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Collaboration In Emergency Management A Principle of Emergency Management.

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1 Collaboration In Emergency Management A Principle of Emergency Management

2 Session Learning Objectives Explain the meaning of “collaboration” in the EM context. Explain the meaning of “collaboration” in the EM context. Explain the unique importance of collaboration as a principle of EM. Explain the unique importance of collaboration as a principle of EM. Describe the “hallmarks” of a truly collaborative approach to EM. Describe the “hallmarks” of a truly collaborative approach to EM. Analyze and evaluate collaboration as shown in case studies. Analyze and evaluate collaboration as shown in case studies.

3 Collaboration: A bit about Definitions Difference between collaboration and coordination Difference between collaboration and coordination Coordination: a process designed to ensure that functions, roles and responsibilities are identified and tasks accomplished Coordination: a process designed to ensure that functions, roles and responsibilities are identified and tasks accomplished Collaboration: an attitude/organizational culture that defines the degree of unity and cooperation that exists Collaboration: an attitude/organizational culture that defines the degree of unity and cooperation that exists I.e., collaboration ensures effective coordination I.e., collaboration ensures effective coordination

4 “Sticky note exercise: Step 1: on a “sticky” note, write a two-word definition or synonym for “collaboration”. Step 1: on a “sticky” note, write a two-word definition or synonym for “collaboration”. Step 2: post your note along with those of your classmates in front of the class. Step 2: post your note along with those of your classmates in front of the class. Step 3: as a class, group like responses together. Step 3: as a class, group like responses together. Step 4: work together as a class to agree upon a single definition. Step 4: work together as a class to agree upon a single definition.

5 Collaboration: Definition “ A recursive process where two or more people or organizations work together toward an intersection of common goals that is creative in nature – by sharing knowledge, learning and building consensus. “ “ A recursive process where two or more people or organizations work together toward an intersection of common goals that is creative in nature – by sharing knowledge, learning and building consensus. “

6 Nature of Collaboration Philosophy of planning and decision making based on: Philosophy of planning and decision making based on: Strong emphasis on attitudes and personal interaction Strong emphasis on attitudes and personal interaction Informal, consensus building process Informal, consensus building process It’s more than just “working together” It’s more than just “working together”

7 Nature of Collaboration (cont.) Does not require leadership Does not require leadership Achieves results through decentralization and egalitarianism Achieves results through decentralization and egalitarianism Encourages introspection of behavior and communication Encourages introspection of behavior and communication Aims to increase success of teams in solving problems Aims to increase success of teams in solving problems

8 Nature of Collaboration (cont.) Philosophical departure from “top-down” command and control structure Philosophical departure from “top-down” command and control structure Values personal relationships, trust and team building Values personal relationships, trust and team building Being fostered by the “internet” culture of social networking and wide distribution of knowledge and opinions aided by technology Being fostered by the “internet” culture of social networking and wide distribution of knowledge and opinions aided by technology

9 Discussion Questions How were our initial (sticky note) definition(s) similar to or different from the concepts just discussed? Why? How were our initial (sticky note) definition(s) similar to or different from the concepts just discussed? Why? How do you feel about the use of the term “decentralization” in the definition? Why might this be important in writing a disaster plan or dealing with an actual disaster? How do you feel about the use of the term “decentralization” in the definition? Why might this be important in writing a disaster plan or dealing with an actual disaster?

10 Discussion Questions (cont.) What do you think is meant by the term “egalitarian” and the statement that collaboration does not require “leadership”? What do you think is meant by the term “egalitarian” and the statement that collaboration does not require “leadership”? How do you think these concepts might improve or detract from the planning and decision-informing process? How do you think these concepts might improve or detract from the planning and decision-informing process?

11 The Importance of Collaboration Represents the most “human” aspect of successful EM Represents the most “human” aspect of successful EM Importance is magnified by the general lack of formal “authority” inherent in EM Importance is magnified by the general lack of formal “authority” inherent in EM EM results are achieved through interpersonal and facilitation skills EM results are achieved through interpersonal and facilitation skills

12 “EMs are normally frustrated because they are typically “type A” personalities with no authority!”

13 “The job of the EM is to tell people things they don’t want to hear, spend money they don’t have, preparing for something they don’t believe will ever happen!”

14 The Importance of Collaboration Plans must be based on consensus and “buy-in” Plans must be based on consensus and “buy-in” Collaboration is built during the planning and preparedness phase of EM Collaboration is built during the planning and preparedness phase of EM Can be seen in the difference between having a “plan” and engaging in “planning” Can be seen in the difference between having a “plan” and engaging in “planning”

15 “In preparing for battle, I have always found that plans are useless, but planning is indispensable” Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower

16 Importance of Collaboration Enhances understanding and commitment to the plan rather than mere acceptance Enhances understanding and commitment to the plan rather than mere acceptance Collaboration more important as size & complexity of the event increases Collaboration more important as size & complexity of the event increases Collaboration is how conflicts and ambiguities are avoided Collaboration is how conflicts and ambiguities are avoided Collaboration is necessary in all phases of EM, not just preparedness and response Collaboration is necessary in all phases of EM, not just preparedness and response

17 “If we shake hands before a disaster, we won’t have to point fingers afterwards” “You don’t want to meet someone for the first time while you’re standing around in the rubble”

18 Collaborating with Others Collaboration is essential when authority is shared and when resources and expertise are dispersed. Often no one agency has complete authority and, even if one did, attempting to exercise that authority without buy-in by the other stakeholders might result in minimal compliance or even noncompliance. Other stakeholders may well have resources and expertise that cannot be found in government agencies.

