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A New Approach for Community Development

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Presentation on theme: "A New Approach for Community Development"— Presentation transcript:

1 A New Approach for Community Development
The Case of Saemaul Undong in Korea JiHong Kim KDI School

2 More than one billion people live under One Dollar a Day
Poverty Issues in Asia The majority of world poor live in Asia 70% of them live in rural areas Development disparity between sectors, regions, gender. More than one billion people live under One Dollar a Day Rural Community Development is the Direct Measures for Poverty Alleviation in Rural Asia and for Cure of Disparity

3 Transformation of the Korean Economy (1945~2005)
A. Growth Trend Liberation from Japanese Colonial Rule 6 Five-Year-Economic- Development Plans Financial Crisis 2005P 1980 1962 1970 1995 5,000 10,000 67 87 11,432 7,355 1953 Per Capita (US$) GNI 1990 1945 16,291 OECD Member 100(1964) 1,000(1977) 1998 먼저 한국경제가 1945년 이후 2000년까지 55년간 걸어온 길을 간략히 말씀 드리겠습니다. 지난 50여년간 꾸준한 성장을 실현하여 1960년대 초 100달러 미만이었던 1인당 국민소득은 2000년에는 1만 달러 수준으로 증가하게 되었습니다. 해방과 한국전쟁 이후 극심한 가난에 직면에 있던 한국은 1962년부터 경제개발 5개년 계획에 주력하게 되었습니다. 1962년부터 1991년까지 6차에 걸친 경제개발 5개년 계획을 수립하고 추진하면서 한국경제는 근대경제의 틀을 마련하게 되었고 이를 토대로 그 후에도 지속적인 경제성장을 이룰 수 있었습니다. 그러나 1980년 국내외 여건 악화로 인한 경제침체와 1997년 겨울 외환금융 위기 등 어려움을 겪기도 하였습니다.

4 Changes in Employment Structure Changes in GDP Structure
B. Changes in Industrial Structure Changes in Employment Structure Changes in GDP Structure Service Sector Agriculture / Fisheries Service Sector Agriculture / Fisheries 1960 36.8 47.3 Manufacturing 15.9 Manufacturing 이러한 지속적인 경제성장의 결과, 국민경제는 농림  어업분야 중심에서 제조업과 건설  유통 등 서비스 중심의 산업구조로 변화되어 왔습니다. 1962년에는 국민의 63%가 농림어업에 종사하였으나 1999년에는 농림어업 종사자는 불과 11%에 불과하고 이제 대부분의 국민은 제조업 그리고 건설  유통  통신  금융 등의 서비스 분야에 종사하게 되었습니다. Agriculture / Fisheries Agriculture / Fisheries 2005 Manufacturing Manufacturing Service Sector Service Sector

5 Rural Communities in 1960s One of Least Developed Countries in the World GNP/Capita: US$ 87 in 1962 Poor Infrastructure Car accessible villages: 60% Electricity accessible villages: 20% Repeated natural disasters Low agricultural productivity Rural poverty ratio in 1967: 34% in absolute term. Rural Development was an urgent Issue for poverty alleviation and for reduction of income disparity (social instability).

6 Community Development Program in Korea
Introduced CD Program in 1958 Pilot Villages: 818 villages in 1960s Agricultural Production Infrastructure Development & Housing Education, Healthcare, Nutrition …etc. But, not put down roots successfully in Korea Introduced Saemaul Undong program in 1971

7 Saemaul Undong: New Village Movement
Derived from Community Operational Mechanism Village community is an autonomous body Village Community is a social organization Community leadership Various social organizations People identify problems & needs of community Solve problems in the way of self-help and cooperation

8 Initiation of Saemaul Undong: 1971
Distribute 350 bags of cements & ½ ton of steels to each rural village through out the country Ask to do with these materials what community people want for common purpose Induced motivation/development needs/ participation/mobilization/empowerment Government provided supporting measures :Training, financial & administrative support/technical support

9 SU Performance: 1972~1981 Total US$ 7,203.2 Million Invested
Government invested 51% Community people invested 49% - 64,686km of rural road were developed - 6,187km of rural road paved - 82,596 new bridges were built - 39,231 community halls were built - 258,000 houses were newly built - 3,047 villages were reconstructed International communities have questions “Why people participated in SU so enthusiastically?” ---Communication, Competition, Commitment

