “touchy feely?”Why is trust an essential foundation for collaboration?What problems are likely to arise if a government agency attempts to manage a disaster without having developed long-term collaborative relationships with the major stakeholders who may be involved in the disaster response?
24Elements of Effective Collaboration Inclusion of all potential players in planning and preparednessConsistent contact necessary to make the system work in a disasterSincerity in efforts to listen to all players and incorporate their concerns and ideas
25Element of “Inclusion” Related to the basic POEM principle of “comprehensive” from Session 3EMs must define the “universe” of stakeholders as broadly as possibleEMs should look at those affected by as well as those who respond to disastersIssues of social and economic “inequity” are considered
26The Element of “Consistency” Required to maintain and sustain strong trust and team relationshipsMust take into account changes in personnel, policies and cultures of involved organization
27U.S. Forest Service Philosophy Relationships: mutual recognition and respectThe process must treat all participants fairly and consistentlyDecisions must be solutions that can be implemented, satisfy the interest of all, and can be corrected and modified in the future
28The Element of Sincerity Collaboration depend on the degree to which partners perceive there is a sincere desire to identify and value their ideas and concernsRequires a genuine commitment to working as a “team”“Lip service” or going through the motions doesn’t produce true collaboration
29Case Studies in Collaboration “The Battle of the Badges” – How culture and tradition can challenge collaboration“Building Partnerships Outside-In – How even non-traditional organizations can build collaborative EM processes“State College, PA” – How a community can build a culture of collaboration
30Case Study #1: Discussion To what degree do the deep-seated and traditional cultures of the two response groups complicate the process of effective collaboration?How compatible do you think Mayor Giuliani’s command directives were with “collaboration”?How effective is simply putting one agency “in charge”?
31Case Study #1: Discussion How effective is simply putting one agency “in charge”?In what ways are the White Plains and Charlotte-Mecklenburg approaches better or worse than those of NYC?How do you think the approach of Phoenix parallels what we have discussed in this session?
32Case Study #2: Discussion As compared to Case Study #1, how important a role do you think “turf” played in this case?How does the nature of the institution/ profession seem to affect the nature of the collaborative approach?How would you characterize the interaction of the museum group with the professional NYC – OEM personnel?
33Case Study # 3: Discussion How did each element of the planning process of State College, PA relate to the principles of collaboration discussed in this session?What conclusions can we draw about the concepts of leadership, equality, facilitation, sincerity, inclusion and continuous collaboration as seen in this case?