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A New Approach for Community Development The Case of Saemaul Undong in Korea JiHong Kim KDI School.

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Presentation on theme: "A New Approach for Community Development The Case of Saemaul Undong in Korea JiHong Kim KDI School."— Presentation transcript:

1 A New Approach for Community Development The Case of Saemaul Undong in Korea JiHong Kim KDI School

2 Poverty Issues in Asia More than one billion people live under One Dollar a Day The majority of world poor live in Asia 70% of them live in rural areas Development disparity between sectors, regions, gender. Rural Community Development is the Direct Measures for Poverty Alleviation in Rural Asia and for Cure of Disparity

3 Transformation of the Korean Economy (1945~2005) Liberation from Japanese Colonial Rule 6 Five-Year-Economic- Development Plans Financial Crisis 2005 P ,000 10, ,432 7, Per Capita (US$) GNI ,291 OECD Member 100(1964) 1,000(1977) 1998 A. Growth Trend

4 Changes in Employment Structure Manufacturing 1960 Service Sector Agriculture / Fisheries Manufacturing Agriculture / Fisheries B. Changes in Industrial Structure 2005 Service Sector Agriculture / Fisheries Manufacturing Manufacturing Agriculture / Fisheries Service Sector Changes in GDP Structure

5 Rural Communities in 1960s Car accessible villages: 60% Electricity accessible villages: 20% Repeated natural disasters Low agricultural productivity One of Least Developed Countries in the World GNP/Capita: US$ 87 in 1962 Poor Infrastructure Rural poverty ratio in 1967: 34% in absolute term. Rural Development was an urgent Issue for poverty alleviation and for reduction of income disparity (social instability).

6 Community Development Program in Korea Introduced CD Program in 1958 Pilot Villages: 818 villages in 1960s Agricultural Production Infrastructure Development & Housing Education, Healthcare, Nutrition …etc. But, not put down roots successfully in Korea Introduced Saemaul Undong program in 1971

7 Saemaul Undong: New Village Movement Derived from Community Operational Mechanism 1. Village community is an autonomous body 2. Village Community is a social organization 3. Community leadership 4. Various social organizations 5. People identify problems & needs of community 6. Solve problems in the way of self-help and cooperation

8 Initiation of Saemaul Undong: 1971 Distribute 350 bags of cements & ½ ton of steels to each rural village through out the country Ask to do with these materials what community people want for common purpose Induced motivation/development needs/ participation/mobilization/empowerment Government provided supporting measures :Training, financial & administrative support/technical support

9 SU Performance: 1972~1981 Total US$ 7,203.2 Million Invested Government invested 51% Community people invested 49% - 64,686km of rural road were developed - 6,187km of rural road paved - 82,596 new bridges were built - 39,231 community halls were built - 258,000 houses were newly built - 3,047 villages were reconstructed International communities have questions “Why people participated in SU so enthusiastically?” ---Communication, Competition, Commitment

10 Saemaul Undong: New Village Movement A Definition: A Rural Community Development Movement - Betterment of Living Conditions through Income, Infrastructure, Living Environment, and Community Building in the Ways of Self-help and Cooperation under the Government Sponsorship

11 Goals Immediate goals  Improving living condition of individuals in the way of self-help and cooperation with community resources & outside support Ultimate goal Building a better and sound community by community people Building a strong nation

12 Dimensions Income Increase Infrastructure Building Improve Living Environments Spiritual Enlightenment & Social Interaction Self-help & Cooperation

13 Strategies 1. Village Community as Development Unit 2. Government Initiating Bottom-up Approach 3. Integrated Approach 4. Comprehensive Approach 5. More Support for the Better Performance 6. Two tier Change Agents

14 1. Village Community as Development Unit Village as a Community (closed community) Social interaction & common ties Administrative unit Planning & Development unit Changing the Role of People :from consumers or clients to ‘co-producer’ of public services

15 2. Bottom-up Approach Bottom - Up Approach (The Continuity of Development Process) (People’s Participation based on Community Autonomy) Village Community Felt Needs for Development Develop Projects By Village People Implementation The SU - Economic Affordability - People’s Empowerment - Leadership - Social Organizations - Social Norms for Cooperation and Self-help

16 Top-Down Approach Supporting Measure (Subsidy, Training, Supervising) Community-based Bottom - Up Approach (The Continuity of Development Process) (People’s Participation & Empowerment based on Community Autonomy) Village Community Felt Needs for Development Develop Projects By Village People Implementation The SMU Government Initiating Bottom-up Approach Induce Felt Needs, Providing Motivation for getting sustainability

17 National Policy for the SMU Program Supporting Measure (Financial, Training, R&D Administrative Support, Institutional Renovation) SMU Action Plan (Community Level) (Horizontal and vertical integration) 3. Integrated Approach

18 National Policy for Supporting SU Program the Case of Korea 1. Dual price policy for guaranteeing income 2. Agricultural income increase policy 3. Side job income increase policy 4. Rural industrialization policy 5. R&D and agricultural extension program 6. Agricultural cooperative fostering policy 7. Farm mechanization policy 8. Agricultural infrastructure development policy 9. Rural education, med-care policy

19  Agriculture development  Non-agriculture development  Agricultural Production Infrastructure  Social Infrastructure  Housing  Building Community Center/Credit Union  Community Beautification  House Cleaning & Beautification  Renovation of Community Institutions  Vitalization of Community Festivals  Supporting Youth Activities  Drinking Water Supply  Kitchen Improvement  Toilet/ Bathroom Improvement Income Generation Infrastructure Building SU Community Building Socio-Cultural Development Health & Sanitation 4. Comprehensive Approach at the Micro Level SU Program (horizontal integration)

20 5. More Support for the Better Performance Support more for the better performed community Reward villages leaders for the success Increase subsidy for the better performance: electrification, cash. Road, etc Small repeated success & Follow-up program: re-enforce mechanism Reduce subsidy for poor performance and let them bench marking the successful villages (market conforming) Continuous support until the community reaches to the level of self-reliance & empowerment

21 6. Change Agents and Good Partnership (Vertical Integration) Government Authority (State & Local) Village Community Saemaul Leader (village leader) Local Government Officers (Two Tire system)

22 SaeMaUl leader as Change Agent Personal satisfaction of Saemaul leader - respect from community - lunch and training with big figures - rivalry among Saemaul leaders Positive Motivation & Commitment Continued Training and Support Shared Vision Changing Role of Women

23 Implementation Process Government Policy (Subsidy, Guideline ) Change Agents (Supervising, Training & Extension Service) Village Community Felt/Induced Needs for Development Setting Priority of Development Organization of Village Development Committee Project Formulation & Goal Setting (5-Year Development Plan) Project Approval & Implementation Evaluation and Feed Back

24 Conclusions 1. Based on Community Operational Mechanism 2. Government initiating & supporting measures motivate people to participate 3. Government supporting policies facilitated micro community development programs 4. Government guidelines guaranteed community autonomy 5. Community initiative and empowerment for action plan formulation 6. Partnership between Local government & community 7. Process of Capacity Building and Leadership 8. Contributed to the sustainable community development & modernization of the nation through attain can do spirits


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