10 Saemaul Undong: New Village Movement A Definition:
A Rural Community Development Movement - Betterment of Living Conditions through Income, Infrastructure, Living Environment, and Community Building in the Ways of Self-help and Cooperation under the Government Sponsorship

11 Goals Immediate goals Ultimate goal
Improving living condition of individuals in the way of self-help and cooperation with community resources & outside support Ultimate goal Building a better and sound community by community people Building a strong nation

12 Spiritual Enlightenment
Dimensions Income Increase Self-help & Cooperation Improve Living Environments Infrastructure Building Spiritual Enlightenment & Social Interaction

13 Strategies Government Initiating Bottom-up Approach
Village Community as Development Unit Government Initiating Bottom-up Approach Integrated Approach Comprehensive Approach More Support for the Better Performance Two tier Change Agents

14 1. Village Community as Development Unit
Village as a Community (closed community) Social interaction & common ties Administrative unit Planning & Development unit Changing the Role of People :from consumers or clients to ‘co-producer’ of public services

15 2. Bottom-up Approach Bottom - Up Approach
(The Continuity of Development Process) (People’s Participation based on Community Autonomy) Village Community Felt Needs for Development Develop Projects By Village People Implementation The SU - Economic Affordability - People’s Empowerment Leadership Social Organizations Social Norms for Cooperation and Self-help

16 Government Initiating Bottom-up Approach
Top-Down Approach Supporting Measure (Subsidy, Training, Supervising) Induce Felt Needs, Providing Motivation for getting sustainability Community-based Bottom - Up Approach (The Continuity of Development Process) (People’s Participation & Empowerment based on Community Autonomy) Village Community Implementation The SMU Felt Needs for Development Develop Projects By Village People

17 3. Integrated Approach National Policy Supporting Measure
for the SMU Program Supporting Measure (Financial, Training, R&D Administrative Support, Institutional Renovation) SMU Action Plan (Community Level) (Horizontal and vertical integration)

18 National Policy for Supporting SU Program the Case of Korea
Dual price policy for guaranteeing income Agricultural income increase policy Side job income increase policy Rural industrialization policy R&D and agricultural extension program Agricultural cooperative fostering policy Farm mechanization policy Agricultural infrastructure development policy Rural education, med-care policy

19 4. Comprehensive Approach at the Micro Level SU Program (horizontal integration)
 Agriculture development  Non-agriculture development  Agricultural Production Infrastructure  Social Infrastructure  Housing  Building Community Center/Credit Union  Community Beautification  House Cleaning & Beautification  Renovation of Community Institutions  Vitalization of Community Festivals  Supporting Youth Activities  Drinking Water Supply  Kitchen Improvement  Toilet/ Bathroom Improvement Income Generation Infrastructure Building Community Building SU Socio-Cultural Development Health & Sanitation

20 5. More Support for the Better Performance
Support more for the better performed community Reward villages leaders for the success Increase subsidy for the better performance: electrification, cash. Road, etc Small repeated success & Follow-up program: re-enforce mechanism Reduce subsidy for poor performance and let them bench marking the successful villages (market conforming) Continuous support until the community reaches to the level of self-reliance & empowerment

21 6. Change Agents and Good Partnership (Vertical Integration)
Government Authority (State & Local) Saemaul Leader (village leader) Local Government Officers Village Community (Two Tire system)

22 SaeMaUl leader as Change Agent
Personal satisfaction of Saemaul leader - respect from community - lunch and training with big figures - rivalry among Saemaul leaders Positive Motivation & Commitment Continued Training and Support Shared Vision Changing Role of Women

23 Implementation Process
Government Policy (Subsidy, Guideline) Village Community Felt/Induced Needs for Development Setting Priority of Development Organization of Village Development Committee Project Formulation & Goal Setting (5-Year Development Plan) Change Agents (Supervising, Training & Extension Service) Project Approval & Implementation Evaluation and Feed Back

24 Conclusions Based on Community Operational Mechanism
Government initiating & supporting measures motivate people to participate Government supporting policies facilitated micro community development programs Government guidelines guaranteed community autonomy Community initiative and empowerment for action plan formulation Partnership between Local government & community Process of Capacity Building and Leadership Contributed to the sustainable community development & modernization of the nation through attain can do spirits

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