I am John Tyler. I became president after the death of William Henry Harrison. Because I speak softly and am courteous, some believe I am weak
I am stubborn and proud and not very imaginative. I disagree with the Whigs on several issues and I am a states rights Southerner.
I am willing to cooperate with Congress and its leader, Henry Clay, but I will not be his puppet! I wanted to be president! It was my turn!
As leader of Congress, I have pushed through a bill to establish a new Bank of the United States I veto that Bill!
We Quit!!! After Tylers veto, his entire cabinet resigns in protest
Im staying cause I got other plans All except for Tylers Secretary of State, Daniel Webster
I want to distribute money from land sales to the states to help with their finances I actually want to reduce federal revenue so I can push for a higher tariff! Heh-heh.
To win votes for his plan, Clay backed the Preemption Act of 1841 legalizing the right of squatters to occupy and later buy unsurveyed land. Southerners wanted an amendment that stopped distribution if the tariff were raised above 20 percent.
And when Congress attempted to pass a new tariff without repealing the Distribution Act… I veto it! Curses! Foiled Again!
The border between Maine and Canada was in dispute since the peace treaty of 1783 1842- Britain sent Lord Ashburton to the US to settle that and other disputes Ashburton and Webster quickly came to agreement- the British needed only territory for a road- but Massachusetts and Maine wanted every acre in dispute
At the time of the revolution, Ben Franklin had marked the boundary in red on a map now lost Webster had someone mark the British version of the boundary in red on an old map and convinced the states that they better agree to the new treaty or they would lose land In fact, the British owned a copy of the original map that showed all of the territory belonged to America
The Transcontinental Treaty excluded Texas Americans began settling Texas with Mexican permission By 1830 20,000 white settlers and 2,000 slaves inhabited Texas versus a few thousand Mexicans Both John Quincy Adams and Jackson tried to buy Texas but Mexico would not sell
The flood of American immigrants gave Mexico second thoughts Most Americans remained Protestant despite requirements they become Catholic When Mexico outlawed slavery in 1829, Americans freed their slaves and made them lifetime indentured servants 1830 Immigration from America was prohibited but failed to stop the flow
The increasing restrictions caused many American immigrants to seek independence By 1835 skirmishes with Mexican authorities had erupted into full-scale rebellion 1836 Mexican President Santa Anna marched north to subdue the rebels Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
187 men under command of Colonel Travis died at Alamo Slaughter of Americans at Goliad Independence declared March 2, 1836 Santa Anna defeated at San Jacinto Sam Houston elected president of the Republic of Texas
Most Texans favored immediate annexation by US President Jackson and his successor, Martin Van Buren, made no move – did not want war with Mexico nor to rekindle slavery issue Texas made friends with Britain- Texas cotton was in demand and free from tariffs
The US (especially South) was alarmed at Texas relations with Britain South feared Texas might abolish slavery under British influence Tyler, a Southerner, also saw a chance to revive his presidency
When Webster resigned in 1843, the new Secretary of State, Abel Upshur, was ordered by Tyler to seek a treaty of annexation Everyone wanted Texas The South to extend slavery The North and West due to patriotic fervor Before the treaty was signed Upshur was killed in an accident
Tyler appointed Calhoun as Secretary of State – a blunder Calhoun was associated with slavery and the South and he alienated Northerners Texas was now a political issue Both Clay and Van Buren (both with presidential aspirations) opposed annexation as it would bring war with Mexico Squirrely Boy No, my nickname is NOT Lurch!
Annexation was rejected 35 to 16 by the Senate Texas was angry – Britain was happy
California was Mexican territory and Oregon was jointly claimed by the US and Britain By 1840 American settlers were flowing into these lands The fertile soil and mild climate were attractive New settlers burned with the fever of Manifest Destiny
Societies were founded in the east with the purpose of organizing groups for settling the West Much of the travel was over the Oregon Trail Most travelers were young families with enough money to make the trip ($600 for a family of four)
Indians posed no great threat to large groups The trip took about 5 months and was one of hardship and uncertainty Western ports were also important to future trade with Asia: San Diego, San Francisco, and Puget Sound
Clay was nominated by the Whigs Martin Van Buren seemed to have wrapped up the Democratic nomination Both wanted to avoid the issue of Texas Calhoun pushed the issue especially for slavery Van Buren was swept aside and James K. Polk was made Democratic nominee
Polk was a Jacksonian- against the Bank and high tariffs Believed in expansion - annexation of Texas and taking of Oregon Anti-slavery Liberty Party cost Clay the election by pulling Whig votes away Tyler asked Congress for a joint resolution to annex Texas- Texas became state in 1845 Henry Clay Curses! Foiled Again!