19 Collaborating with Others The list of stakeholders can be extensive and those with critical resources can range from WalMart and Home Depot, large international companies, to small “mom and pop” stores. They can include civic organizations, like the Veterans of Foreign Wars (VFW), and faith-based organizations.

20 Collaborating with Others Hundreds nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) may be created to address needs during a major disaster and there are already thousands of NGOs that have missions ranging from emergency sheltering and mass feeding to rescuing animals and protecting children

21 Collaborating with Others There are also hundreds of stakeholders with missions related to disaster recovery and post-disaster redevelopment. For example, the American Red Cross provided case workers to assist evacuees before, during, and after Hurricane Katrina made landfall in Volunteer psychologists and psychiatrists provided counseling services to New York City residents suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related problems following 9/11.

22 Collaborating with Others The private and nongovernmental stakeholders represent the nation’s surge capacity. They can provide expertise and resources that the government cannot provide and they are critical resources during catastrophic events.

23 Discussion Questions Why was collaboration described above as “touchy feely?” Why is trust an essential foundation for collaboration? What problems are likely to arise if a government agency attempts to manage a disaster without having developed long- term collaborative relationships with the major stakeholders who may be involved in the disaster response?

24 Elements of Effective Collaboration Inclusion of all potential players in planning and preparedness Inclusion of all potential players in planning and preparedness Consistent contact necessary to make the system work in a disaster Consistent contact necessary to make the system work in a disaster Sincerity in efforts to listen to all players and incorporate their concerns and ideas Sincerity in efforts to listen to all players and incorporate their concerns and ideas

25 Element of “Inclusion” Related to the basic POEM principle of “comprehensive” from Session 3 Related to the basic POEM principle of “comprehensive” from Session 3 EMs must define the “universe” of stakeholders as broadly as possible EMs must define the “universe” of stakeholders as broadly as possible EMs should look at those affected by as well as those who respond to disasters EMs should look at those affected by as well as those who respond to disasters Issues of social and economic “inequity” are considered Issues of social and economic “inequity” are considered

26 The Element of “Consistency” Required to maintain and sustain strong trust and team relationships Required to maintain and sustain strong trust and team relationships Must take into account changes in personnel, policies and cultures of involved organization Must take into account changes in personnel, policies and cultures of involved organization

27 U.S. Forest Service Philosophy Relationships: mutual recognition and respect Relationships: mutual recognition and respect The process must treat all participants fairly and consistently The process must treat all participants fairly and consistently Decisions must be solutions that can be implemented, satisfy the interest of all, and can be corrected and modified in the future Decisions must be solutions that can be implemented, satisfy the interest of all, and can be corrected and modified in the future

28 The Element of Sincerity Collaboration depend on the degree to which partners perceive there is a sincere desire to identify and value their ideas and concerns Collaboration depend on the degree to which partners perceive there is a sincere desire to identify and value their ideas and concerns Requires a genuine commitment to working as a “team” Requires a genuine commitment to working as a “team” “Lip service” or going through the motions doesn’t produce true collaboration “Lip service” or going through the motions doesn’t produce true collaboration

29 Case Studies in Collaboration “The Battle of the Badges” – How culture and tradition can challenge collaboration “The Battle of the Badges” – How culture and tradition can challenge collaboration “Building Partnerships Outside-In – How even non-traditional organizations can build collaborative EM processes “Building Partnerships Outside-In – How even non-traditional organizations can build collaborative EM processes “State College, PA” – How a community can build a culture of collaboration “State College, PA” – How a community can build a culture of collaboration

30 Case Study #1: Discussion To what degree do the deep-seated and traditional cultures of the two response groups complicate the process of effective collaboration? To what degree do the deep-seated and traditional cultures of the two response groups complicate the process of effective collaboration? How compatible do you think Mayor Giuliani’s command directives were with “collaboration”? How compatible do you think Mayor Giuliani’s command directives were with “collaboration”? How effective is simply putting one agency “in charge”? How effective is simply putting one agency “in charge”?

31 Case Study #1: Discussion How effective is simply putting one agency “in charge”? How effective is simply putting one agency “in charge”? In what ways are the White Plains and Charlotte-Mecklenburg approaches better or worse than those of NYC? In what ways are the White Plains and Charlotte-Mecklenburg approaches better or worse than those of NYC? How do you think the approach of Phoenix parallels what we have discussed in this session? How do you think the approach of Phoenix parallels what we have discussed in this session?

32 Case Study #2: Discussion As compared to Case Study #1, how important a role do you think “turf” played in this case? As compared to Case Study #1, how important a role do you think “turf” played in this case? How does the nature of the institution/ profession seem to affect the nature of the collaborative approach? How does the nature of the institution/ profession seem to affect the nature of the collaborative approach? How would you characterize the interaction of the museum group with the professional NYC – OEM personnel? How would you characterize the interaction of the museum group with the professional NYC – OEM personnel?

33 Case Study # 3: Discussion How did each element of the planning process of State College, PA relate to the principles of collaboration discussed in this session? How did each element of the planning process of State College, PA relate to the principles of collaboration discussed in this session? What conclusions can we draw about the concepts of leadership, equality, facilitation, sincerity, inclusion and continuous collaboration as seen in this case? What conclusions can we draw about the concepts of leadership, equality, facilitation, sincerity, inclusion and continuous collaboration as seen in this case?


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