Successful president in that he accomplished his goals Polk informed Britain he would compromise on boundary in Oregon territory at 49 th parallel- Britain refused Polk notified Britain he was abrogating the treaty of Joint Occupation- Britain compromised and got Vancouver Island First president with a mullet
Make a timeline that shows the major events of the war with Mexico including causes and results Include important people and their impact Use pages 327 War with Mexico through 332 The Fruits of Victory
July 1845 - Polk sends Zachary Taylor to defend Texas border. Border in dispute. Taylor stops at Corpus Christi November 1845 - Polk sends John Slidell to Mexico to negotiate. US would cancel Mexican debt in return for recognition of Texas and border on Rio Grande. Mexico refuses.
Expansion again brought back the issue of slavery States had complete control over slavery but Congress had control over territories Wilmot Proviso was proposed- that slavery would be forbidden in any territory taken from Mexico Proviso was defeated in the Senate
Calhoun introduced resolutions arguing Congress had no right to bar slavery anywhere Compromises were offered Extend the Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific Organize territories and let their populations decide
The issue of slavery was avoided The Whigs nominated Zachary Taylor due to his fame as a general – he expressed no views on any issues Democratic hopefuls were little better Democrats finally settled on Lewis Cass
Martin Van Burens faction in the Democratic Party were known as the Barnburners Barnburners were against Cass as he was for extending slavery into the new territories The Barnburners joined with the anti- slavery Liberty Party forming the Free Soil Party which nominated Martin Van Buren
Van Buren knew he could not be elected but wanted to take a stand against slavery The Free Soil Party took 10 percent of the vote After a dull campaign, Taylor was elected
The discovery of gold brought a huge influx of mostly males to California - 25,000 by ship, 55,000+ by land, about 8,000 Mexicans, 5,000 South Americans, and hundreds of Europeans Gold was sought along the Sierras Practically overnight, the native Mexican population became a minority
Competition resulted in ethnic conflict Americans used violence and laws to restrict Latin Americans from mining Free blacks were treated no better The Native-American population was almost wiped out The rough and tumble life in gold towns demanded government
Taylor suggested California be admitted as a state and let its citizens decide whether to be free or slave Californians were against slavery due to its threat as competition California drew up its constitution Southerners were against admission as it would upset the balance of slave and free states
With Union at stake, the Great Compromiser, Henry Clay, went into action Clays Proposal California admitted as a free state The Southwest territory organized without reference to slavery Southerners would have right to bring slaves into the territories US would take over Texas pre-annexation debts Slave trade to be abolished in Washington DC but fugitive slave laws strictly enforced
The issue sparked on of the greatest debates in the history of the Senate Calhoun, too feeble to speak, rejected the compromise and indirectly endorsed secession Webster urged the acceptance of the compromise- argued that secession would result in war
The majority favored compromise but the deadlock was not broken until the death of President Taylor in July 1850 The compromise was voted issue by issue Senator Stephen Douglas made an impact in pushing the compromise California became the 31 st state
The Mexican cession was divided into the New Mexico and Utah territories- slavery to be decided by their populations Texas had its debts paid The slave trade was abolished in Washington DC Federal commissioners were appointed to aid in tracking/returning runaway slaves
The compromise was not voted as a whole but piecemeal Each measure succeeded because each received a majority vote- some senators refusing to vote on some issues The public approved of the results- no one wanted the alternative Slavery was brushed under the rug again
The NorthThe South What they wanted California admitted as a free state Southwest territory organized without regard to slavery Survival of the Union No restrictions on slavery or South would secede Balance of Free versus Slave states to be maintained What they offered US to pay Texas pre- annexation debts Slave trade ended in DC but not US More effective fugitive slave laws What occurred California admitted as free state NM and UT organized as territories with issue of slavery undecided Bills passed individually – slavery issue swept under the rug Texas received $10 million for debts Slave trade abolished in DC Fugitive Slave Act made more stringent The Compromise of 1850 Background: California ready to enter the Union. Was it to enter as slave or free? President Taylor left it to California. California voted to be free state. The South saw it as upsetting the balance set by the Missouri Compromise. Calls were made for secession.
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